Page images




Mr. Sowerby (Genera, No. 4) remarks that the principal peculiarity in this genus appears to him to consist in the fact that the shells of the genus are what are called reversed, a fact doubted by some, who have described the species as umbilicated above. A careful examination of many of the species in a living state satisfied Mr. Sowerby that the animals carry their shells in a direction opposite to that of the generality of turbinated mollusks, and that the heart is placed in the Planorbes on the right side, and the respiratory orifice on the left, exactly the reverse of their position in most others. But, he further observes, the knowledge of the animal is not indispensably necessary to prove this, as the shell itself carries the demonstration, it being only needful to observe on which side of the shell the very apex of the spire is to be seen; if we take that side for the upper, in conformity to the strict rules of analogy, it will, he remarks, be evident that the aperture is on the left-hand side. Mr. Sowerby had for a long time entertained great doubt about the identity of some of the fossil species, which he is now satisfied are reversed shells, in the same manner as the other Planorbes, although the lower part of the disk is almost flat and carinated at its edge, and therefore bears a considerable resemblance to the flattened spire of some land shells, particularly the Helix albella.

Mr. Sowerby thus defines the genus:- Shell discoid with a depressed spire, whose apex is always distinct: its whorls turn from right to left, so that when the spire is held upwards and the aperture seen, it is on the left-hand side. The shells are ventricose, frequently carinated, either above or below; the aperture is entire, its breadth equal to its length, sometimes greater but (Mr. S. believes) never less; sometimes the peritreme, or lip, is thickened and expanded, and its lower part is always extended forwards: the umbilicus is very much expanded, and there is no operculum.

Mr. Sowerby further remarks that some species, particularly when young, are covered with a hairy epidermis.

M. Deshayes (ed. Lam., tom. viii., 1838) does not make any allusion to Mr. Sowerby's observations; but he comes to a very different conclusion. The Planorbes, says he, as all naturalists know, are discoïd shells, generally delicate and fragile, found in abundance in stagnant waters. Some of the species are so much flattened that they seem perfectly symmetrical, so that it is difficult, in these last at least, to distinguish the upper surface from the lower. This difficulty brings with it another, namely, that of determining whether the species are dextral or sinistral. These interesting questions had not been deeply discussed when M. Desmoulins published (1831), in the Transactions of the Linnean Society of Bordeaux, a well executed and very extensive memoir, in which he examines these different questions. 'In my preceding works,' continues M. Deshayes, 'I have not perhaps attached sufficient importance to those researches for which it was necessary to examine the living animals, but nevertheless in 1824 I disposed conchologically of a part of the difficulty by saying, in my work on the fossils of the Paris basin, that the upper side of the Planorbes may be distinguished from the lower by means of the obliquity of the aperture, the upper part of which is most prominent (avancé). This mode of distinguishing the upper surface from the lower, and of placing the shell in its normal position, once granted, it becomes easy to recognise which species are dextral and which sinistral. By these means we perceive, as M. Desmoulins has very well demonstrated, that nearly all the known species of Planorbes, both living and fossil, are dextral; even those which the most esteemed authors had judged to be sinistral, from the depth of the umbilicus. But if by the observation of the aperture we come to the conclusion that the shell of the Planorbes is dextral, a difficulty presents itself, namely, that the animals which inhabit these dextral shells are sinistral, if we judge by the position of the three orifices which the pulmoniferous molusks exhibit exteriorly. Thus Cuvier has well remarked this transposition of the orifices in Planorbis corneus, and has not hesitated to declare this species sinistral, contrary to the opinion of Linnæus, of Müller, and of Draparnaud, who state that the species is umbilicated above. Cuvier corroborates his opinion by an important fact, namely, that the heart is on the right side in Planorbis, whilst it is on the left in dextral shells of other genera: but Cuvier did not pay attention to the organs of digestion: finding the heart on the right and the orifices on the left, he came to the con• Draparnaud, among others, appears to have been of this opinion. See his figure of Plauorbis corneus, &c., pl. i,

It is to this clusion that Planorbis corneus is sinistral; he ought nevertheless to have seen, before he delivered this definitive judgment, in what real position the organs are. point that M. Desmoulins has especially applied himself, and he saw that all the organs of digestion and generation remain in the position which they hold in the dextral mollusks, and that the orifices only have an anormal position. Thus the observations of M. Desmoulins explain how, in the genus Planorbis, appearances place a sinistral animal in a dextral shell (a phenomenon which we cannot conits shell, and that there is no other derangement in the receive), and how, in reality, the animal is dextral as well as lationship of these organs excepting in regard to the heart, and the termination of the digestive organs and those of Lamarck recorded twelve generation.' recent species, including Planorbis Cornu Arietis, which is not a Planorbis, but a discoid Ampullaria *, as its animal and operculum testify. M. Deshayes adds ten more in the last edition of Lamarck; Conrad, Troschel, and Broderip, have each described one in addition; and new species are brought home by almost every expedition. M. Rang states lected at Seize near Bordeaux, by M. Durieu, where the that he has known individuals of Planorbis leucostoma colanimals had closed the shell by a kind of epiphragma analogous to that of the Helices.

The species are numerous.

Example, Planorbis corneus; Helix cornea, Linn. Description.-Shell opaque, plano-depressed above, widely umbilicated beneath; of a horny or brown chesnut colour; the whorls transversely striated.

Locality-This, the largest living species of Europe, if not the largest generally, is found in sluggish rivers and stagnant waters, such as old water-courses and drains in low swampy situations. Thus it is plentiful about Oxford. Montagu says that it is certainly more local than it is described to be by Da Costa, who states that it is common in all ponds, rivers, and lakes throughout England. This, adds Montagu, is far from being the case, although it is sufficiently plentiful in some parts, and he states that he never found it further westward than in Dorsetshire, where, about Wareham, it is abundant. Lamarck records it as an inhabitant of France in the rivers, and very common, about Paris, in that of Gobelins.

Montagu as well as others have observed that this species yields a beautiful purple dye (whence perhaps De Férussac's name Planorbis purpura), all attempts to fix which, either by acids or astringents, have hitherto proved ineffectual. The inside of the mouth of the shell in fine specimens is occasionally of a colour approaching to violet.


Shell of Planorbis corneus.

Animal of an oval form, more or less spiral; head furnished with two long tentacles, which are setaceous and oculated at their internal base; mantle with two lobes digitated on the edges, which can be turned back so as to cover a considerable part of the shell; the foot is long, rounded anteriorly, pointed posteriorly; the rest of the organization as in Limnea, with the exception that the orifices are generally on the left.

Shell generally sinistral, oval, elongated or nearly globular, smooth, delicate, and very fragile; the aperture oval, a proper Mr. G. B. Sowerby appears to have been the first who assigned the For this he was at the time undeservedly censured. 3S2 position to this species from observation of the shell only. (Genera, No. iv.)

little narrowed behind; edge of the right lip sharp, colu- | mella a little twisted, but without any plait; spire more or less sharp and elongated; the last whorl larger than all the others conjoined. (Rang.)

[blocks in formation]

Physa. Shell and animal; with eggs.

a, Physa hypnorum; b, mass of eggs, nat. size; c, the same, magnified.

Geographical Distribution of the Genus.-Very extensive, species having already been found in the tranquil freshwaters of all the four quarters of the globe. Europe has several species, and the form occurs in America, in Africa (there being little doubt that the Bulin of Adanson is a Physa), in New Holland, where it was found by M. Quoy, and in the Isles of Bourbon and France, whence it was brought by M. Rang. Mr. Gray has named two species

from the East Indies and one from Peru.

Mr. G. B. Sowerby, as we have already seen, unites Physa and Limna, making the latter include the former for the reasons above given. M. Rang, who notices their inhabiting the same places as the Limnæa, and their resemblance in organization, observes that the animal of Physa is distinguished from that of Limnaea by the form of its tentacles, as is the shell by its generally sinistral disposition, like that of the Planorbes. He also notices the observation of M. de Blainville that there exist dextral species.

extending quite behind and partly on the left side, covering the smaller volutions: this membrane (mantle) s, he says, very deeply divided, or digitated, the points of which meet and sometimes intersect on the back of the shell, and it is so transparent as scarcely to be distinguished but by the assistance of a glass. The foot he describes as long and narrow, and the foramen on the left side, as must be the case with all the animals of this kind inhabiting heterostrophe shells.' Col. Montagu concludes his remarks on this species as follows: It has a very considerable locomotive power, and transports itself by adhering to the surface of the water, with the shells downwards: against which it crawls with as much apparent ease as on a solid body; and will sometimes let itself down gradually by a thread affixed to the surface of the water, in the manner of the Limax filans (Linn. Trans.,' iv., 85, t. 8.), from the branch of a tree. The property of crawling under water, against its surface, is not wholly confined to this species; but we know of no other testaceous animal capable of supending itself under water in the same way. It has the power of throwing its shell about in an extraordinary manner, either in defence or to remove obstructions, continuing at the same time fixed by its foot. Probably this singular motion is sometimes occasioned by a minute species of Hirudo (Gordius inquilinus, Müll., Verm.) which infests this and many other fresh-water testaceous animals; twenty or more may be seen adhering to its sides like slender white filaments."

M. Deshayes, in the last edition of Lamarck (tom. viii., 1838), remarks, that the genus Physa, established at first by Adanson under the name of Bulin, was not definitely introduced till Draparnaud presented it anew under the name which it still bears. Adanson, he continues, had too much sagacity not to perceive the relationship of his Bulin with the Planorbes, and fails not to insist upon this point, although he points out the characteristic differences of the two genera. After some observations on the doubts of naturalists as to the analogy presented by the animals of Planorbis, and those of Physa and Limnæa, and the absence of doubt as to the distinguishing characters of the two lastmentioned genera, M. Deshayes thus continues: Certainly, if we consider the shells only, there is a very great resemblance between a Physa and a Limnæa, but all the Phys are sinistral, the Limniece are dextral; the Physæ have a polished and shining shell, because the animal has its mantle lobated and turned back upon the shell, which is not the case in Limnæa; the animal of Physa carries on its head elongated and narrow tentacles, like those of Planorbis, and not triangular and thick ones, like those of Limnæa. These characters seem sufficient to retain the two genera in the system, and, consequently, to reject the opinion of Mr. Sowerby, who unites them in his genera.'

Lamarck recorded four species of Physa (recent). M. Deshayes, in the last edition of the 'Histoire,' increases the number to ten; and he regrets that M. Michaud, has given no detail with regard to some species indicated as found in France, but which do not appear to live there. He observes that Lamarck has recorded two Phys (P. castanea and P. subopaca), the first from the Garonne, and the last from the environs of Montpelier, which M. Michaud does not mention. M. Deshayes adds, that we must probably conclude, from the silence of M. Michaud, that these species have not been found, and that Lamarck, deceived by a false indication, has given them a habitat not theirs. Conrad has described an additional species.

Example, Physa fontinalis, Drap.; Bulla fontinalis, Linn. Description.-Shell sinistral, oval, diaphanous, smooth; of a yellowish horn-colour; spire very short and rather pointed.

Locality, temperate Europe, probably; England and France, certainly.-North America (Claiborne, Alabama), Conrad.

Habits, &c.-Col. Montagu (Testacea Britannica) notices the species as not uncommon in stagnant pools, as well as running waters, in many parts of the kingdom, and as most frequently found on the under part of the leaves of aquatic plants. He gives a description of the animal, and says that when in motion it covers a great part of the shell with a thin pinnated membrane, thrown out on the right side, See above: note to description of the shells of the Limneans, p 498.

Shell of Physa fontinalis. Limnæa.

with two flattened triangular tentacles, carrying the eyes Animal of oval form, more or less spiral; head furnished at their base, on the internal side; mouth furnished with short veil; foot oval, bilobated anteriorly, narrowed postean upper piece for mastication, surmounted by a sort of very the collar, in form of a furrow, and capable of being covered riorly orifice of the pulmonary cavity on the right side, on by a fleshy appendage which borders it below; anus on the side, organs of generation distant, the orifice of the male intromissive organ being under the right tentacle, and that of the vagina at the entry of the pulmonary cavity.

Shell delicate, fragile, of an oval oblong, with a spire more or less sharp and elongated, and an aperture longer edge, not continuous, on account of the convexity of the than it is wide, oval, sometimes very large, with a sharp preceding whorl; on the columella an oblique plait, (Rang.)

[subsumed][merged small][merged small][graphic]

a, the animal in the shell; b, mass of eggs, magnified.

M. Deshayes observes (last edition of Lamarck) that the animal of Limnea presents peculiar characters. On the head are two triangular tentacles very much enlarged at the base, and having the eyes rather projecting on the upper and internal part of that base. The head is large and flattened, separated from the foot by a shallow furrow. The foot inclines to oval, terminated in a point posteriorly, and delicate and flattened on the sides. The mantle, closed anteriorly and narrow, forms a sort of collar, as in the Helices. There is a great cavity behind its border. The upper wall of this cavity, delicate and transparent, is covered on its internal surface by a very well developed vascular net-work, destined for respiration: it is near the aperture of the

[blocks in formation]


mantle and a little below it that the orifice of the anus is | Description:-Shell ampullaceous, ventricose, ovate, thin, transparent, of a horny colour, marked with very delicate close-set longitudinal striæ; the spire very short and accuminated. Locality, the same with that of L. stagnalis.

Geographical Distribution of the Genus.-Limnææ appear to occur in almost all parts of the world, but the form is most seen in the temperate and northern regions.

Habits, Food, Reproduction, &c.-Fresh-waters, especially those which are stagnant, are the resort of the Limnææ; in such situations they abound, feeding on the aquatic plants on whose stems they creep, and coming to the surface to respire the air. Here they may often be seen in a reversed position, and probably maintained in it by the air in the branchial cavity. Like the Physe they have the power of locomotion when so situated, and may be observed moving their ventral disk, as if they were employing it against a solid surface, whereas the animal only touches an extremely thin lamina (so to speak) of water, which offers sufficient resistance for its progression. In the reproduction of the species the animals are employed somewhat differently from the Helicide and Limacidae, though, like them, each individual is furnished with both male and female organs of generation; for the same Limnaea is capable of serving at the same time as a male for a second, and as a female for a third, and by this connexion of one individual with two others a continuous chain of some length is not unfrequently produced. No. 2313 of the fifth or allotriandrous series of preparations illustrating the principles of generation, in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London (Catalogue, vol. iv., Physiological Series'), exhibits the soft parts of the generative anal and respiratory orifices of Limnaea stagnalis, and shows how this gastropod differs from the Limacidae and Helicide in the separation of the above-mentioned orifices from one another. The number of eggs is very great, and they are deposited on stones, stems of vegetables, &c., in elongated masses enveloped in a glairy substance, which is said to increase in proportion to the development of the embryos. For very interesting details on the reproduction and embryogeny of these mollusks we refer the reader to the works of M. The recent species are numerous; Lamarck recorded twelve, including L. columnaris, which is considered to be an Achatina. M. Deshayes, in the last edition of Lamarck's 'Histoire,' has added eight more. Bean and Troschel have each added one.


Pfeiffer and of M. Dumortier.

We select as examples Limnæa stagnalis and Limnaa auricularia.

Limnaea stagnalis.-This is Helix stagnalis,* Linn.; Bucrinum stagnale, Müll.; and Bulimus stagnalis, Brug.Description:-Shell ovate-acute, ventricose, thin, pellucid, substriated longitudinally, of a horny colour; the last whorl subangulated above; the spire conico-subulate; the aperture large.

Montagu observes that it is frequently covered with a green epidermis, and sometimes a concreted stony matter That almost obliterates the upper volutions; he adds that some authors have made this shell into two or three species, apparently from size only.

Locality, The fresh sluggish or stagnant waters of England, France, &c.

Limna stagnalis.

Limnaa auricularia.-This is Helix auricularia, Linn.; Buccinum Auricula, Müll.; Bulimus auricularius, Brug.

Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1249, No. 703. On the opposite page (1248) the specific name stagnalis is again given to a small and apparently different shell.

Limnæa auricularia.


number of fossil species as four or five, adding that Defrance, Planorbis.-M. de Blainville ('Malacologie ') mentions the who increases the number to eighteen, acknowledges that the fossil state of some of them is doubtful; he notices four several fossil species abound in the distinctly fresh-water as analogues. Mr. G. B. Sowerby (Genera) states that strata of the Isle of Wight and the neighbourhood of Paris, where they are very abundant, and accompanied by as great a profusion of Limnææ and some other decidedly freshwater shells.

mark any of the recent species as occurring in a fossil state. Lamarck records only three fossil species, nor does he M. Deshayes, who in his tables (Lyell) makes the number of species 23 living and 26 fossil (tertiary), records in the spirorbis, and nitidus as both living and fossil (tertiary). same place the Planorbes corneus, marginatus, carinatus, We cannot find P. marginatus in Lamarck's first edition nor in that edited by M. Deshayes (tom. viii.) in 1838, except following recent species are marked by M. Deshayes as as a synonym to P. complanatus. In this last work the occurring in a fossil state:-corneus, spirorbis, vortex, contortus, nitidus, complanatus, and Leucostoma, on the authority of M. Bouillet; and the number of fossil species is made to amount to nine. Dr. Fitton, in his 'Stratigraphical and Local Distribution of Fossils,' in the strata (Purbeck, Oxfordshire and Bucks). below the chalk, notices an indistinct species of Planorbis,

it would appear that no Phys had at the time of his publiPhysa.-M. de Blainville, in his Malacologie, states that cation been found fossil. M. Deshayes in his tables (Lyell) gives the number of species as nine living and one fossil (tertiary): in the last edition of Lamarck the number of recent species given is ten; but the number of fossil species is

the same as that stated in the tables.

Limnæa.-M. de Blainville (Malacologie) remarks that if it were clear that the species of this genus established by geologists, and among others by MM. Lamarek, Brard, Brongniart, Sowerby, and De Férussac, were true, alone; but he adds that M. Defrance does not carry there would be at least twenty fossil species in France the number further than ten, two of which (from the Plaisantin) are analogues according to Brocchi. Mr. G. B. Sowerby, who unites the genera Physa and Limnæa, observes (Genera') that several fossil species of this genus occur abundantly in company with various Paludina and Planorbes in the fresh-water formations; these, he adds, occur in the neighbourhood of Paris, and in the upper and lower of these formations at Headen Hill, and in other parts of the Isle of Wight. He also found them sparingly in the mixed stratum commonly called the upper marine formation, between the two, but he believes that they do not occur in any other. Lamarck noticed but one species as fossil, viz. Limnæa palustris, this being in his opinion really the analogue of the recent species of that name. M. Deshayes in his tables (Lyell) gives the number of Limnææ as fifteen living and twenty-seven fossil (tertiary), and the species peregra, auricularis, rivalis, and palustris as both living and fossil (tertiary). In the last edition of Lamarck the following recent species are marked by him as also occurring in a fossil state:-palustris, ovata, peregra, and minuta. L. auricularia is not marked as fossil in this edition, and we do not find L. rivalis as a species in either. The number of strictly fossil species recorded in the last edition of Lamarck is eleven, and in that edition M. Deshayes remarks that a sufficiently great number of Limnææ are


found in a fossil state, but that up to the time when he wrote no species was recorded in the beds below the tertiary, and even in these the Limnae only appear in the lower fresh-water strata. They show themselves, he adds, in the upper beds of the Paris calcaire grossier, and are also recognised in nearly all the lacustrine deposits, not only of the Parisian epoch, but also in the two great tertiary groups that surmount it. Dr. Fitton, in the table above quoted, records a Limnea (with a note of interrogation) as occurring in the Purbeck strata, Oxfordshire, in the malm,' Garsington.

Mr. Lea, in his 'Contributions to Geology' (8vo. Philadelphia, 1833), notices the tufaceous lacustrine formation of Syracuse, Onandaga county, New York. He found the substratum which lined the side of the canal to consist of a calcareous marl of a whitish colour, bordering on that of ashes, friable, and rather soft to the touch. A subsequent analysis by Professor Vanuxem proved it to be nearly pure carbonate of lime. Numerous perfect specimens of the genera Limnea, Physa, Paludina, and Ancylus were obtained, all being analogous to the species inhabiting at that time the fresh-waters of that region; and Mr. Lea states that it was evident that the deposit was caused by the drainage of the lake. The specimens were found to be completely bleached, and were generally in an unbroken state. 'A lacustrine formation of so recent a nature,' says Mr. Lea in continuation, as this appears to be, is not, I believe, of frequent occurrence. It is the result however of one of those causes which are now in action; and another instance might be mentioned, in which the effect of this cause, though striking, has not advanced to that period when it would make a finished deposit; I mean the small lake, or pond, in Sussex County, New Jersey, well known by the descriptive name of Milk Pond*. Here countless myriads of bleached shells of the families Lymnæana and Peristomiana, analogous to the species now inhabiting the adjacent waters, line and form the shores of the whole circumference of the lake, to the depth and breadth of many fathoms. Not having visited this interesting lake myself, I repeat what has been communicated to me by intelligent scientific friends who have examined it, and on whose report the most implicit reliance may be placed. Such is the quantity of bleached shells now remaining there, that thousands of tons of these small species, in a state of perfect whiteness, could be obtained if any useful purpose required the removal of them. For agricultural purposes this mass might prove of great utility. One friend, I remember, mentioned to me that he had obtained a sharp pointed pole, which he inserted ten or twelve feet perpendicularly into the mass, on the shore, near to the edge of the water, without its having passed through it. As far as can be ascertained, this mass seems to form the whole basin of the lake, and it may at some future and perhaps not far distant period form a tufaceous lacustrine deposit similar to that of Syracuse.'

LIMNO'RIA. [ISOPODA, vol. xiii., p. 53.] In 1838 the Rev. F. W. Hope exhibited to a meeting of the Zoological Society a piece of deal perforated throughout by Limnoria terebrans, in which many of these destructive crustaceans might still be detected; and he stated that the oaken piles of the pier at Southend had been cased with deal, and then surrounded with a sheathing of iron, to protect them from the Limnoriæ. Instead of producing the desired effect, this plan appeared to have accelerated the destruction of the piles; for the Limnoria made its way from beneath between the sheathing and the pier, and very quickly destroyed the deal casing, as shown by the piece exhibited. Mr. Hope expressed his belief that wood could not by any means be effectually shielded from this animal if exposed to its attack; and that iron, protected from the decomposing action of the water by some varnish, although requiring a much greater outlay at first, would in the end be found the least expensive of the two. (See further, Edinb. New Phil. Journal, 1834 and 1835.)

From the milky appearance of the waters near the shore, caused by the mass of bleached shells deposited there. In Gordon's map of New Jersey it is named White Pund. (Lea.)

LIMOGES, a city in France, capital of the department of Haute (Upper) Vienne; situated on the right bank of the Vienne, 215 miles in a direct line S.S.W. of Paris, or 236 miles by the road through Orléans and Châteauroux. Limoges was the chief town of the Celtic tribe the Lemovices, to whom both the town and the province of Limousin owe their names. It was called Augustoritum by the Romans, under whom it was a place of considerable importance, and became in the third century the seat of a bishopric. It was at the convergence of several Roman roads. There was an amphitheatre, said to have been built by the emperor Trajan, of which there were sufficient remains in 1713 to admit of a plan being drawn; it was about 1500 feet in eircumference. It was entirely destroyed in 1714, in order to form the Place d'Orsay. There are now no Roman remains at Limoges in good preservation, except a subterraneous aqueduct, which conveys the water of a fountain in the upper part of the town. In the fifth century Limoges came into the power of the Visigoths; and was successively pillaged or destroyed by the Franks (twice) and Northmen. It was ceded to the English by the treaty of Bretigny, and formed part of the great duchy or principality of Aquitaine under Edward the Black Prince. [BORDEAUX.] The people of Limoges were persuaded by their bishop to revolt from Edward, one of whose last exploits (A.D. 1370) was the capture of the town. Irritated by treachery, the Prince, who was then wasting under the disease which ultimately brought him to his grave, put three thousand of the inhabitants, men, women, and children, to the sword; the bishop, who had been ordered for execution, was released by the intercession of the Pope.

Limoges is built on a hill which commands a prospect of the delightful valley of the Vienne. The older part of the town consists of narrow and steep streets, with houses, from the first floor upwards, built of wood: the more modern part contains broad and straight streets, the handsome ‘Place d'Orsay,' several excellent houses, new boulevards, and a number of public fountains. Of the public edifices the principal are the town-hall, a handsome modern building; the cathedral, a fine Gothic edifice of the thirteenth century; and the episcopal palace. The population was, in 1831, 23,804 for the town, or 27,070 for the whole commune; in 1836 it was 29,706 for the whole commune. The chief manufactures are of broad-cloth, kerseymere, drugget, flannel and other woollen goods; cotton-yarn and calico; linen and hempen cloth; hosiery, both cotton and woollen; paper, leather, hats, glue, wax candles, and porcelain. There are dye-houses for wool and cotton, and several iron-works. The Vienne is not navigable here; but the position of the town on one of the high roads from Paris to Perigueux and Bordeaux and into Spain, and to Cahors and Toulouse, is favourable to inland trade, of which it has a good share. There are roads to Poitiers, Angoulême, and Clermont Ferrand. There is a great monthly market or fair for cattle, and nine yearly fairs, two of which last eleven days each. There is an Exchange for the convenience of traders.

Limoges is the seat of a Cour Royale, or high court of justice, and of an Académie Universitaire; the circuit or jurisdiction of both which comprehends the departments of Haute Vienne, Corrèze, and Creuse. There is a mint. It has a royal college or high school, and a diocesan seminary for the priesthood; a royal society of agriculture, sciences, and arts; a drawing-school, a school of commerce, and a museum of natural history and antiquities; three public libraries; a depository of objects of art and mechanical science, and a departmental nursery-ground. There are a mont-de-pieté, several benevolent institutions, and a central house of correction.

The arrondissement of Limoges comprehends 780 square miles: it had a population of 115,488 in 1831, and in 1836 of 120,476. It is subdivided into ten cantons, two which are in and just about Limoges, and 78 communes.

The diocese of Limoges comprehends the departments of Creuse and Haute Vienne; the bishop is a suffragan of the archbishop of Bourges.



Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and Sons, Stamford-street,

« PreviousContinue »