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English Reviews.

BRITISH AND FOREIGN EVANGELICAL REVIEW, July, 1880. (London.)—1. Justifica

tion. 2. The New Testament a Standing Monument and Verification of the Divine Mission of Jesus Christ; by the late Principal Lorimer, D.D. 3. Hymnology as a Reflection of Christian Doctrine and Life; by Rev. Andrew Carter. 4. Christ's Death: What was it? 6. Spain and Ireland: Resemblances and Contrasts; by Rev. W. Moore. 6. Buddhism; by Rev. Dunlop Moore, D.D. 7. The Body an Argument for the Soul; by Charles P. Krauth, D.D., LL.D. 8. The Exclusiveness of Christianity; by Rev. Professor S. H. Kellogg, D.D.

9. Haeckel on the Evolution of Man; by Principal Dawson. EDINBURGH REVIEW, July, 1880. (New York.)-1. The English Precursors of New

ton. 2. Mind in the Lower Animals. 3. Naval Power in the Pacific. 4. Memoirs of the Prince Consort. 5. Sabians and Christians of St. John. 6. Landlords, Tenants, and Laborers. 7. Memoirs of Madame de Rémusat. 8. Hodgkin's Invaders of Italy. 9. Bright's Edition of Pepys' Diary. 10. The Divorce of Katharine of Aragon. 11. The New Parliament in Session. INDIAN EVANGELICAL REVIEW, July, 1880. (Calcutta.)-1. Christ, neither East

ern nor Western, but the Son of Man; by Rev. E. J. Scott. 2. The Santals; by A. Campbell. 3. The Later Hindi Translations of the Bible ; by Rev. Nehemi. ah Goreh. 4. The Primitive Religion and the Rig Veda ; by Rev. K. S. Macdonald. 6. Hindu Widows; by Rev. James Payne. 6. The Independence of the Native Church-Our Side of the Case; by a Bengali Missionary. 7. Among the Chandals of Gopalgunge; by Rev. Mothoora Nath Bose, B.A., B.L. 8. Bible Distribution; hy Rev. E. S. Summers. 9. The Provisions of the Education

Dispatch of 1854: What they are, and how far carried out. LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW, July, 1880. (New York.)). The First Lord Minto.

2. Middlesex. 3. Thomas Chatterton. 4. Recent and Future Arctic Voyages. 5. Marie-Antoinette. 6. Universities and their Critics. 7. Around the World with General Grant. 8. St. Paul and Renan. 9. Whigs, Radicals, and Con

servatives. WESTMINSTER REVIEW, July, 1880. (New York.)-1. Scotch Peerage. 2. The

Place of Socrates in Greek Philosophy. 3. The Peasant-Poets of Russia. 4. Marriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister. 6. The Life of the Prince Consort. 6. Game Laws and Game Preserving. 7. State Papers : Foreign Series. 8. A

New View of the Indian Exchange Difficulty. LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW, July, 1880. (London.)-1. Senior's Conversations.

2. German Preachers and Preaching of the Present Century. 3. Bishop Wilberforce. 4. St. Augustine of Canterbury. 5. A Liberal-Conservative Chinaman on Western Countries. 6. The Early Victory of Christianity. 7. Dr. Moulton on the Hebrews. The following notice of a late book by Dr. Dawson, written in further demolition of the geologic man, shows the curious effect of the geology of America on the minds of the European theorists in palæontology. They are queerly taken aback at seeing their proud systems suddenly transformed to moonshine. It is not, as the writer almost petulantly intimates, the “American archæologists” that “dispute the vast time-claims of their European brethren," but the American facts. Especially is American catastrophism playing havoc with Sir Charles

Lyell's uniformitarianism, which the Europeans have carried to a superstition, and made the basis of a system of wild theory:

Fossil Men and their Modern Representatives. An Attempt to Tlustrate the Character and Condition of the Prehistoric Men in Europe by those of American Races. By J. W. DAWSON, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., Principal of M'GIl College and University, Montreal, Author of “The story of the Earth and Man," etc. Hodder & Stoughton. 1880. It is three hundred and forty-five years since Jacques Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence and landed at the Indian town of Hochelaga. This he describes as "a round citie” (we quote Hakluyt's translation) “compassed about with timber, with three course of rampires, one within another, framed with pieces of timber very cunningly joyned together after their fashion.” The inhabitants grew maize, pounded it with wooden pestles, and baked cakes with heated stones. They smoked fish and flesh “without any taste or savour of salt," and made wampam of shells. In fact, they were living just as the “flintfolk” were living in a prehistoric British village; and in less than a century after Cartier, when the Sieur of Maisonneuve was founding Montroial, they and their city had disappeared as wholly as have the dwellers in Maiden Castle or the other Wiltshire and Somerset fortresses. Thenceforward till 1860 Hochelaga was lost to the eyes of men. It was then unearthed, while excavations were being made in the west end of Montreal for house foundations, and the “finds » were, as Principal Dawson points out, exactly like those so common at home, and so universally attributed to ages long anterior to the dawn of history; indeed, “but for Cartier's narrative, the Montreal excavators might have supposed they were dealing with the relics of a people who perished thousands of years ago." The inference is that our chipped flints and primitive pottery and polished stone implements need not be pushed back into such remote ages. Even the so-called palæolithic flints of the Somme Valley and elsewhere, Dr. Dawson suggests, may have been in use along with the polished or neolithic implements, the former being used as hoes in the summer farming of the lower levels, and left during the winter floods in the spots where they are now found by men whose homes, and therefore their more artistic implements, were on the higher ground. He instances the flint hoes or picks similar to those of the St. Acheul gravel pits, which are found in alluvial deposits near the Ohio mounds. Most of the American archæologists, who seem to make it a point of honor to dispute the vast time-claims of their European brethren, attribute these to "the highly civilized nations of the Mississippi Valley, who possessed copper implements.” Such flints are found in caches, as if quantities were used at one time; and their being found by themselves, and not associated with pol. ished implements, is no argument against their being contemporary. To think otherwise is, in our author's estimation, "an inveterate prejudice.” Such tools would be kept by themselves, and never where they were not wanted, just as the stone gouges (probably used for drawing off the sugar-maple sap) are found apart, unmixed with any chipped stones. Arrows and war-axes, on the other hand, are not found stored up, if we except the socalled palæolithic and transition weapons, which Dr. Dawson believes to be half-finished instruments, roughly shaped at the quarry, and left to be finished at leisure when the flint should have got damp enough to be more workable.

On the whole, we are told, the weight of American evidence, past and present, is against any distinction between palæolithic and neolithic; and the European facts will, we are assured, if properly looked at, lead to the same conclusion.

Of course, it is a question for the geologist; but Dr. Dawson is no tyro in geology. He does not underrate the evidence about the Kent's Hole deposits, beneath which implements have been found. He simply says: “To explain these by the continued operations of merely modern causes, without taking into account floods and other cataclysmic agents, is a stretch of uniformitarianism which the deposits themselves plainly contradict. Thus our calculations as to age rather serve to bring the age of the mammoth up toward us than to throw man back in geological time.”

We are thus thrown back at once into catastrophic geology; and the wrought flints, which cannot be accounted for by work having been carried on at different levels, are not relegated to an unmeasured antiquity, because buried beneath successive layers of mud and stalagmite, for the causes now at work in nature acted in earlier times with far greater intensity.

There the matter rests. Meanwhile Dr. Dawson's books (for they all deserve careful reading) ought to make us suspend our judgment and reconsider our facts, instead of taking to that scientific dogmatism which is more offensive than its theological namesake.

We see in Europe the stone age lasting on almost to yesterday -stone implements being in use till lately in Ireland and Scandinavia; nay, one form of stone implement, the flint and steel, being by no means obsolete even yet. We see in America the civilization of the stone age co-existing with the fullest modern culture. Why, then, should we demand such vast periods of time for the growing up of this modern culture, and why imagine that the old stone-age folk were one whit lower in the scale than the Red men, whose implements so closely resemble theirs ? The Red men, indeed, have gone or are going, without having exercised in a great part of North America any perceptible influence on the intruding race which has displaced them. Those who are left have degenerated-Dr. Dawson has a chapter on “The Lost Arts of Savages ;" the wonderful hard stone pipes are now no longer made east of the Rocky Mountains. Of the flintfolk we may believe that they were either Basques or Lapps, or else ('elts; that is, cousins-german of the Teutons. In the latter case they


must have improved rapidly; and it is not impossible that the Red man might have improved had he been better handled. At any rate, there was as much difference between the Mexicans and the Hurons as between the Æduan or Belgic Gauls and the sav. age Attacetti.

Dr. Dawson (whose book would have been much improved by an index) has collected a great number of facts about the phys. ical characteristics of prehistoric men,” of which we will only say, that it is a little rash to argue from the capacity of one or two skulls here and there. He pronounces the Cro Magnon men to have been.“ gigantic and magnificent," thus confirming the belief that “there were giants in those days.” “Judging from their great cranial capacity, and the small number of their skeletons found, we may suppose they represent rude outlying tribes belonging to races which elsewhere had attained to greater numbers and culture. These giants were superseded by a small-statured race with shorter heads, possibly after the catastrophes which destroyed the post-Pliocene continent that stretched westward through Ireland. But whether this bigness of brain indicates, “like the mound-builders preceding the Red Indians, that man's earlier state was the best, that he had been a good and noble creature before he became a savage,” we cannot pretend to say. Dr. Dawson claims that this high organization of the cave men “justifies the tradition of a golden and Edenic age, and mutely protests against the philosophy of progressive development as applied to man.” We do not see how, as a geologist, he reconciles man's recent origin with his Cro Magnon man having possibly visited “the great Atlantis, and the valley of the Gihon, where now is the Mediterranean, and that nameless river which flowed where now is the German Ocean.” But, then, he is a catastrophic geologist, and believes that Noah's flood was the break up of this post-Pliocene world, and the bringing land and sea into their present shape. His explanation of the height above the present water level of the Somme Valley caves is ingenious: the land may have risen. It certainly has done so in Scandinavia, in Scotland, etc. “In the days of the cave men the lower valley may have been a sort of delta, with banks of gravel, to which they might resort for materials, or into which their rejected implements might be drifted." They would thus have lived when the land was slowly rising, after the great depression which let in the Irish Sea and German Ocean on what had been dry land.

His summing up, then, is that there is no ground for believing in any race more rude or less physically developed than the modern semi-civilized races. The modern savage is a degenerate creature. The most ancient man seems to have been a welldeveloped and cultured Turanian; and this “tells in favor both of the moderate antiquity and unity of the species.” Further, Dr. Dawson thinks he can find in these old men “the primitive idea of God, the instinct of immortality, and even some premonitions of a Redeemer.” Into this very important subject we can:

not enter; but we strongly recommend (on the audi alteram partem principle) the students of Dr. Tyler and Sir J. Lubbock to see what use the American geologist makes of much the same facts as those with which they deal. The similarity between the carved reindeer horns of the Dordogne cavern and the totems of Red Indian tribes is at any rate curious; while Dr. Dawson's engraving of the upright monument of a Chippewa chief closely resembles some of the “sculptured stones” of Scotland, and some of the French roches percées. That so-called “primitive” modes of interment lasted on in outlying places to quite modern times is proved by the discovery, in previously unopened Cornish barrows, of very late Roman coins associated with chipped flints and rude pottery.-Pp. 491-494.

BRITISH QUARTERLY REVIEW, July, 1880. (London.) - 1. The Two Nations and

the Commonwealth. 2. Father Curci's New Translation of the Gospels. 3. Religion and Morality. 4. Evolution, Viewed in Relation to Theology. 6. Inspiration. 6. Irish Land Reforms. 7. The London Water Question. 8. The General Election and its Results. The following quotation from the fifth article clearly illustrates the doctrine of

THE NEW TESTAMENT AN ORGANIC Book. Our entire canon is the product of the authoritative mind of the primitive Church, including the Gospel of John, and the Epistles of 2 Peter and Jude.

We recognize in the books of the New Testament, in the first place, the relation of the writings themselves to the special spiritual requirements of the Church of God, or of some one portion of it, at the time. The Gospels are adapted, each one, to a definite Christian consciousness, while it is nevertheless true that they stand four-square in their unity. We may believe that as the Christian writings were called forth by their adaptation to portions of the Church, so they were preserved by them. The anity which is manifested in the New Testament is the unity of the Christian Church itself. And upon what basis was it that these different portions of the Church received and preserved the sacred writings ? Entirely on the basis of their apostolic authority. Justin Martyr not only recognizes generally that apostolic authority, but he connects it with their work as teachers. “Through the power of God they declared to every race of men that they were sent by Christ to teach all men the word of God.” He compares this apostolic teaching to that of the prophets.* “ Just as Abraham,” he says, “believed the voice of God, and it was counted to him for righteousness ; so we Christians, also believing the voice of God, which is both spoken again through the apostles of Christ and proclaimed to us through the prophets, have re

* I. Apol., 39.

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