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ing the Right of Property of Authors to their own Works ; 8vo.

2. “ Preface to Mrs. Cockburn's Remarks upon the Principles and Reasonings of Dr. Rutherforth's Essay on the Nature and Obligations of Virtue,” &c. 8vo.

3. “A Preface to Mr. Richardson's “ Clarissa *."

4. The Preface to "A Critical Enquiry into the Opinions and Practice of the Antient Philosophers, concerning the Nature of a Future State, and their Method of teaching by double Doctrine, [by Mr. Towne] 1747, 8vo, 2d edition

In 1748 he published a third edition of “ The Alliance between Church and State: corrected and enlarged;" with a Dedication to Lord Chesterfield.

In 1749, a very extraordinary attack was made on the moral character of Mr. Pope, from a quarter whence it could be the least expecteds. His “Guide, Philosopher, and Friend,” Lord Bolingbroke, published a book which he had formerly lent Mr. Pope in MS. The Preface to this work, written by Mr. Mallett||, contained an accusation of Mr. Pope's having clandestinely printed an edition of his Lordship’s performance without his leave or knowledge. Fool of the Company before he entered (or the Fool of the Piece, in his own diction) he was certainly so after he engaged in that Work ; for, as Ben Jonson observes (Silent Woman, act. iii. scene 6), “ he that thinks himself the Master-Wit, is commonly the Master Fool.Dr. Grey's Pamphlet, p. 6.

* See his opinion of Richardson's “ Pamela," p. 2.

† Amongst the writers who entered the lists against “ The Divine Legation,” was the Rev. John Jackson; who published, in 1745, “ The Belief of a future State proved to be a fundamental Article of the Religion of the Hebrews;" which Mr. Warburton answered in the Preface here noticed.

# This was followed by several other pamphlets, which are duly noticed under the Memoirs of Mr. Jackson, in t) Essays at the end of vol. II. No. IV.

§ On this subject, see several remarks, in Gent. Mag. 1749, p. 195; 1751, p. 537.

|| “When Mallet undertook to write the Life of Marlborough, Warburton remarked, that he might perhaps forget that Marlborough was a General, as he had forgotten that Bacon was a Philosopher." Dr. Johnson.

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A Defence of the Poet soon after made its appearance, which was universally ascribed to Mr. Warburton, and was afterwards owned by him. It was called, “A Letter to the Editor of the Letters on the Spirit of Patriotism, the Idea of a Patriot King, and the State of Parties, &c. occasioned by the Editor's Advertisement*,” &c. which soon after produced an abusive pamphlet, under the title of “ A Familiar Epistle to the most impudent Man living;" a performance, as hath been truly observed, couched in language bad enough to disgrace even gaols and garrets.

Feb. 12, 1749-50, he thus pleasantly describes a robbery from which he had suffered some loss of.

My house-maid has just wrote me news of a considerable damage done me at my house in town. Some rogues have stolen a ton of lead off my coachhouse and stables. Pray let me put a case of conscience to you. Can I, in classical justice, charge this theft upon the Dunces? If they have done it, it is infinitely a greater damage than they ever did me before, or are likely to do again.

About this time the publication of Dr. Middleton's “Enquiry concerning the Miraculous Powers” gave rise to a controversy, which was managed with great warmth and asperity on both sides, and not much to the credit of either party. On this occasion Mr. Warburton published an excellent performance , written with a degree of candour and

* Re-printed in the Appendix to Ruffhead's Life of Pope.

+ “In one of the unpublished letters to Dr. Birch deposited in the British Museum, Dr. Warburton says, “I wrote to Fielding, to ferret out my Lead-merchants, and he seems to have the same opinion of them with you. He says, that, in the rotation of roguery, my Lead may possibly come up: but he can give me no expectation ; for the science of roguery bears down every thing before it, and is grown almost too big for the civil magistrate. W. W. Feb..., 1749-50."

June 10, 1749, he tells Dr. Doddridge, "The Divine Legation I am proceeding with in good earnest. I have been a little diverted upon an important subject; viz. in writing a Discourse to prove the miraculous Interposition of Providence in defeating Julian's attempt to rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem. It is in

three

temper, which, it is to be lamented, he did not always exercise. The title of it was, “Julian, or, A Discourse concerning the Earthquake and Fiery Eruption which defeated that Emperor's Attempt to re-build the Temple at Jerusalem *,” 8vo, 1750.

A second edition of this learned and excellent Discourse,“ with Additions," appeared in 1751.

three parts. The first to establish the truth by human testi. mony, and the nature of the fact. 2. An Answer to Objections. 3. An Enquiry into the nature of that evidence which is sufficient to claim a rational assent to the miraculous fact. It is in the press, but will not be published till Winter."- In the same Letter,

I imagined I had communicated my grief to you for the greatest loss I ever had, in that of the best parent and woman that ever was. It yet hangs heavy upon me, and will do so while I live. God preserve you in the possession and enjoyment of all those blessings most dear to you !".

My Discourse on Julian, that is, as much as I have done of it, is gone to the press, which, when I can get enough worth senda ing, you shall have. It is in three parts. In the first I endeavour to establish the fact: in the second I answer to ob. jections, of various kinds : and in the third I discuss this quesa tion, · What evidence is required, and what is its peculiar nature, that will justify a reasonable man in giving credit to a miraculous fact?' A question much easier asked, than answered." Letter to Mr. Hurd, June 13, 1749.-See before, vol. II. p. 218.

*“I am greatly flattered by your thoughts of Julian; because I know the sincerity of your professions.

Some persung of consideration would persuade me to take to task at the end of the second volume of Julian a chapter of one Hume on Miracles in a rank atheistical Book called Philosophical Essays : and as the subject of the second part may be a little ticklish, perhaps it may be prudent to conciliate warm tempers by such a conclusion.” Letter to Dr. Doddridge, June 15, 1750. — This was nearly the last letter which he wrote to that worthy Divine. In the next, dated Sept. 2, 1751, he says, “ Your kind letter gave me, and will give Mr. Allen, great concern; but for ourselves, not you. Death, whenever it happens, in a life spent like yours, is to be envied, not pitied; and you will have the prayers of your friends, as conquerors have the shouts of the crowd. God preserve you ; if he continues you here, to go on in his service; if he takes you to himself, to be crowned with glory. Be assured the memory of our Friendship will be as durable as my life.”—Dr. Doddridge died Oct. 26, 1751.

In a Letter to Dr. Balguy, Jan. 17, 1752-3, he says, “They tell me there are some remarks published against my Julian. I don't know the nature of them, nor ever shall. That matter interests every Clergyman, that is to say, every Christian in

Eng

In the same year Mr. Warburton published the first complete edition of Mr. Pope's Works *, with his own notes, in nine octavo volumes, handsomely printed by Mr. Bowyer .

England, as much as myself;" and, May 12, 1752, “I think you judge rightly of the effect of Lord Bolingbroke's writings, as well as of their character.”—Speaking of this work some years afterwards, in a letter to Dr. Hurd, Mr. Warburton says, "My Julian has had a great effect in France, where Free-thinking holds its head as high as in England. This is a consolation to me, as my sole aim is to repress that infernal spirit." — And again, “ It has procured me the good-will of the best and greatest man in France [Duc de Noailles], while there is hardly a nobleman in England knows I have written such a book.”

* See some occasional Remarks on this edition in Gent. Mag. vol. XV. p. 538; vol. XXI. p. 314.

Lord Orford, in his “Detached Thoughts," (Works, vol. IV. p. 371),

, says, "Warburton, in his ridiculous edition of Pope's Works, quotes a passage from Grotius with great contempt ; who, being sent to England by the States, fatigued even that pedant King James with his pedantry and babbling dissertations on Arminianism and other foolish theological questions. He was warned that he would tire the scholastic Monarch ; but to no purpose. Warburton laughs at the Bishop of Ely, who wondered what a man he had there, and seems astonished that they were not charmed with such profusion of misplaced literature. Oxenstiern was so unlucky as to think like the Bishop of Ely; but Mr. Warburton thought it very sensible in an Ambassador to shock a Prince and Minister with whom he was to treat, and of course with whom he ought to have ingratiated himself, by venting all he knew or imagined about gruce, free-will, and predestination.” — Lord Orford then proceeds to suppose Warburton was Archbishop of Canterbury, and commissioned to treat with the Ambassador of the States on entering into a league for the restitution of the Palatinate;" and on that supposition presents to his readers a curious letter, which Grotius might in such a case have written to his masters.

† Amongst other publications occasioned by this Edition were, “Cursory Remarks on Mr. Warburton's new Edition of Mr. Pope's Works, occasioned by the modern Commentator's injurious Treatment, in one of his Notes upon the Essay on Criticism, of the Author of the Life of Socrates. In a Letter to a Friend. By John Gilbert Cooper, Esq. Author of the Life of Socrates. 1751 (see vol. II. p. 294).” Mr. Cooper thus begins his Letter: “Ishould not have troubled you with the following Remarks on that indigested mass of learned and unlearned lumber, which Mr. Warburton has huddled together from the motley dregs of desultory reading, strained through the muddy head and bitter heart of an inveterate Controversialist, in his Notes and Commentaries on the Works of that great poetical ornament to our Nation,

Mr.

" that

In the same year also appeared

« An Answer to a Letter to Dr. Middleton, inserted in a Pamphlet intituled, The Argument of the Divine Legation fairly stated, &c." 8vo; and “An Account of the Prophecies of Arise Evans, the Welch Prophet, in the last [17th] Century * ," the latter of which afterwards subjected him to much ridicule.

In 1753, Mr. Warburton published the first volume of a Course of Sermons preached at Lincoln'sInn, intituled, “The Principles of Natural and Revealed Religion occasionally opened and explained.”

Mr. Pope, as Dullness will naturally gravitate to oblivion as its proper centre; had not his ungentlemanlike abuse of me, and not his reflections on a late performance of mine, strongly called upon me to vindicate my character from the charge of the iniquity of impudent abuse and slander.-I have undergone, young as I am, too ntany disappointments in life, to wonder much at many things which the mob of mankind call extraordinary; otherwise I might be surprized that almost a total retirement from the world would not shelter me from the injuries of it, especially too at an age when few have had any concerns with it. I thought I might have enjoyed an unenvied obscurity in the most undisturbed peace and tranquillity, and that Calumny was too busy about the names of those who were candidates for fame, to find time to visit the recess of one whose contempt of every advantage of life, but what conduced to quiet, should, it was hoped, protect him from the poisonous breath of that daughter of Envy. But I was greatly mistaken, it seems, in my humble expectations ; for I had scarcely begun to feel the calm comforts which the absence of contention vields to a thinking creature, before I was informed, by letters from some friends in town, that Mr. Warburton had, with his usual huma. nity and good manners, very compendiously answered the Life of Socrates, in the tail of one note, by the free use of those

appellations he has indiscriminately thrown out upon, not only all those who have ever had any controversy with him, but upon all others too, whom he ever suspected to have the rashness to contradict any of his opinions. Witness his unprovoked treatinent of Dr. Akenside, the worthy author of one of the finest and most genuine poems that adorns ours or any other language, “The Pleasures of Imagination.”

* This account is annexed to the first volume of Jortin's “Remarks on Ecclesiastical History.”—In 1772, the Rev. Henry Taylor published “Confusion worse confounded; Rout on Rout; or the Bishop of Gloucester's Commentary upon Rise or Arise Evans' Echo from Heaven Examined and Exposed by Indignatio."

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