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M. Klaproth found the gadalonite contain nearly one half of yttria, with some fiint, and a little oxyd of iron. The black mine of Szekeremb, in the Seven Mountains, is of a colour between brown and black, compact, sometimes veined, sometimes forming alternate strata with a red ore of manganese. Its aspect is semi-metallic ; its fracture unequal; grained and foliated in every direction. The fragments, in'o which it splits, are irregularly angular, but the angles are seldom obtuse. When scratched, it is yellow, verging on green, moderately hard, smooth to the touch, its a specific gravity 3.9.5. It consists chiefly of manganese, oxydulated by an excess of carbonic acid.
We shall conclude our article at present with the account of the cryolite, one of the newest and most interesting discoveries of mineralogy, and of umber, a substance little known, though much employed by painters. The cryolite was found in Greenland, and received from Copenhagen, some time since, in a small quantity. Professor Abilgard undertook to analyse, it, and found it composed of fluoric acid and alumine—an unexpected combination, of which nature furnished hitherto no example.
Its external form, viz. its crystal, is hitherto unknown : colour grey, or a clear white; fracture longitudinal, parallel to its axis, less brilliant. In each direction the brilliancy is glassy. The fractures are foliated, and divided at right angles, but unequal in other directions. The cryolite is splendid, in cubic pieces, semi-transparent, tender, and sufficiently soft to the touch, very brittle, and of a specific gravity about 2.95. Exposed to the blow-pipe, it forms an opaque white bubble, and then loses its fusibility, and resembles an earth strongly calcined. Cryolite is not, therefore, its proper appellation. One hundred parts were found to contain forty of fluoric acid, with the water of crystallisation ; thirty-six of soda, and twenty-six of alumine : 0.08 are lost.
The ancient mineralogists gave the name of umber to a brown earthy powder. It consisted of a brown coaly earth, capable of being converted to cinders. For this reason, Cronstedt called it mumia vegetalis, and Wallerius, humus umbra. The true umber is, however, incombustible, and is an ore of iron. Santi found it to contain 0.53 of iron, with 0.24 of alumine, 0.19 of Aint, and 0.04 of magnesia. This analysis is, however, evidently erroneous; and M. Klaproth examined the umber of Cyprus, which externally resembles that which is known in commerce by the name of fine Turkey umber, and is equally useful for the painter. Its external characters are, therefore, sufficiently known. He found 100 parts to contain fortys eight of oxyd of iron ; twenty of oxyd of manganese ; thirteen of Aint ; five of alumine ; and fourteen of water.
(To be continued.) APP, Vol.33.
ART. VII.--Ileliogabale, ou Esquisse morale de la Dissolution
Romaine, &c. Paris. Heliogabalus, or a moral Sketch of the Dissolution of Rome
under the Emperors. 8vo. Imported by De Boffe. • PAINTERS,' says the writer of this publication, willingly place a monster of Ethiopia by the side of a beautiful woman : it is thus the hideous features of Heliogabalus become a foil to the pure form of Alexander Severus. In the picture we here present as a moral dsamia, vice is punished and virtue triumphs.' This moal drama is given in a series of letters, supposed to have been written by the chief characters who are introduced into it; and, in general, these characters are fairly preserved. In reality, the writer had little occasion for violating them in any instance, the outrageous and unrivalled criminality of Heliogabalus, on the one hand, and the benevolence and virtue of Alexander Severus on the other, affording him from nature alone a sufficiency of materials to answer every purpose, without having recourse to the contributions of his own fancy. With the history of these princes most of our readers must necessarily be acquainted; yet a short reference to it may refresh their memories, and enable them to enter more satisfactorily into the novel before us. The brief outline we thus present, we shall select from Herodian and Dio Cassius. Upon the death of the emperor Caracalla, Macrinus, who succeeded him, banished from the Roman court the princesses Julia and Mæsa-the mother and aunt of the former-as persons dangerous to his authority, from their insinuating and popular talents. Niosa retired to Emesa in Phoenicia, with her two daughters, Julia Soæmis, and Julia Mamæa. Of these daughters, each had a son--that of the former, who was the elder by about four years, was named Varius Avitus Hassianus, and that of the latter, Alexianus. Both these grandchildren Mæsa consecrated to the Sun, the chief deity of the inhabitants of Emesa ; and to whom, under the title of Eleagabalus, they had erected a magnificent temple. Thus consecrated, Bassianus, the elder, when at the age of about fourteen, was appointed pontiff of the solar deity, and was hence, himself, denominated Eleagabalus, or more generally Heliogabalus. This temple being at one time situated but at a short distance from the camp of Macrinus, his soldiers were in the habit of paying frequent visits to it; and Næsa, perceiving that the graceful person and elegant demeanouk of her grandson had captivated the Roman army, improved the opportunity that was presented, boasted of his near relation to the late emperor Caracalla, of her own immense wealth, and added, that she would amply enrich every one who would espouse his causę. The Stratagem succeeded; the standard of revolt was erected. : Heliogabalus was declared emperor; and Macrinus, shortly afterwards, fell a sacrifice. We shall not pursue this abandoned prince through the career of vice, debauchery, and profligacy, which he almost instantly commenced ; it is enough to observe, that, about three years after his elevation to the imperial dig, nity, at the express desire of Mcsa, who foresaw that the Rom mans would not much longer endure his criminalities, he adopted his cousin Alexianus, then only about thirteen years of age, as his successor ;, who in consequence assumed, with great pomp, the name of Alexander Severus: a step, however, which Heliogabalus soon afterwards repented of; and gave full proof of such repentance by repeated attempts to murder him. In all these he was unsuccessful; and, in less than twelve months after he had adopted him, evincing the same diabolical disposition, was slain by the enraged soldiery, and Alexander declared emperor in his stead.
The draina before us (as our author denominates it) commences at the time when Heliogabalus, having been raised to the imperial dignity, was indulging himself in every species of excess, and even bestiality. It opens with the following note from Mamæa to Ulpian, a celebrated civilian, who flourished at this period, and a part of whose labours are generally conceived to have enriched the Theodosian code.
• The shame and misfortunes of Rome have reached their height. Read, sagacious Ulpian.
This note incloses two letters, which had been put into her possession by Cynisca, a confidential domestic, who had received them from Gordius, a detester of such practices; and which develop, in glowing colours, much of the dissolute and scandalous depravity of the emperor, of which a considerable portion might have been merely glanced at, and not mi. nutely detailed, without any loss either of general interest or delicacy. The cause of virtue and morality is, however, through the whole of the history, pointedly espoused, and warmly supported. As a contrast to the above disgusting picture, we shall select the following letter from Ulpian to Sylvinus, a fictitious character, but represented as the worthy tutor of Alexian. The former had received from the latter a treatise of his own, on the principles of the young prince's education.
How happy are you, my dear Sylvinus ! you escape, by thinking, from the horrors which surround us : you envelop yourself in your principles; you take refuge in literature. While the storm roars round us on every side, you cultivate in peace this young plant entrusted to your care, and under the shadow of which we must one day repose. You open its flow. ers, you prepare its fruits. You create an avenger, a prop for humanity, under the very eye of her most cruel enemy, Alei. ian shall be the consolation and the delight of the world, of which Heliogabalus is now the reproach and terror. That which the senate, that which the people of Rome are no longer able to accomplish for themselves, thanks to your guidance, a young hero shall execute. He is the only man whom I can trace out in the midst of a host of slaves. He has drawn from the study of the Greek writers, whom you have committed to him, this premature magnanimity which promises us an Epaminondas. He will unite with it the soul of a Cato.—With avidity have I just devoured the treatise you have composed for him.' This treatise on the Augustal institution is a subject ala together new. You have concentrated, as in a luminous focus, all the multitudinous rays of that philosophy to which we owe our Trajans and our Marcus-Aureliuses. You have selected, purified, embellished the maxims of the Athenian and Roman moralists. You have done for political, what I have done for civil law. You have reduced the science of princes to a small number of axioms founded on the purest reason, and whose results are fertile and immense. Perhaps the whole might yet be reduced to a single word to will what is good. He who wills, performs.--I am going to communicate, or rather to present this treatise to the august Mamza, since you have given me permission. She has a soul in unison with your own. Its principles are by no means new to her. Let us confirm her in this purity of sentiment. 'Let us multiply barriers around her, at whose foot the corruption by which she is encircled must fall without reaching her.-O! my dear Sylvinus ! Mamæa is at present virtuous. If, on some future day, the intoxication of power (alas! what numbers has it not corrupted !) should deprave the severity of her manners, I will recall her to herself by making her re-peruse your writings. Do not let us deceive ourselves, Sylvinus: the epoch in which Alexian must be raised to the empire cannot be distant. By what means I know not: for we have reached that point whence we cannot be rescued from tyranny but by herseif. At this epoch, believe me, it will be the skilful Mamæa, who, in conjunction with Mæsa, will hold the reins of government. Alexian is extremely young; and respect for his mother is the prime virtue she has inculcated on him.-Thanks to your philosophic conversations, to the virtuous counsels of respectable senators; thanks to their own principles, we have nothing but what is great to expect from these illustrious women. Nevertheless let us watch; and foster from time to time the fruitful seed implanted in their bo som..Your treatise is a lesson still more useful to the mother than to the son. Never may she wander from the principles of wisdom it contains !! * Thus educated, 'wo already pre-conceive much of the cha
racter of Alexian: it is delineated at full length in Letter VII. from Sylvinus to Mamæa.
'I, first of all,' says he, 'pause to contemplate those exterior traits, that physiognomy which reveals the secret dispositions of the soul-never was there a form more deeply imprinted * with the sacred character of virtue than that of my pupil. Benevolence unites with austerity on his countenance it is the happy alliance of vigour and grace. His eyes glisten with active fire, humanity breathes (respire) on his forehead, and tranquillity in his smile. His make is tall, well formed, and robust, his attitude firm and masculine; and, what is more striking still, under this severe but tempered appearance he conceals a mind the most soft, a heart the most tender, He, in some measure, resembles the gods whom we begin with fearing, and finish with adoring.-His memory is prodigious, and ever present; his vivacity, though extreme, is well moderated; nothing can equal his penetration. To all these gifts of body and mind, he adds that which still embellishes and augment: them--a sensible heart; the life of the meanest citizen will ever be sacred to him ; he will govern by clemency.-These qualities, which he has received from nature, he has developed by philosophy: he is already familiar with that of the Grecks our masters in ethics, as well as in the arts, and who first founded politics on the basis of justice. It is on this account, perhaps, that Alexian prefers their idioms and their · authors. 'In effect, he is less skilful in the Latin than in the - Greek tongue; either that the former ravishes by its native charms, by its perpetual elegance, by its richness, by its flexibility, by its everlasting harmony; or, that he prefers conversing with the great men of Athens and of Sparta still living in their works, to the degenerate successors of those of Rome. He has, moreover, pur into verse the chief events of their lives. The study of the polite arts attempers these sublime meditations : from the example of Themistocles and Epaminondas, Alexian has cultivated music; yet with a suppression which I cannot but approve, he has never exercised thiş talent but in his private apartments; he never parades with it on the public theatre, like our comic emperors. Instructed in the art of our Apelles and our Euclids, like our ancient chieftains, he already studies çountenances and prospects, as well as drawş plans. The science of numbers, indispensable in the military art, is not less so in the cabinet. He will learn to discriminate, to analyse, to estimate all the elements of the real grandeur of states, elements concerning which we are so often deceived, for want of
* In the original, plus éminemment empreinte, . more prominently imprinted or er. graven de phrascology for which we thought the Irish bad obtained an exclusive patent,