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advanced with far more strength of colouring in the different copies, than in the original. He next inquires, Is it not extraordinary that so detestable a charge should remain altogether unnoticed by every one of the various other authors, who at different epochs have written the life of Las Casas in a more or less detailed form ? He observes, that the contemporaries of Las Casas, both friends and enemies, John de Solorzano, Davilla Padilla, Solis, Sandoval, Laet, and Torquemada, speak equally of him in their diverse histories and descriptions, but without accusing hin: that Gamilla, Thomas Gage, Alvarez Nunez, and many other authors contemporary with Herrera, speak of negroes, but without ever coupling them with Las Casas : and that, more especially in the celebrated conference, which, by order of the Spanish government, was held at Valladolid, in 1550, between Las Casas and his antagonist Sepulveda, in which the latter contended that it was just to make war against the Indians, in order to convert them; and the former refuted him upon the principles of toleration and liberty in favour of the entire race of mankind-principles which had obtained the solemn approbation of the universities of Alcala and Salamanca Sepulveda, who was well versed in polemic warfare, would never have suffered such an inconsequent and contradictory defence to have fallen from the lips of Las Casas, without exposing its absurdity, if, in reality, he had ever expressed a wish to enslave the negroes, and submit them to the Americans. Finally, our memoirist proceeds to prove, that the doctrine and practice attributed to that benevolent ecclesiastic are expressly contradictory to his own writings. Here, however, we pora ceive some deficiency: it is true, the worthy prelate expresses the most vehement indignation against enslaving his favourite American Indians, and intcrdicts, from communion with his own church, every one who engaged in so unchristian a traffic; but he is silent upon the subject of African negroes; and we have much reason for believing that he distinguished between blacks and whites, and did not oppose the slave trade in the former, although he strenuously resisted it in the latter. Upon the whole, however, this, so far as it extends, is an able, and a learned vindication of Las Casas from an imputation which has unjustly attached to his character.
• IV. Memoir on the Code of Alaric, by M. Bouchard.' -The barbarous nations which, issuing from the west, dismembered the Roman empire, as, for example, the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, the Visigoths, the Franks, and the Lombards, so far exhibited moderation in the midst of their conquests, as that they suffered the subjected Romans to be governed by the Roman law. It was hence that Alaric II, king of the Visigoths, son of Enric, and successor to him in the year 489 of the Christian ära, ordained, in 506, the arrangement of a code of Roman laws in favour of such Romans as bad become his subjects. This compilation was an abridgement of the Gregorian, the Hermogenian, and Theodosian codes, of the institutes of Caius, the decisions of Paul, and the replies of Passianus. The code of Alaric, sometimes denominated Cors pus Theodosianum, sometimes Lex Romana, and sometimes Breviarium Animi, continued in use till the reign of Chindovind, who proscribed it by an express constitutional act in the seventh century. The object of M. Bouchard is to prove, first, that Anianus, whose breviary this celebrated code is occasionally denominated, by no means composed any part of it; and that, instead of having been the compiler, he was nothing more than the licentiate or superintendant of the copies that were made from the original work. In corroboration of which idea, he quotes, at some length, from the prolegomena of Jacobus Godfrey, who asserts, on the contrary, that this famous compilation was the work of count Gojaric-an idea, nevertheless, that our author opposes, as pointedly as the surmise that it was produced by Anianus. Leaving it, however, altogether uncertain by whom the work was edited, M. Bouchard proceeds to a more particular consideration of the various writings of which it consisted, the names of whose authors are sufficiently specificated in the compilation itself. Thus, at its very commencement, and before the commonitorium, we meet with the following assertion :- In hoc opere continentur leges, sive species juris de Theodosiano et diversis libris selectæ ;' and, as a general clue to the expression diversis libris, we meet with the following title to the first law in the code :- De responsis prudentum. Ex Gregoriano, Hermogeniano, Caio, Papiano, et Paulo, quæ necessaria causis præsentium temporum videbantur elegimus. Of the civilians here enumerated, Papianus and Paulus were appointed contemporary judges under the emperors Septimus Severus and Antoninus Caracalla. Of the two, Paulus appears to have been in higher repute, or at least in higher favour, having, in most cases of controverted opinion, carried the point against his collegue. Gregorius or Gregorianus--for his name is written both ways--was contemporary with Constantine, and in his code collected the constitutions of the preceding emperors, from the time of Adrian. Shortly after the code of Gregorius appeared that of Hermogenianus, whose date is uncertain, but who is placed by our present memoirist, with much probability of truth, under Constantine, and the princes his sons: his code exhibits marks of particular attention to the constitutions of Dioclesian, and his collegues, in
investigating which, he appears to have been more minute than : Gregorius. The civilian Caius or Gaius is said to have fouTished in the reign of Adrian; and it is well known that Theodosius compiled his code in the year 435 of the Christian æra.
We now proceed to vol. IV. of Physical and Mathematical Sciences—a volume which will not rank very high among the scientific publications of the learned societies; and, as we have already had occasion to remark, we regret the loss of many distinguished authors. We think, however, that, on the whole, the work improves: but much further improvement is wanting, before the Institute' can rival the Academy.'
The first subject, as usual, is the prizes: the proposal, in the former volume, has obtained no success, though the inquiry was a valuable one; viz. An anatomical Comparison of the Liver in different Animals. It is now, therefore, superseded by another; viz. · The Cause and the Appearances of the Torpor of Animals during Winter. A list of the memoirs which merit publication among the labours of learned foreigners, is next added; and it is followed by the machines, inventions, &c. approved by the class, and a catalogue of the works presented to it in the years 7 and 8. An observation, communicated by C. Aurejac, we must add in the original tongue.
Une petite fille de quatre ans, qui depuis dix mois éprouve périodiquement l'écoulement menstruel, comme l'éprouveroit une fille arrivée à l'age de puberté, tant pour la quantité que pour la qualité.?
The lives styled Notices historiques' are those of MM. Heritier, Gilbert, and Darcet, by M. Cuvier; and of J.C. Borda, by M. Lefevre Gineau. On these we cannot enlarge.
The first memoir is entitled, “Monography * of the Genus Tilia, the Linden Tree.'--Linnæus was acquainted only with the European and American tilia : Miller divided the latter into two species—the American, described by Linnæus, and the Carolinian, described by Catesby. The author of this memoir, M. Ventenat, the able editor of Jussieu's Systéme Végétale, has extended our views, and given a very clear and particular ac. count of the different species of tilia, illustrated with plates. The tilia Europæa, with naked petals, is divided into two spe. cies—the · T. microphylla,' and 'T. Platyphyllos.' They certainly resemble each other greatly; yet perhaps merit the distinction they have received by the separation. The tiliæ of America are the T. glabra, Americana L., the T. pubescens Caroliniana of Miller, and the T. rotundifolia, the alba of Aiton. This last species is newer, and very particularly described. A judicious account of the appearance, and the uses to which the linden-tree is applied, are subjoined.
* The word “monography' is not common in English. 'I he author, whose aften ion is confined to one gunus, is termed a ' monograpbist;' and his work is of course styled • Monography.' Among butanis's, the term is generally understood.
" II. An Enquiry into the Integration of partial differential Equations, and of the Vibration of Surfaces, by M. Biot.'_This memoir is very extensive and recondite: it admits not of analysis : but the object of the second part, the vibration of surfaces, may require explanation. It relates to sounds like those of a drum; and our author confirms the doctrine of Euler, who considers the drum as composed of strings crossing each other at right angles. Having ascertained the nature of their vibrations, he lessens the distance indefinitely, to attain the end proposed. This, however, is but a partial view of the question; and the vibration of musical glasses, and of the trumpet, will require a more varied and extensive research, which neither Eu. ler nor the present author has sufficiently engaged in.
• III. Memoir on the Analysis of human urinary Calculi, and on the different Substances of which they are composed, by MM. Fourcroy and Vauquelin.' We have often had' occasion to notice the subject, and in part the contents, of the memoir before us, but in the more concise form of an abstract. It was, till of late, supposed, even by the best chemists, that urinary calculi consisted only of phosphat of lime, and of uric acid; perhaps also of animal matter. To these ingredients the acuteness of the present authors soon enabled them to add an ammoniaco-magnesian phosphat, which forms a large part of the bulk of the enormous calculi, which scarcely admit of being extracted. This salt is sometimes unadulterated; sometimes mixed with either or both of the other ingredients. The mulberry-form calculi also afforded a singular ingredient, whose existence in human urinary calculi had been denied; viz. lime, generally combined with the oxalic acid; and this, with animal matter, appeared to form their chief substance. The source of this acid leads our authors to some inquiries, whether it may be taken in with the food, or be generated in the system. If it exist in the urine, it will decompose the phosphat of lime, and form a more solid calculus. It appears, however, exclusively in the bladder; for the renal calculi consist always of uric acid; and it would merit an inquiry, whether the uric may not be a peculiar form of the oxalic.
In the seventy-fourth calculus, which our authors analysed, they found another unsuspected substance; viz. a very fine finty earth, coloured with animal matter, and mixed with some particles of phosphat of lime. The fint was found of a yellow grey or a yellow brown colour, covering a moriform nucleus, and surmounted with laminæ of the usual nature. The animal matter, in the writer's opinion, is a peculiar substance, but can by no means be considered as the cement, since its quantity is too inconsiderable, and the crystalline form of the ammoniaco-magnesian phosphat is what it would assume with. out the animal matter. Our author's observations on the latter substance, in other calculi, we shall transcribe,
• Our opinion of the existence of the animal matter in the mulberry-form calculi is different. Our experiments are not yet sufficiently advanced ; but we have already found that it is by no means the same as in those calculi which consist of the earthy phosphats. It is in a larger proportion, constituting about one seventh of the whole ; is not, as in the latter, analogous to albumen or jelly, but approaches rather to a peculiar animal extract hitherto little known, but which we have discovered in the urine, as we shall soon show. The animal matter of the mulberry calculi is brown, flocculent, granulated, deliquescent, affording the smell of garlick when burnirig. We have already discovered that this highiy animalised substance contributes to give a form to the solid eburnean (ivory-like) consistence of the moriform calculi,'since, on solution in weak muriatic acid, its fragments leave in the fluid a soft brownish substance, preserving the original figure, though so soft as to yield to the pressure of the fingers.'
Water is often a copious ingredient in common calculi, amounting to a third of the weight. The memoir concludes by reflexions the most consoling and best founded, viz. that the nature of all these concretions is such as to admit of their solution by substances which may be injected into the bladder without injury; and M. Fourcroy adds such remarks as will lead to the most probable conjecture respecting the nature of the calculus, and, of course, the choice of the injection. These remarks, however, can only be read with advantage in the me. moir itself.
We must step forward to the continuation of this subject in the latter part of the volume, where we find two memoirs (on the chemical and medical History of the human Urine, containing some new Facts respecting its Analysis and spontaneous Change,' by the same authors.
In the first of these memoirs, M. Fourcroy is, as usual, dif. fuse and wordy; yet his remarks are valuable and important. The paper contains an account of the human urine, and its con. stituent parts, as obtained by spontancous decomposition, and explains the successive evolution of the different substances. The proportion of ammonia continues to increase without lie mits; the uncombined phosphoric acid is saturated with it; and the proportion of ammoniacal phosphat augments, with which the phosphat of magnesia combines, forming the triple salt before mentioned, whose crystals are prismatic. The uric acid is checked in its separate precipitation, and combined with the ammonia, which is precipitated with the earthy phosphats.
The acetous and benzoic acids find the same alkali, so that they never appear separate. The muriat of soda, in the urine, unites with the colouring matter, so that this decomposition