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Dr. John FREIND, the third brother, was elected from Westminster-school to Christ Church in 1.690; and, under the auspices of Dr. Aldrich, undertook, with Mr. Foulkes, to publish an edition of Æschines, and Demosthenes de Coronâ, which were well received; and was also prevailed upon to revise the Delphin edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses, 1996, which Dr. Bentley severely reprehended. He was Director of the Studies to Mr. Boyle; wrote the Examination of Dr. Bentley's Dissertation on Æsop; and, says the great Critic,“ was of the same size for learning with the late Editor* of the Æsopean Fables. If they can make but a tolerable copy of verses, with two or three small faults in it, they must presently set up to be Authors.”
Hitherto he had been employed in reading the poets, orators, and historians of antiquity, by which he had made himself a perfect master in the Greek language, and had acquired a great facility of writing elegant Latin, in verse as well as prose. He now began to apply himself to physic; and his first care, as we are told, was to digest thoroughly the true and rational principles of natural philosophy, chemistry, and anatomy, to which he added a sufficient acquaintance with the mathematics. The first pablic specimen that he gave of his abilities in the way of his profession was in 1699, when he wrote a letter to Dr. (afterwards Sir) Hans Sloane, concerning an Hydrocephalus, or Watery Head t; and, in 1701, another letter in Latin to the same gentleman, “De Spasmi rarioris Historiâ,” or concerning some extra ordinary cases of persons afflicted with convulsions in Oxfordshire, which at that time made a very great noise, and might probably have been magnified into something supernatural, if our author had not taken great pains to set them in a true light
He proceeded M. A. April 12, 1701; B.M. June 1, 1701; and, after having published " Emmenologia:
* Mr. Anthony Alsop.
PhilTrans. vol. XXI. p. 48.
Ibid. vol. XXII. p.799.
in quâ Auxus muliebris menstrui phænomena, periodi, yitia, cum medendi methodo, ad rationes mechanicas exiguntur *," 8vo, was chosen professor of chemistry at Oxford in 1704; and the next year attended Lord Peterborough on his Spanish expedition, as physician to the army there, in which post he continued near two years. From thence he made the tour of Italy, and went to Rome, as well for the sake of seeing the antiquities of that city, as for the pleasure of visiting and conversing with Baglivi and Lancisi, men eminent at that time for their skill in physic. On his return to England in 1707, he found the character of his Patron very rudely treated ; and, from a spirit of gratitude, published a defence of him, intituled, “An Account of the Earl of Peterborough's conduct in Spain, chiefly since the raising the Siege of Barcelona, 1706;" to which is added, “ The Campaign of Valencia. With Original Papers, 1707," Svo p In 1707, he was created M. D. by diploma. In 1709 he published, “ Prælectiones Chymicæ: in quibus omnes fere operationes Chymicæ ad vera principia et ipsius Naturæ leges rediguntur ; anno 1704, Oxonii, in Musæo Ashmoleano habita." These lectures are dedicated to Sir Isaac Newton, and are nine in number, besides three tables. They were attacked by the German Philosophers, who were greatly alarmed at the new principles; and therefore, the Authors of “Acta Eruditorum,” in 1710, prefixed to their account of them a censure, in which they treated the principles of the Newtonian philosophy as figments, and the method of arguing made use of in these lec
* This work, though at first it met some opposition, and was then and afterwards animadverted upon by several writers, has always been reckoned an excellent performance; and is, as all Dr. Freind's writings are, admirable for the beauty of its style, the elegant disposition of its parts, its wonderful succinctness, and at the same time perspicuity, and for the happy concurrence of learning and penetration visible through the whole.
+ This piece, relating to party matters, made a great noise, some loudly commending, others as loudly condemning it; so that a third edition of it was published in 1708.
tures as absurd; because, in their opinion, it tended to recall Occult Qualities in Philosophy. To thiş groundless charge an answer was given by Freind *,
Dr. Freind was elected F.R.S. in 1711; and in that year attended the Duke of Ormond into Flanders, as his physician. After his return, residing chiefly in London, he gave himself up wholly to the cares of his profession. In 1716 he was chosen a fellow of the College of Physicians; and the same year published the first and third books of " Hippocrates de morbis popularibus," to which he added, a Commentary upon Fevers, divided into nine short dissertations |
In 1717 he read the Gulstonian lecture in the College of Physicians; and in 1720 spoke the Harveian Oration, which was afterwards published.
Dr. Freind had once a fee of 300 guineas for a journey from London to Ingestre in Staffordshire, to attend Mr. Pulteney, who lay there dangerously ill, but recovered before Dr. Freind arrived.
He was elected a burgess for Launceston in Cornwall 172?; and, acting in his station as a senator with that warmth and freedom which was natural to him, he distinguished himself by some able speeches against measures which he disapproved. He was supposed to have a hand in Atterbury's plot, as it
* Published, in Latin, in Phil. Trans. vol. XXVII, p. 330.
* This work was attacked by Dr. Woodward, professor of physic in Gresham-college, in his “ State of Physic and of Diseases, with an inquiry into the causes of the late increase of them, but more particularly of the Small-pox, &c. 1718," 8vo: and here was laid the foundation of a dispute, which was carried on with great acrimony and violence on both sides.' Parties were 'formed under these leaders, and several pamphlets were written. Freind supported his opinion, “ Concerning the advantage of purging in the second fever of the confluent kind of Small-pox" (for it was on this single point that the dispute chiefly turned) in a Latin letter addressed to Dr: Mead in 1719, and since printed among his works. He was likewise supposed to be the author of a pamphlet entituled “A Letter to the learned Dr. Woodward, by Dr. Byfield," in 1719, wherein Woodward is rallied with great spirit and address ; for Freind made no serious answer to Woodward's book, but contented himself with ridiculing his antagonist under the name of a celebrated Empiric.
was then called, and this drew upon him so much resentment, that the Habeas Corpus Act being at that time suspended, he was, March 15, 1722-3, committed to the Tower *. He continued a prisoner there till June 21, when he was admitted to bail, his sureties being Dr. Mead, Dr. Hulse, Dr. Levet, and Dr. Hale; and afterwards, in November, was discharged from his recognizance. The leisure afforded him by this confinement was not so much disturbed by uneasy thoughts and apprehensions, but that he could employ himself in a manner suitable to his abilities and profession; and accordingly published a letter, intituled, “Johannis Freind ad celeberrimum virum Ricardum Mead, M. D. de quibusdam Variolarum generibus Epistola, 17236," 4to. Here, also, he laid the plan of his last and most elaborate work, the History of Physic; the title of which runs thus: “ The History of Physic, from
* “March 14. Tuesday last John Freind, esq. M.D. and member of parliament for Launceston, who is allowed to attend the Bishop of Rochester in the Tower as his physician, was taken into the custody of a messenger; and we hear that, having been examined by a Committee of Council, he is committed to the Tower for high treason."
“ 16. We were misinformed in our last as to Dr. Freind's commitment to the Tower. He is only confined to his own house in Albemarle street by a messenger, who brought him yesterday to the Cockpit; where being examined by a Committee of Council, he was remanded to the custody of his messenger.
“ 19. Dr. John Freind, after being examined before a Com. mittee of Lords of the Privy Council on Friday last, was committed close prisoner to his Majesty's Tower of London for high treason: he was carried thither in his own coach, under the care of three messengers; and was lodged in the apartment the Earl of Orrery came out of the day before.-Dr. Hugh Chamberlen is permitted by warrant to visit the Bishop of Rochester, in the room of Dr. Freind." Newspapers of 1722-3.
+ This elegant letter thus begins : “ Cum ex insperato mihi abunde otii suppeteret, et animus esset in his etiam rerum augustiis à nimia solicitudine liber, videbar mihi hoc quicquid est vacui temporis haud meliùs conterere posse, quàm si consueta recolerem studia, & pauca iis, quæ pridem à me de Morbis acum tioribus animadversa sunt, attexerem.” And ends, “Ego scribo hoc, cum permissione atque etiam indulgentia Præfecti, in præsentia Warderi: qui cùm in scribendo me non multùm adjuvet, facit, quod tibi gratum fore reor, nè longior sim."
the time of Galen to the beginning of the sixteenth century, chiefly with regard to practice, in a discourse written to Dr. Mead.
The first part was published in 1725, the second in 1726 *.
Soon after be obtained his liberty, he was made Physician to the Prince of Wales; and, on that Prince's accession to the Crown, became Physician to Queen Caroline, who honoured him with a share of her confidence and esteem.
Very early in the year 1727-8 Bp. Atterbury addressed to Dr. Freind his celebrated “ Letter on the Character of lapis 6," of whom he justly considered this learned Physician to be the modern Prototype. But, whatever esteem he entertained for his professional abilities, the following letters from Mr. Morice were sufficient to have occasioned some different ideas respecting his political opinions.
Jan. 2, 1727-8, Mr. Morice says, “ You observe rightly, that all things do not run in one channel, as they did in the late reign; and that Sir Robert's influence in ecclesiastical affairs is at an end. Nor has the Archbishop of Canterbury any power in that matter. He imagined he should have the first week or fortnight of the new Reign; and people thought so too; but he found his recommendations are disregarded, and so he has chose to sit still at Lambeth, and tells every body he has no interest at Court. The Queen seems chiefly to manage that branch, though not absolutely; for she intended Dr. Hare for the bishoprick of Bath and Wells,
* This work, though justly deemed a masterly performance; both for use and elegance, did not escape censure; but was animadverted upon both at home and abroad. + See the Bishop's Epistolary Correspondence, vol. II. p. 428.
Francis Hare, admitted a scholar on the foundation at Eton 1688, was elected thence to King's college, Cambridge; B. A. 1692; M. A. 1696; canon-residentiary of St. Paul's, and prebendary of Portpool in that cathedral, 1707 ; D. D. 1708 ; fellow of Eton 1712. He was tutor to the Marquis of Blandford; and chaplain-general to the Army; and obtained the deanry of Worcester 1715; and was made chaplain to King George I.; but was dismissed from that station in 1719 by the strength of party prejudices, in company with Dr. Moss Vol. V. н