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SAMUEL CHANDLER, D.D.F.R.S. and F.A.S. eldest son of Mr. Henry Chandler, many years minister of a congregation of Protestant Dissenters in Bath, was born Sept. 20, 1693, at Hungerford in Berks, where his father (who married the daughter of Bridgman of Marlborough) was then Minister. He was descended from ancestors heartily engaged in the cause of Nonconformity ; his grandfather (a tradesman at Taunton) having much injured his fortune by his principles. His early genius for learning was carefully cultivated; and he was placed under a master with whom he made a great Proficiency in classical learning, and particularly in the Greek language. He was sent, with a view to the ministry, to the academy of the Rev. John Moore at Bridgwater ; whence he was soon removed to Gloucester, under the tuition of the very learned and ingenious Mr. Samuel Jones, who had the honour of educating Abp. Secker, Bp. Butler, and Lord Bowes, Chancellor of Ireland. In this seminary Mr. Chandler acquired a rich fund of literature and science, particularly of critical, biblical, and Oriental learning; and formed an acquaintance and friendship with the great personages just mentioned, which was continued with reciprocal instances of esteem and regard to the end of life. On leaving the academy, he continued his studies at Leyden, where he was contemporary with Abp. Secker and Bp. Chandler. He began to preach about July 1714, with increasing reputation. The Presbyterian congregation at Peckham elected him their minister in 1716.

While he was employed there, he was called upon to preach in conjunction with Dr. Lardner, for the winter half-year, a weekly evening lecture at the Old Jewry, on the evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion. When this lecture was dropped, another of the same kind was set up, which was preached by Mr. Chandler alone. The substance of these Sermons he published in his “ Vindication of the Christian Religion, 1725," at which period


he was a bookseller * at the Cross Keys in the Poultry, the shop afterwards kept by Mr. J. Grayp: To this Abp. Wake alludes in the following extract from a MS letter, dated Lambeth-house, Feb. 14, 1725 (which I transcribe from a copy of the “Vindication,” once belonging to Dr. Philip Furneaux): “I cannot but own myself surprized to see so much good learning and just reasoning in a person of your profession, and do think it pity you should not rather spend your time in writing books than in selling them. But I am glad, since your circumstances oblige you to the latter, that you do not wholly omit the former.” After heartily commending the “ Vindication," his Grace assures Mr. Chandler, that, as to himself,“ he was not only usefully entertained, but edified by it." The reputation gained by this publication made way for his being chosen, in 1726, assistant to Mr. Thomas Leavesley *, then pastor to the congregation in the Old Jewry. He

* Dr. Chandler was not originally brought up to that profesa sion. It was in consequence of having lost his wife's fortune in the South Sea bubble that he took it up; and he continual in it but two or three years. His edition of " Cassiodorus” was printed “ for John Morley, at the Cross Keys in the Poultry,” in the latter end of 1722. And the earliest book that I have seen with the name of S. Chandler is in 1725; in which year, besides his own work, he published the “ Miscellanea Sacra" of John Lord Viscount Barrington. As he was elected assistant pastor at the Old Jewry in 1726, he then of course declined business. His “ Reflexions on the Conduct of Modern Deists, 1727," was published by J. Chandler ; and his “ Vindication of Daniel, 1728," by J. Gray.

† Mr. Gray, like his predecessor, became a Dissenting minister, and afterwards, upon his complying with the terms of admission into the Church of England, rector of a living at Rippon in Yorkshire. In conjunction with Andrew Reed, he abridged the Philosophical Transactions from 1720 to 1732, in 2 vols. 4to, 1733. He also published the “ Elmerick” of Lillo ; and, at the dying request of the author, dedicated it to Frederick Prince of Wales.

* Mr. Leavesley was successor, in 1724, to Mr. Simon Browne, an able and learned minister, of whom a good account is given in the Biographia Britannica, 1730, vol II. p. 643. Vol. V. X


was soon after appointed co-pastor with Mr. Leavesley, and succeeded him as sole pastor 1728. In the course of this ministry he formed the design of a fund for the widows and orphans of Dissenting ministers, and received without solicitation the diploma of D. D. from the two Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. The high reputation which he had gained by his defences of the Christian Religion procured him from some principal persons of the Established Church the offers of considerable preferments, and particularly of a living worth 400l. a year; which he constantly declined. In the younger part of life he had been subject to frequent and dangerous fevers; but, by the use of a vegetable diet twelve years; obtained so happy an alteration in his constitution, that he enjoyed an uncommon share of vigour and spirits till 70; after which he experienced frequent returns of a most painful disorder, which he bore with great resignation till his decease, May 8, 1766, in his 73d year. A chronological account of his writings, drawn up by Dr. Flaxman, is annexed to his Funeral Sermon, which was preached at the Old Jewry by Dr. Amory *, May 18, 1766, and prefixed (with some corrections) to his Posthumous Sermons, 1769. The most material of them are enumerated below of. We learn

* Who had been chosen assistant to Dr. Chandler in 1759, and succeeded him as pastor in 1766. See more of him in the Biographia Britannica, 1779, vol. I. p. 178–180.

+ “Reflections on the Conduct of modern Deists, 1727."-"A Vindication of the Antiquity and Authority of Daniel's Prophecies, and their Application to Jesus Christ'; in Answer to the Objections of the Author of the Scheme of Literal Prophecy considered; with a Preface containing some Remarks on the Nature, Design, and Application of Scripture "Prophecies, 1728," 8v0.-“ Plain Reasons for being a Christian, 1730," Svo. — “ The two Conferences held on February 7 and 13, 1734-5, at the Bell Tavern in Nicholas-lane, between two Romish Priests, a Divine of the Church of England, and Dr. Hunt and Mr. Chandler, Dissenting Divines, truly stated ; with some Additions and Supplemental Remarks on a late printed Account of the said Conferences. By a Gentleman who was present at both Con


by the Preface to the Posthumous Sermons, that Dr. Chandler, among other learned and useful

ferences," was published in 1735, 8v0.—“A Paraphrase and critical Commentary on the Prophecy of Joel, 1735," 4to.—"A Vindication of the Christian Religion, in Two Parts."—"A Vindication of the History of the Old Testament; in Answer to the Misrepresentations and Calumnies of the late Thomas Morgan, M.D. and Moral Philosopher, 1740,” 8vo.—“ A Defence of the Prime Ministry and Character of Joseph: in Answer to the Misrepresentations and Calumnies of the late Thomas Morgan, M. D. and Moral Philosopher, 1742," 8vo. This treatise occasioned “ A Vindication of the Moral Philosopher, against the false accusations, insults, and personal abuses, of Samuel Chandler, late Bookseller, and Minister of the Gospel. By Thumas Morgan, M.D." and was followed by “The Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ, re-examined, and their Testimony proved entirely, consistent, 1744,” 8vo. This tract was,occasioned by a pamphlet, intituled, “ The Resurrection of Jesus considered, by a Moral Philosopher [Peter Annett."]—"A Review of the History of the Man after God's own Heart; in which the Falsehoods and Misrepresentations of the Historian are exposed and corrected, 1762," 8vo.—“A short and plain Catechism, being an Explanation of the Creed, Ten Commandments, and the Lord's Prayer; by way of Question and Answer, 1742,” 12mo.—Two Tracts against the Papists, 1735, 1745.-Several Miscellaneous Tracts in defence of Civil and Religious Liberty, occasioned by disputes in which he was involved by his Brethren, as well as by the Ministers of the Church of England.—" The History of the Inquisition by Philip à Limborch, Professor of Divinity amongst the Remonstrants ; translated into English; to which is prefixed, a large Introduction concerning the Rise and Progress of Persecution, and the real and pretended Causes of it, 1732," 2 vols. 4to, which he vindicated in three tracts from the remarks of Dr. Berriman.-"The History of Persecution, in Four Parts. 1. Among the Heathens. 2. Under the Christian Emperors. 3. Under the Papacy, and Inquisition. 4. Among Protestants ; with a large Preface, containing Remarks on Dr. Rogers's Vindication of the Civil Establishment of Religion, 1736," 8vo.-" The Case of Subscription to explanatory Articles of Faith, as a Qualification for Admission into the Christian Ministry, calmly and impartially reviewed, 1748," 8vo. Dr. Chandler wrote the Dedication to King George I. prefixed to the Works of John Howe, M. A. and also Prefaces to the following pieces : “A Supplement to Plutarch ; or the Lives of several eminent and illustrious Men, omitted by that Author : extracted from the Latin and Greek Historians ; by Thomas Rowe, 1728," 8vo. He left prepared for the press (and all printed off except five sheets) “ T'he Life of David,” published in 2 vols. 8vo, 1706, in which the Psalms relating to him are explained; and the Ob



designis, had begun a Commentary on the Prophets ; and left behind him in an interleaved Bible a large number of notes for illustrating the sacred writers. He also left in MS. many observations in the manner of Elsner and Raphelius, which Dr. Furneaux had taken some pains to digest, and which were afterwards the property of Dr. Kippis, Mr. Farmer, Dr. Price, and Dr. Savage, by whom they were intended to be published. I have much reason to regret that I cannot trace out the present possessor

a copy of the first edition of Mr. Bowyer's Conjectures on the New Testament,” 1763, which, I am informed, was filled with observations by Dr. Chandler, and sold in 1766 by auction at Mr. Baker's. At the same time were sold several other books with the Doctor's MS notes ; particularly, Milton's Paradise Lost (bought by Mr. Way for 18 shillings); the New Testaments of Schmidius and Curcellæus ; Scapula's Lexicon (bought by Dr. Kippis) ; and Stockii Clavis Ling. Sanctæ Vet. &


jections of Mr. Bayle, and others, against the Scripture Account of his Life and Character, examined and refuted ; also four volumes of Sermons, since published by subscription 1769, having printed 22 singly during his life. The Life of Mrs. Mary Chandler, his sister, inserted in “ The Lives of the Poets of Great Britain and Ireland, by Mr. Cibber* and other Hands, 1753,” was written by Dr. Chandler. Besides the preceding Discourses and Treatises, he published “Cassiodori Senatoris Complexiones in Epistolas, Acta Apostolorum, et Apocalypsin, è vetustissimis Canonicorum Veronensium membranis nuper erutæ. Editio altera ad Florentinam fideliter expressæ, opera et cura Samuelis Chandleri, 1722," 12mo; and, being zealously attached to the person and government of King George II. wrote about fifty papers in a weekly publication, conducted with great spirit and ability, intituled, “The Old Whig, or Consistent Protestant, in Defence of the Principles of Civil and Religious Liberty, 1735--1738." Two of his letters were printed so early as 1714, in the pamphlet of Mr. Carte which is mentioned (under the year 1747) in vol. II. p. 192.

* Without depreciating from the merit of these Lives, it may not be improper to observe that a double literary fraud was here intended. Theophilus Cibber, who was then in the King's Bench, had ten guineas for the use of his name, which was put ambiguously Mr. Cibber, in order that it might pass for his father Colley's. The real publisher was Mr. Robert Shiels, an atanuensis of Dr. Jobnson, on whose authority I relate this anecdote, and who gave to Shiels many particulars in the life of Samuel Boyse.

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