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salt becomes microscopic in one place; while phosphorus at least three times shows its affinity for o by taking up this letter into its last syllable; but all of these are changes which occur frequently in the composing room, and are of minor importance. The reviewer would prefer the Latin to the hybrid spelling of sulfur, the name columbium to niobium throughout, and diatomaceous to infusorial earth (since there are no infusoria in it). He also does not believe that classification of minerals by their metals is less scientific than by their non-metals; but that every one does not agree on such matters is an advantage to science, and not a detriment to this book.
To sum up: Because of the excellent illustrations, the up-to-dateness, and the practical nature of the information furnished, there would seem to be room for this "Mineralogy" even in a somewhat crowded field.
EDGAR T. WHERRY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
ACID PRODUCTION BY A NEW SULFUR-OXIDIZING BACTERIUM
In a series of investigations on the oxidation of sulfur, which resulted in the isolation of a very strong sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, a striking fact has presented itself, namely, an intense oxidation of sulfur to sulfuric acid and a large accumulation of acids, even in the absence of neutralizing substances.
The organism is autotrophic, i.e., is able to derive its energy not from the decomposition of organic substances, but from the oxidation of sulfur, although the presence of organic substances is not detrimental to its activities. The carbon, necessary for the building up of its body substances, is derived from carbon dioxide of the air. In a medium entirely free from any traces of organic materials and carbonates and containing ammonium salts as sources of nitrogen and some inorganic minerals, the organism rapidly oxidizes sulfur into sulfuric acid; the latter acts upon neutralizing substances present in the medium (tricalcium-phosphate has been used chiefly)
transforming them into salts and acid salts; when all the neutralizing substances present have been used up, free acids begin to accumulate.
Free acidity was measured both by titration, using phenolphthalein as an indicator, and by the determination of the concentration of hydrogen ions, using the phonolsulfonephthalein series of indicators added to buffer solutions. For the determination of the highly acid solutions, tropaeolin 00, methyl-violet and mauvein were used and the results cheeked up by the electrometric method.
The following table is typical of the acid accumulation by the organism:
The titration does not give a true indication of the true acidity of the medium, and, although the culture, when 83 days old, was equivalent to 0.4 N acid by titration, the presence of large amounts of soluble phosphates in the medium would tend to diminish the actual free acids in the medium. But the РH value gives a true indication of the acid concentration of the medium. The highest concentration of acid ever reported for a living phenomenon was the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger, which reaches a Рí equivalent to 2.0-1.8 (Clark and Lubs1). The acidity produced by this sulfur-oxidizing organism, as expressed in terms of PH-0.58—is greater than that of any acidity ever reported for biologic phenomena.
THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
E. Emmet Reid, chairman
The oxidation of propylene glycol by means of alkaline potassium permanganate: W. L. EVANS, J. E. DAY and W. R. STEMEN.
The oxidation of isopropyl alcohol and acetone by means of alkaline potassium permanganate: W. L. EVANS and LILY BELL SEFTON.
The influence of alkali on the formation of vinyl alcohol from acetaldehyde: W. L. EVANS and C. D. LOOKER.
The solubility of dichloro-diethyl-sulfide in petroleum hydrocarbons and its purification by extraction with these solvents: THOMAS G. THOMPSON and HENRY O'DEEN.
Rearrangement of unsaturated acids: OLIVER KAMM and M. E. DREYFUS.
The reaction velocity of dealkylation of tertiary amines with acyl halides: OLIVER KAMM and W. F. DAY.
The alcoholysis of esters with amino alcohols: RUFUS M. KAMM.
Reactions of the arsines. Condensation of primary arsines with aldehydes: ROGER ADAMS and CHARLES SHATTUCK PALMER. Aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic aldehydes readily condense with phenyl arsine, when a few drops of hydrochloric acid are present, to give products consisting of two molecules of aldehyde and one of phenyl arsine. These substances are stable to water, dilute alkali and acid, and are probably represented by the structural formula given in the following equation:
2 RCHO+RASH,→RAS (CHOHR) 2. On the non-identity of a-eleosteric acid from tung oil with ordinary linolic acid: BEN. H. NICOLET. a-eleostearic acid is readily prepared from tung oil (China wood oil). On bromination in glacial acetic acid it is known to form a tetrabromide m. 115° which Lenkowitsch ("Oils, Fats and Waxes," Vol. I.) suggests is identical with linolic acid tetrabromide, m. 114°. A mixed melting point showed a lowering of 15°, so that the two are obviously different. Bromination of the eleostearic acid in ligroin leads to the formation of a dibromide, with altogether different properties.
Report on the progress of the manufacture of research organic chemicals: HANS T. CLARKE. present report covers the work of this department of the Eastman Kodak Company during its second year of activity. As was to be anticipated, the progress made has been very much greater than during the first year as regards both the number of chemicals available and quantities distributed. At the present time nearly 800 different chemicals are available, almost all of these being organic, the balance consisting of certain inorganic chemicals employed principally in organic work. Of these 800 substances, about 600 have been prepared in our laboratory, some by purification of materials technically available, but the majority by synthesis. Over 600 different preparations have been undertaken, almost all of which have ultimately been successful. In a certain number of instances more than one product is obtained, either as a byproduct or as an intermediate stage. A good deal of time is naturally now being spent upon the renewal of depleted stocks by methods which have already been developed in the laboratory, but the preparation of new compounds is still regarded as being a most important part of our work. Between 10 and 20 new chemicals are added to the list every month, and these are announced in the advertising columns of certain of the scientific periodicals. A file is kept of the names of materials for which inquiry is made, and this is constantly before us in the selection of new preparations. As soon as any chemical for which such inquiry has been made is available, the fact is made known to the party from whom the inquiry was received. It is in many cases difficult to decide whether or not a specific chemical should or should
not be prepared. A large number of inquiries are received for chemicals which we could never hope to furnish; in some instances, the preparations could be undertaken, but it is questionable whether the time devoted to working out the method and preparing a stock might not be better applied to some problem for which there is greater urgency. Our desire is to serve the research chemists of the United States, but to do this to best advantage it is necessary to consider the interest of the greatest number. We acknowledge with gratitude the continued support of the chemical manufacturers, who have supplied us not only with their regular products, but often with those which are available in quantities too small to place on the open market. The amount of chemicals sold continues to increase slowly but steadily, and the department is now almost selfsupporting. It is at present being transferred to new laboratories especially designed and erected for the work, and it is expected that greater efficiency will be possible than in the improvised laboratory where the work was begun.
The production of benzoic acid and benzophenone from benzene and phosgene: ROBERT E. WILSON and EVERETT W. FULLER.
The nature of the reactions of anilines upon nitrosophenol: CARLETON E. CURRAN and C. E. BOORD. Experimental evidence shows that the first reaction product between aniline and nitrosophenol is quinone phenylhydrazone. Dilution or neutralization of the reaction mixture converts this substance into its tantomer phenyl-azophenol. Subsequent action of aniline upon the quinonephenylhydrazone converts it into mono-anilino quinonephenylhydrazone, dianilino quinone and azophenine, in turn. The theory is proposed that the formation of indamines by the action of anilines upon nitrosophenol is due to the semidine rearrangement of quinone-phenylhydrazones.
Reduction of polynitrophenols by hydrogen sulphide in the presence of ammonia: L. CHAS. RAIFORD. In the preparation of starting material with which to test further the migration of acyl noted in a previous paper (Jour. Am. Chem. Soc., 41, 2068 (1919)), with a view to determining the effect of acid-forming substituents in the aminophenol 2, 4-dinitrophenol was reduced by hydrogen sulphide in the presence of ammonia in the usual way. Contrary to what has heretofore been reported, isomeric substances were obtained. Work is in progress to determine the effect of other substituents (compare Anschutz und Heusler, Ber., 19, 2161 (1886)).
The action of ammonia and substituted amines on allophanic ester: F. B. DAINS and E. WER
Hydrazoisopropane: H. L. LOCHTE and J. R.
A convenient method for preparing certain bromohydrins: J. B. CONANT and E. L. JACKSON. Addition reactions involving an increase in vaence of a single atom: J. B. CONANT.
New derivations of thymol and carvacrol: D. S. L. SHERK and EDWARD KREMERS. The quinhydrone hypothesis of plant pigments, as it grew out of the biochemistry of the Monardas, necessitated a revision of the underlying compounds. This study has been continued, especially along the line of intramolecular changes such as manifest themselves in connection with the nitroso compounds of the above mentioned phenols and their isonitroso rearrangement products.
The action of amines upon thymoquinone: NELLIE A. WAKEMAN and HARLAN G. GROFFMAN. Dimethylamidothymoquinone, prepared according to Zincke, yields a platinic chloride double salt containing 41 per cent. of platinum, corresponding to the union of one molecule of the base with two of acid platinic chloride. Thymoquinone treated with benzylamine, in alcoholic solution, yields dibenzylaminothymoquinone, with some mono-benzylaminothymoquinone. Thymoquinone with aniline, also with p-toluidine, under the same conditions, yields the di- derivative. No mono- derivatives have been isolated here. Thymoquinone with piperidine, under the same conditions, yields a pale purple crystalline derivative, the constitution of which has not yet been determined.
Organic mercury compounds of phenol: FRANK C. WHITMORE and E. B. MIDDLETON.
THE FUTURE OF MINERALOGY IN AMERICA1
THIS meeting is the culmination of repeated efforts extending over a period of more than one hundred years to band the mineralogists of America together and to maintain a journal devoted primarily to mineralogy and cognate sciences. Although our colleagues in England and France organized over forty years ago, in 1876 and 1878, respectively, we were unable to do so until a year ago. The past year has been primarily one of adjustment and development and of bringing the need of such an organization more strongly to the attention of those interested. It has also been a period during which our ideas of what the society should be have become somewhat clarified. The progress made has been most gratifying. We are now a going concern with some very tangible assets, and there are already strong assurances of a most influential future. As retiring president, I desire to discuss briefly some of the important phases in the development of mineralogy in America, and the various efforts made to organize a national society, and to found a journal; also to interpret, if possible, the function of mineralogy in our present-day educational and scientific programs and to indicate some probable lines of future development.
what Merrill characterizes as the first work on American geology although its title was distinctly mineralogical. I refer to Schoepf's Beitraege zur Mineralogischen Kenntniss von des Oestlichen Theils von Nord Amerika und seine Gebirge, which was published in Ger
An event of far-reaching importance upon the development of our science was the appointment in 1802 of Benjamin Silliman as professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and so forth in Yale University. This appears to have been the first college appointment for mineralogy in America. Silliman began his lectures at Yale in the fall of 1804, and two years later wrote a sketch of the "Mineralogy of New Haven," which was published in 1810 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Sciences. In those days mineralogy and geology had not been sharply differentiated, and mineralogy was commonly used as the more comprehensive term. Accordingly, this contribution by Silliman is commonly recognized as the first attempt at a geological description of a region. Mention must also be made here of the "Mineralogical Observations made in the Environs of Boston in 1807 and 1808," by S. Godon, and which were published in the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Interest in the subject was increasing rapidly so that in January, 1810, Dr. Archibald Bruce established the American Mineralogical Journal, the first American publication designed primarily for mineralogists and geologists. He was a native of New York City, having been born there in February, 1777. Although a physician by profession, Dr. Bruce was vitally interested in mineralogy. After completing his medical studies at the University of Edinburgh in 1800, he spent two years visiting important mineral localities and collections in England, France, Switzerland and Italy, so that when he returned to New York in the fall of 1803 to take up the practise of medicine he brought with him a mineral collection of great value. Dr. Bruce's biographer tells us that
the ruling passion in Dr. Bruce's mind was love of
natural science and especially of mineralogy. Toward the study of this science, he produced in his own country a strong impulse, and he gave it no small degree of eclat. His cabinet, composed of very select and well characterized specimens; purchased by himself, or collected in his own pedestrian or other tours in Europe, or, in many instances, presented to him by distinguished mineralogists abroad; and both in its extent, and in relation to the then state of this country, very valuable, soon became an object of much attention. That of the late B. B. Perkins, which, at about the same time had been formed by Mr. Perkins in Europe, and imported by him into this country, was also placed in New York and both cabinets contributed more than any causes had ever done before to excite in the public mind an active interest in the science of mineralogy.
Dr. Bruce manifested a strong desire to aid in bringing to light the neglected mineral treasures of the United States. He soon became a focus of information on these subjects. Specimens were sent to him from many and distant parts of the country, both as donations and for his opinion respecting their nature. In relation to mineralogy he conversed, he corresponded extensively, both with Europe and America; he performed mineralogical tours; he sought out and encouraged the young mineralogists of his own country, and often expressed a wish to see a journal of American mineralogy upon the plan of that of the School of Mines at Paris. This object, as is well known, he accomplished, and in 1810, published the first number of this work. Owing to extraneous causes, it was never carried beyond one volume; but it demonstrated the possibility of sustaining such a work in the United States, and will always be mentioned in the history of American science, as the earliest original purely scientific journal in America.
It is to be sincerely regretted that the failing health and early death of Bruce caused this journal to be so short-lived. Its continuation would have permitted the mineralogists of this country to have looked with pride upon the achievements of our early workers in this direction, for in Europe much progress in the founding of mineralogical journals had already been made. In France there was the Journal des Mines, founded in