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Largely because of these factors has come the recognition of the need for a systematic and thorough system of vocational training in all branches of industry. Employers, school men, and trade organizations are all alive to this need and are all trying to help meet the situation.
It is gratifying to note that never before have the people of this country been so keen for education as they are at present. Not only are young men who left our educational institutions to go into the service returning to continue their education, but thousands who quit school are re-entering. Considering all these factors, there never has been a more opportune time in this country for the joining of forces employ ers, employees, and the schools for the establishment of systematic and thorough Vocational courses for learners either in or about to enter industry.
Long before the entrance of the United States into the war, it was generally recognized that the old apprenticeship system of training young workers in industry was dead. A few organizations were endeavoring to carry on training schemes, but taken as a whole, industry had no systematic or thorough method for training learners. Learners shifted from shop to shop and picked up what they could here and there with little or no planned instruction.
With the increased demand for skilled workers in the shop due to war conditions, the need for training was imperative and various schemes were started. Employers established intensive training departments within their shops and wherever possible made use of nearby school facilities. In most instances the jobs to be done in the shops were analized and divided into operations, and new workers, young and old. men and women, were taught to do one or two specific operations. On this basis new workers were sometimes trained in a few days, and sometimes it took weeks and months before they were producers. Workers trained by this method require an
elaborate system of supervision and checking up, and a change in operation means re-training the worker. Experienced, well trained, all-around mechanics were at a premium during the war, and still are at a premium. However, our industries met the emergency and "got by" with the war work.
Now, if employers were willing in this emergency to set aside sections of their shops, use foremen for instructors and employ men trained in school methods to organize and supervise instruction in order to operate intensive training courses for "green" employees, both young and old, they should, by reason of this experience, be willing to at least share in the responsibility of training young workers in times of peace. The fact that they have participated in the training of workers when conditions were least favorable is evidence that it is possible for them to meet the present situation and continue on a more sound basis now that conditions are more favorable.
Prior to the war our schools, both public and private of less than college grade, were struggling with the problem of vocational education. Old time educators were not enthusiastic about inaugurating vocational courses in the public schools. Private schools, however, demonstrated the need for vocational training. Such schools as Cooper Union, New York; Pratt Institute, Brooklyn; Carnegie Tech., Pittsburg; Wentworth Institute, Boston; Rankin School of Trades, St. Louis; and Dunwoody Institute, Minneapolis; and many others have done much toward advancing the movement. Even with the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act, which provides federal aid to the states to stimulate vocational training in publicly controlled schools, the actual training in most states is still a hope rather than a reality.
The demand of the government for trained mechanics during the war made it necessary for schools of all types which had the facilities to use these facilities
for intensive vocational courses for enlisted men. School men all over the country were necessarily drawn into the field of vocational education, and because of this experience the schools are today better equipped than ever before to share in the responsibility of training young trade learners.
Some Factors To Be Considered in the Establishment of Vocational Courses. Under our present educational system our children are trained in our public schools from kindergarten through the high school at public expense provided they remain in school. The law in Minnesota permits children to leave school at the age of sixteen. Because of this condition there are two groups of young men and women to be considered: First, the group in the schools that leave to enter
industry before completing the high school; second, the group under twentyone years of age that is already employed in industry.
Regardless of what the cause may be, 85 per cent of our school children leave our schools before completing the high school. As yet we have not made adequate provision for the training of this large group in order that they may enter any field of industry as producers. Had this group remained in school and completed the high school they would all have been qualified to enter the university. Furthermore, they would have received this training at public expense; that is, at a cost of from $75 to $100 per year per capita. Do the 85 per cent who leave our schools to enter industry before complet
ing public school courses forfeit their right to training at public expense? Are they not entitled to the same expenditure per capita per year up to the age of completing high school as are the 15% who are fortunate enough to be able to remain? Is not training at public expense up to the age of high school graduation the birthright of every child? And is it not the responsibility of the community to
see that every child receives this training? Whether or not we have the necessary laws, is this not a moral obligation that no community should dodge?
Considering again the two groups of young men and women who make up the 85 per cent; first, the group in the schools that leaves to enter industry before completing high school; second, the group in industry less than high school graduating age. All of these are entitled to four things before they leave school:
First, a fundamental or general education;
Second, an opportunity to try themselves out in several fields of activity, such as commercial, agricultural, industrial, and college preparatory;
Third, an opportunity to choose and get training in a definite vocation; and
high school course and prepare for uniFourth, an opportunity to complete the
Failure to remain in the school should not cut off their opportunity for completing the first three of these after they leave the schools. The Smith-Hughes Act provides federal aid for three types of parttime—that is, classes for young men and women already at work to attend school a minimum of four hours a week for thirtysix weeks each year. These types of parttime classes are:
First, continuation of general education;
Second, trade preparatory classes; and Third, trade extension classes.
In order to establish and conduct suc
cessfully part-time classes, the following contribution is needed on the part of employers, the schools and learners: 1. From employers:
a. Excuse all workers under high school graduating age a minimum of four hours a week on pay to continue their education.
b. The provision of suitable classroom space in the plant.
c. Schedules for routing learners
b. An agreement to attend evening school classes on their own time when they are provided during their training period.
c. An agreement with the employer, parent, and the school to remain with the employer during the training period.
Such a plan as outlined will cost the employer and the community money. But let us compare this plan with what our government is doing for returned handicapped soldiers and sailors.
Under the provision of the Smith-Sears Act, returned handicapped service men are given an opportunity to try out in several fields in order that they may locate in the line for which they are best fitted. They are then given training for the new vocation in order that they may resume their places in the community as producers. Including their living expenses and those of training, it is costing the government
roughly $100 per man per month. This plan continues either in the shop or school until the man has completed his training or up to a maximum of four years.
No one would question our obligation to these men, nor the wisdom of re-educating them to re-enter industry as producers. It is a good investment. If it is not only an obligation but a good investment for our government to train handicapped service men at public expense to re-enter industry, is it not also an obligation and a good investment for us to offer vocational training to fit our young men and women of school age to enter industry?
Local state and federal funds available for this type of training are not sufficient at present to provide for all who ought to be in training.
Until the time when such funds are available it will be necessary for employers to help, if the work is to be carried on.
Day School Activities
By R. T. CRAIGO, Assistant Director.
The clouds of war have rolled away Rehabilitation students fall under four and Dunwoody no longer is training boys main subdivisions: (1) rehabilitation and men for the army and navy but is now regular (2) try outs (3) half day (4) training many boys and men from the reservoir. The "regulars" are assigned to army and navy as well as those who did a certain department usually for a two not directly participate in the great war. year course; the "try outs" are given a trial in several departments to help them select a trade, somewhat from the viewpoint of prevocational work (this condition is required by the fact that their physical disability must be considered in properly selecting their future life work).
After a short two weeks vacation the Rehabilitation Training (for service men who have some service disability and are in training on pay and allowance from the government) was resumed on Septem
The regular day school, after a three months vacation, opened on September 8.
Approximately one hundred and seventy-five rehabilitation students and four hundred and twenty-five regular day school students have reported for instruction for the 1919-1920 school year. These students are assigned for instruction to nine different departments: Automobile, Baking, Building Construction, Drawing, Electrical, Machine Shop, Photography, Printing, and Sheet Metal.
In some classes the rehabilitation stu dents are in with other day school students, and some classes are conducted separ ately; the same condition exists in shop work.
The half day students are those who are taking up some school work like English, arithmetic, and allied grade subjects in some other school and report to Dunwoody for half days in shop only with some related class work.
The fourth subdivision called “reservoir" includes those men waiting assignment to other institutions for training not available locally.
Quite a few of last year's regular day school students who have worked during the summer have secured permission to return from two to four weeks after school opened and will be re-admitted betweer September 29 and November 1. (This fact must be considered in connection with the tables given below).
1st yr. H. S.
The above tables cover the six separate departments inasmuch as drawing, photo graphy, and sheet metal are auxiliary departments.
The Automobile, Eletrical, and Machine Shop Departments have large waiting lists and the enrollment may be increased in these departments. The Printing, Baking, and Building Construction Departments are still enrolling students.
Students are admitted to all departments for two year courses. Applicants over 18 and who have had some mechanical experience are admitted to short special courses of from one to nine months.
The special tractor courses and the dull season class for bricklayer apprentices will open January first.
To facilitate the administrative and office records due to handling large numbers of regular and special students in different departments, it has been found necessary to install a complete electric time keeping system, an addressograph, and a sorting machine.
The electric time keeping systems inIclude IN and OUT time clocks like those used in all modern industrial establishments and every student punches his time clock card.
The addressograph is used to print the weekly record sheets which give the attendance in classes and weekly grades. With this machine, changes in sections and such data as boys excused to report late or leave early and those excused from certain subjects are easily reproduced in duplicate each week without requiring stenographic service. This same machine
is used to address the monthly report card envelopes to parents.
The sorting machine is used to obtain such data as age of students, month entered, total months in attendance, previous schooling, placement and vocation.
All of the desired information on each student is punched on individual cards and thousands can be run thru the sorter. in a few minutes. For example the answers to these three questions could be secured in less than thirty minutes:
"Of the eight thousand students trained and sent into service during the war (1) how many were between 18 and 20, 20 and 22, 22 and 24, 24 and 26, 26 and 30? (2) how many had completed less than 6th grade, 7th, 8th, 1 yr. high school, 2 yr. high school, 3 yr. high school, and 4 yr. high school? (3) how many students over 25 were there in each of the following departments: automobile, aviation, elec. trical, machine shop, and wood working trades?
A large amount of this statistical work is necessary in connection with the admin istration of a large industrial school.
The extensive war training work carried on by Dunwoody Institute has resulted in very wide publicity and many inquiries are received from all over the United States and Canada and occasionally from France and England, (in these latter cases from men still in service who heard of Dunwoody from fellows trained here).
To meet these many requests from out side the state, it has been decided to admit non-resident students for a nominal monthly fee covering the actual cost of