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for membership, and those candidates who are approved by the committee may be elected to membership in the society by a majority of the members present at any meeting of the society. A nomination for membership in the society shall remain in the hands of the executive committee for at least one year before action is taken upon it. The names of candidates not elected to membership within three years of the date of consideration shall be removed from the list of nominees unless renominated.

Professor H. H. Bartlett, University of Michigan, was elected to represent the society on the board of control of Botanical Abstracts, to succceed Professor E. M. East. Dr. J. Arthur Harris is the other representative of the society on the board of control.

Professor Leon J. Cole was elected to membership for a term of five years, in the advisory committee of the society, related to the committee on cooperation and coordination of the Division of Biology and Agriculture of the National Research Council, to succeed Dr. A. G. Mayor. The other members of this advisory committee are Bradley M. Davis (4 years, chairman), Ross G. Harrison (3 years), George H. Shull (2 years), and H. S. Jennings (1 year).

The report of the committee on genetical form and nomenclature, authorized at the 1919 meeting of the society, was read, in the absence of the chairman, Dr. C. C. Little, by Dr. Sewall Wright. The society voted to continue the committee and to request it to publish the report in SCIENCE, but deferred discussion of and action upon the report to a later meeting.

The following persons, recommended to the society by the executive committee for election to membership, were duly elected: William H. F. Addison, Roy E. Clausen, Theodore D. A. Cockerell, Frederick V. Coville, George W. Crile, John W. Gowen, A. L. Hagedoorn, Duncan Starr Johnson, William Allen Orton, Charles Vancouver Piper, Harold H. Plough, Brayton Howard Ransom, Mary B. Stark, George L. Streeter, Walter T. Swingle.

The nominating committee presented candidates for vacancies in the offices of president, vice-president and treasurer, who were unanimously elected by the society. Accordingly, the officers for the year 1921 are as follows:

President: Professor Bradley M. Davis, University of Michigan.

Vice-president: Professor Henry E. Crampton, Columbia University.

Secretary: Professor A. Franklin Shull, University of Michigan.

Treasurer: Dr. J. Arthur Harris, Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Additional members of executive committee by virtue of previous office: Professor W. E. Castle, Harvard University; Professor E. M. East, Harvard University; Dr. Jacques Loeb, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.

The annual dinner of the society was held at the Hotel Sherman, at 7 o'clock, December 30, with one hundred and thirty-nine in attendance. In the absence of the president, Dr. Jacques Loeb, the after-dinner addresses were made by two charter members, Professors William North Rice and J. Sterling Kingsley, who narrated the story of the foundation and early days of the society. The program of papers, which occupied Thursday and Friday, December 30 and 31, was as follows:

Thursday morning:

The analysis of a continuously varying character in the wasp Hadrobracon: P. W. WHITING. Fluctuations of sampling in a population showing linkage: J. A. DETLEFSEN.

Linkage between flower color and stem color in Enothera: GEORGE H. SHULL. (Read by title.) The inheritance and linkage relation of shrunken endosperm in maize: C. B. HUTCHISON (introduced by R. A. Emerson).

Relative frequency of crossing-over in microspore and megaspore development in maize: R. A. EMERSON AND C. B. HUTCHISON.

Types of mutation and their possible significance
in evolution: A. F. BLAKESLEE.
Linkage of tunicate ear and sugary endosperm and
their genetic relations to other maize characters:
W. H. EYSTER (introduced by R. A. Emerson).
A case of maternal inheritance in maize: E. G.
ANDERSON AND L. F. RANDOLPH (introduced by
R. A. Emerson).

I. Genetic aspects (Dr. Anderson). II. Cyto-
logical relations (Mr. Randolph).
Thursday afternoon: Symposium on General
Physiology.

On the photochemistry of the reactions of animals to light: SELIG HECHT.

The influence of internal secretion on the develop

ment and growth of amphibians: E. UHLENHUTH. The rôle of the hydrogen ion concentration in life phenomena: WM. MANSFIELD CLARK.

The mechanism of injury and recovery of the cell: W. J. V. OSTERHOUT.

Enzyme action as exemplified by pepsin digestion: JOHN H. NORTHROP.

The equilibrium functions of the internal ear: S. S. MAXWELL.

Friday morning:

Differential survival of male and female dove embryos in increased and decreased pressures of oxygen: a test of the metabolic theory of sex: OSCAR RIDDLE.

A decrease in sexual dimorphism during the course of selection with inbreeding: CHARLES ZELENEY. A dominant color mutation of the guinea-pig : SEWALL WRIGHT.

Some conclusions regarding the influence of the endocrine glands upon amphibian development: BENNET M. ALLEN.

Chromosomes and the life cycle of Hydatina senta: A. FRANKLIN SHULL.

Inheritance of eye-defects induced in rabbits: M. F. GUYER AND E. A. SMITH.

The bearing of Mendelism and mutation on the theory of natural selection: C. C. NUTTING. The inheritance of size in rats: HEMAN L. IBSEN. Inheritance of a secondary sexual character and the effects of lethal factors in Colias philodice: JOHN H. GEROULD. (Read by title.)

A recessive mutation in haemolymph pigment in Colias philodice: JOHN H. GEROULD. (Read by title.)

Duplicate factors for cotyledon color in soy beans: C. M. WOODWORTH (introduced by J. A. Detlefsen).

Some variation in color pattern of mammals: LEON
J. COLE AND JESSIE MEGEATH,
Inheritance of checks and bars in pigeons: SARAH
V. H. JONES (introduced by Leon J. Cole).
Friday afternoon:

Selective fertilization and the rate of pollen tube growth: D. F. JONES.

Genetic studies in Crepis: E. B. BABCOCK. A quantitative study of mutation in the second chromosome of Drosophila: H. J. MULLER.

A genetic analysis of "low crossover stock" produced by selection: ELMER ROBERTS (introduced by J. A. Detlefsen).

The inheritance of small deviations from bilateral symmetry: F. B. SUMNER. (Read by title.) Relation between chaff color and pubescence in a cross between wheat and emmer: H. H. LOVE. (Read by title.)

The mutant type "crossveinless" in Drosophila virilis and D. melanogaster: ALEXANDER WEINSTEIN AND C. B. BRIDGES.

A. FRANKLIN SHULL,

Secretary

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THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS

THE American Society of Zoologists held its eighteenth annual meeting at the University of Chicago in conjunction with Section F of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and in association with other biological societies on December 28, 29 and 30, 1920.

Due the absence of the secretary, H. V. Neal was elected secretary pro tem.

The Constitution was amended by adding a new type of membership as follows:

Foreign zoologists, not members of this Society, may be elected Honorary Fellows upon unanimous recommendation of the Executive Committee by a majority vote of the members present at any meeting of the Society. Honorary Fellows shall not be required to pay dues.

The By-Law providing for affiliation with the American Society of Naturalists was amended to eliminate this affiliation.

The following were elected to membership in the Society: Royal N. Chapman, University of Minnesota; James Arthur Dawson, Dalhousie University; Leslie Clarence Dunn, Connecticut Agricultural Station; Ernest Melville DuPorte, MacDonald College; Charles McLean Fraser, University of British Columbia; William Marion Goldsmith, Southwestern College; Norman McDowell Grier, Washington and Jefferson College; Selig Hecht, Creighton Medical College; Walter N. Hess, DePauw University; Minna E. Jewell, MilwaukeeDowner College; Thestle T. Job, Loyola University School of Medicine; Rokusaburo Kudo, University of Illinois; Ralph S. Lillie, Department of Pure Science, Nela Research Laboratories; William A. Lippincott, Kansas State Agricultural College; Henry G. May, Rhode Island State College and Agricultural Experiment Station; Irene McCullough, Sophie Newcomb College; Richard Anthony Muttkowski, University of Idaho; J. M. D. Olmstead, Toronto University; Thomas Elliott Snyder, Bureau of Entomology U. S. Department of Agriculture; Wilbur Willis Swingle, Yale University; Charles Vincent Taylor University of California; Clarence Lester Turner, Beloit College; Asa Orrin Weese, University of New Mexico.

Among other items the secretary reported the death of two members, E. L. Michael and George D. Allen. The membership roll before the election of new members contained 305 names of members in good standing. The American Association for the Advancement of Science had recognized election to membership in the society as a certification of eligibility for Fellowship in the association.

The report of the treasurer showed a probable balance for January 1, 1921, of $890.30, a net increase for the year of $80.71.

The officers elected for 1921 are: President, C. A. Kofoid; Vice-president, A. L. Treadwell; Member of the Executive Committee to serve five years, Gilman A. Drew; Member of Division of Biology and Agriculture, National Research Council, to serve three years, William Patten; Members of the Council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, C. C. Nutting and W. C. Allee; Members of the Advisory Board to serve four years, C. A. Kofoid and D. H. Tennent.

Professor R. A. Budington appealed for support for Professor Van der Stricht and his Archiv de Biologie which can be given by the purchase of a set of lantern slides made from Van der Stricht's preparations showing fertilization in Nereis.

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED REGARDING DUTY FREE IMPOR

PORTATION OF SCIENTIFIC MATERIALS

The American Society of Zoologists representing the zoological interests of the country, especially from the standpoint of research and instruction in our American colleges and universities, views with much concern the proposals made in the bill H. R. 7785 which provides for an increase of 20 per cent. in the duty on scientific instruments and an increase of 30 per cent. on scientific glassware and in addition repeals section 573 of the tariff act of October 3, 1913, which allows for the duty free importation of such materials by educational institutions.

In view of the fact that the great mass of research in pure science is still carried on by men in our colleges and universities, an increase in the cost of scientific apparatus and equipment is especially to be deplored since even under the present arrangement of low duties and duty free import privileges, the funds at the disposal of our educational institutions are inadequate to provide for the most efficient teaching equipment or to allow for the most effective prosecution of research.

Therefore be it resolved: That the American Society of Zoologists, assembled in annual session, call the attention of Congress to the burden imposed upon the prosecution of educational and research work by the proposed repeal of the privilege of duty free importation of scientific apparatus, chemicals and glassware by educational institutions and respectfully request the continuance of this privilege in proposed tariff legislation.

The American Society of Zoologists also requests the restoration of the privilege of the duty free importation of single copies of scientific books in the English language by members of recognized educational and scientific institutions.

That copies of these resolutions be forwarded to the Congressional Committees concerned, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council and to the executive committee of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and given other proper publicity as the execu

tive committee of the American Society of Zoologists shall direct.

CONCERNING THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE

WHEREAS: The Ecological Society of America is engaged in attempting to secure the reservation of natural areas, i.e., reserves including the original flora and fauna in an undisturbed state, for research present and future. A standing committee has been listing and describing such areas desirable for reservation, during several years past. The society is now entering on a plan to unite the various groups interested in primeval areas, namely:

1. Investigators in biology, geography, history and art.

2. Sportsmen through their interest in game sanctuaries.

3. Ornithologists through their interest in bird refuges.

4. Wild flower lovers through their interest in primeval areas as seeding centers and preserves.

The purpose of such union of interest will be to secure the preservation of natural areas in state parks, forest preserves, etc., and to secure the creation of more such parks and forest preserves.

WHEREAS: The number of primeval preserves especially in the eastern states is wholly inadequate for either present or future research purposes and areas from which such preserves may be created are rapidly being destroyed.

Be it resolved: That the American Society of Zoologists indorses the efforts of the Ecological Society of America to secure reserves for research purposes and directs its secretary to forward a copy of this resolution to the division of Biology and Agriculture of the National Research Council.

And further resolved: That the president of the society be directed to appoint a delegate to the Parks Conference to be held in Des Moines, Iowa, January 10, 11 and 12, 1921, said delegate to represent the society in the interest of reserves of primeval conditions for zoological research.

A more complete report of the business transacted together with titles and abstracts of the papers presented and a revised list of members of the society will be found in the Anatomical Record for January, 1921. W. C. ALLEE, Secretary-Treasurer

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SCIENCE

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SAMUEL JAMES MELTZER1

DR. SAMUEL JAMES MELTZER was born in Curland, northwestern Russia, March 22, 1851. He received his preliminary education in a Real Gymnasium in Königsberg and his later training in the University of Berlin where he graduated in medicine in 1882. After taking his medical degree he decided to make his career in America, as the country which in his opinion had the best form of government. He had not sufficient means to make the journey and was therefore obliged to secure a position as ship's surgeon on one of the transatlantic vessels. On arriving in New York it was necessary in the beginning to devote his time mainly to building up a practise sufficient to support his family, but almost from the beginning he made arrangements also to give part of his time to research. From that period until his death on November 7, 1920, in his seventieth year he was a tireless investigator. When in the course of time the opportunity came to him from the Rockefeller Institute to give his time entirely to research he did not hesitate in making his decision. At a considerable financial sacrifice he abandoned his medical practise to devote himself to the kind of work that he most loved and most valued. By his good work and his high character he attained a position of honor and distinction in American medicine and endeared himself to his fellow-workers in all parts of the country. His productivity was remarkable. The list of his published papers includes over two hundred and forty titles, distributed among some forty-eight scientific journals of this country, Germany and England. These papers contain contributions to the subjects

1 Read before the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Chicago, December 28, 1920.

of physiology, pharmacology, pathology and clinical medicine together with a number of lectures and general addresses. That he was an investigator of recognized standing in these several branches of medicine and was regarded as a valued contributor to so many scientific journals of the first rank is a striking demonstration of the breadth of his interests and knowledge. He was a member of twenty or more national scientific or clinical societies and in all of them it may be said he was prepared to take his part as an expert in the reading and the discussion of technical papers.

He served as president of the American Physiological Society, the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, the American Gastro-enterological Society, the American Society for the Advancement of Clinical Research, the Association of American Physicians and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery. The membership in these societies is composed of trained specialists. It is their custom to choose as their presiding officer only those who have made contributions of distinction to the subject to which the society is devoted. It seems to me unique in the modern history of medicine for one man to have received such special recognition from technical workers in so many different fields.

While his activities covered this large range he was interested primarily in physiology. "I belong," he said in a recent paper "to those who believe . . . that the knowledge of physiology is of special importance to clinical medicine." His work in this field entitles him certainly to be ranked among the foremost American physiologists. In attempting to present some estimate of the results of his labors I must limit myself mainly to his physiological activity. Indeed in this subject alone his papers are so varied that it will be possible to bring under review only what seem to be his major contributions. His first appearance as an investigator is recorded in a brief note in the Proceedings of the Berlin Physiological Society, May 14, 1880. In this note it is stated that Professor Kronecker ex

hibited a dog in which Herr Cand. Med. Meltzer had cut the nerves going to the mylohyoid muscle and thus demonstrated the importance of this muscle in the initial stage of swallowing. At a later meeting of the society in the same year Kronecker presented the full results of an investigation carried out by Herr Cand. Med. Meltzer under his supervision on the "Process of Swallowing." This paper was published subsequently by Kronecker and Meltzer in the Monatsbericht der Königl. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1881. In this important contribution the mechanism of swallowing was given an entirely new interpretation which has since been generally accepted and is known as the Kronecker-Meltzer theory of deglutition. Meltzer had attracted Kronecker's attention while a student in his course. Out of this acquaintanceship developed an invitation to engage in a research and eventually a warm friendship between the two men that lasted throughout life. Meltzer's career was thus determined while still a student of medicine. Kronecker's influence attracted him to physiology and set his feet in the paths of research. The investigation in which they collaborated was important and original-just what part each contributed it is not now possible to discover, but it is interesting to find that this initial venture into research furnished a motif which can be detected recurring again and again in Meltzer's subsequent work. A companion paper upon "Die Irradiationen des Schluckcentrums und ihre Bedeutung" was published by Meltzer alone in 1883. It is a very suggestive paper on account of the careful analysis it contains of the far-reaching and curious effects in the central nervous system of the act of swallowing and also because in it Meltzer announces certain views upon the importance of the inhibitory processes which subsequently formed the basis of his theory of inhibition, and remained with him throughout life as a sort of compass by which to set his course on his voyages of discovery. He calls attention in this work to the fact that reflex excitation of the inspiratory muscles is accompanied by reflex in

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