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phænomena depending on them, the effects of harmony, explanation and comparison of ancient and modern music, description of musical instruments, the properties of each, &c. all which are detailed in a manner at once engaging and explicit.
The third volume comprehends astronomy, and the astronomical part of geography; chronology; gnomonics, or dialling; navigation ; architecture; and pyrotechny, or the art of making artificial fire-works. On all these subjects, except chronology, the work of Ozanam has been very much altered and amended: the article on astronomy is enlarged and corrected : those on dialling, navigation, and architecture, comprising the general principles and the most useful information on the subjects they relate to, are chiefly original, having been supplied by M. Montucla himself.
The fourth volume is devoted almost entirely to physics, or natural philosophy, in all its branches. Here we have, in the first place, an accurate statement of the best known properties of fire, air, water, and earth; to which succeed experiments on air, and hydraulic recreations; the history of thermometers, barometers, and hygrometers, with the method of constructing them; an account of air-pumps, water-pumps, siphons, and fountains ; observations on the divisibility of matter, the tenuity of light, of odours, &c.; particulars respecting comets; explanation and history of intermittent springs ; phænomena of ice, methods of producing it, &c. &c. These are followed by a treatise or dissertation on the magnet; one on electricity; and one on chemistry ; in which these subjects are handled with as much ability as appeared to be possible within such limits as correspond to the other departments of the work.
To this volume are added two supplements, the first of which treats of the different kinds of phosphorus, both natural and artificial; and the other of the pretended perpetual lamps, of which an historical account is given, and an exposure of the chimerical principles on which the pretension is founded.
From this volume we make the following extract, on the luminous appearance of the sea.
Though navigators must have observed this phenomenon for ma. ny centuries past, as it is common to every sea, and there is scarcely any climate where it does not, under certain circumstances, present itself, it appears that very little attention has been paid to it lill with. in a late period. Most sea-faring people believed, that this light was merely the reflection of that of the stars, or that of the vessel itself; others, considering it as a real light, imputed it to the collision of sulphur and salts; and, satisfied with this vague explanation, they scarcely condescend to pay attention to the phenomenon. As it is highly worthy of profound research, and is attended with very remarks
able circumstances, we shall here give a description of it, as it appear. ed to us on our passage from Europe to Guyana, in the year 1764.
! I do not recollect that we beheld the sea luminous till on arrival between the tropics ; but at that period, and some weeks before we reached land, I almost constantly observed that the ship's wake was interspersed with a multitude of luininous sparks, and so much the brighter as the darkness was more perfect. The water round the rud. der was, at length, entirely brilliant ; and this light extended, gradually diminishing, along the whole wake. I remarked, also, that if any of the ropes were immersed in the water, they produced the same effect.
. But it was near land that this spectacle appeared in all its beauty. It blew a fresh gale, and the whole sea was covered with small waves, which broke, after having rolled for some time. When a wave broke, a flash of light was produced; so that the whole sea, as far as the eye could reach, seemed to be covered with fire, alternately kindled and extinguished. This fire, in the open sea, that is at the distance of fifty or sixty leagues from the coasts of America, had a reddish cast. Í have made this remark, because I do not know that any person ever examined the phenomena which I am about to describe.
When we were in green water *, the spectacle changed. The same fresh gale continued; but in the night time, when steering an easy course between third and fourth degree of latitude, the fire above described assumed a form entirely white, and similar to the light of the inoon, which at that time was not above the horizon. The upper part of the small waves, with which the whole surface of the sea was curled, seemed like a sheet of silver ; while on the preceding evening it had resembled a sheet of reddish gold. I cannot express how much I was amused and interested by this spectacle.
" The following night it was still more beautiful; but at the sanie time more alarming, in consequence of the circumstances under which I then found myself. The ship had cast anchor at a considerable distance from the land, waiting for the new moon, in order to enter the harbour of Cayenne. Being anxious to get on shore, I stepped into the boat with several other passengers ; but scarcely had we got a league from the ship, when we entered a part of the sea where there was a prodigious swell, as a pretty smart gale then prevailed at southeast. We soon beheld tremendous waves, rolling in our wake, and breaking over us. But what a noble spectacle, had we not been exposed to danger. Let the reader imagine to himself a sheet of silver, a quarter of a league in breadth, expanded in an instant, and sbining with a vivid light. Such was the effect of these billows, two or three of which only reached us, before they broke. This was a fortunate
1. The water of the sea, at least of the Atlantic Ocean, at a distance from the coasts, is of a dark-blue colour; but near land, that is to say, twenty or twenty-five leagues from the coast of Guyana, the water suddenly changes its colour, and becomes a beautiful green. This is a sign of being near land. This change, in all probability, is produced by the muddy, yellowish water of the river of the Amazons; for it is well known that blue and yellow form green. But a remarkable circumstance is, that this change is absolutely abrupt; it does not take place by degrees, but suddenly, and in an interval which appeared to me, from the deck of the vessel, to be scarcely a foot in extent'
circumstance, for they left the boat half filled with water, and one more, by rendering nie a prey to the sharks, would certainly have saved me from the trouble of new-modelling the work of the good M. Ozanam.
. There is scarcely a sea, in which the phenomenon of this light is not sometimes observed; but there are certain parts where it is much more luminous than in others. In general, it is more so in warm countries, and between the tropics, than any where else; it is remarkably luminous on the coasts of Guyana, in the environs of the Cape Verd Islands, near the Maldives and the coasts of Malabar, where, according to M. Godehen de Riville, it exhibits a spectacle very much like that above described.
" A phenomenon so surprising could not fail to excite the attention of philosophers; but till lately they confined themselves to vague explanations; they ascribed it to sulphur, to nitre, and other things, of which there is not a single atom in the sea, and they then imagined that they had reasoned well. Vol. iv. P. 461.
The causes here assigned for these appearances are certain insects upon the water, which become luminous by agitation, and phosphoric matter produced in the sea by a peculiar combination of the principles it contains. The existence of each of these has unquestionably been separately ascertained by persons who, at different times, have made microscopic and che mical observations on portions of the luminous water of the sea; but the phænomenon yet requires investigation, and has not been completely accounted for.
In various parts of these volumes are inserted a great number of extensive and useful tables, relating to measures and weights, compared with the British standard-specific gravities--latitudes and longitudes- itinerary measures-eclipsesdegrees of heat or cold at which different substances melt or congeal--dilatation of metals-heights of places and mountains, &c.-all accommodated, where necessary, to the habits and convenience of the English reader.
To the first volume are prefixed short sketches of the lives and writings of Montucla and Ozanam.
Such are the general outlines of the performance now before us; a performance which, we confess, has afforded us more pleasure and instruction than we had anticipated from a perusal of the title. From the multifarious nature of the work, the analysis we have given must of necessity be defective: an adequate knowledge of its contents can only be acquired by consulting the Recreations themselves, which we recommend to the man of science for the purpose of amusement and recollection, as well as that of showing him to what an amazing variety of objects his principles may be applied with success; and to the general reader, as a comprehensive storehouse from which his mind may at any time be furnished with information, either useful, curious, or entestaining.
ART. VII.-The Pleader's Guide, a didactic Poem, in trio
Books, containing the Conduct of a Suit at Law, with the Arguments of Counsellor Bother'um, and Counsellor Bore'um, in an Action betwirt John-a-Gull, and John-a-Gudgeon, for Assault and Battery, at a late contested Election, Book II. 8vo.' 45. 6d. sewei. Cadell and Davies. 1802.
THE first book of this facetious poem appeared in the year 1796.' "The second part,' its author, the younger Mr. Anstey, humourously remarks, 'is now published, after an interval of delay, by no means ill adapted to the true genius and character of the subject.' Although the practice of reviewing essentially differs from the usages of pleading, yet even the courts of criticism occasionally admit a dilatory plea. Constrained by circumstances, we, too, have yielded to this spirit of procrastination.
With a warmth of applause which genuine merit must ever awaken, we received, on its first introduction, the PLEADER's Guide*. Fie returns to enliven us, by the same exquisite combination of sprightly ridicule and professional acuteness.
The earlier lectures of Mr. Surrebutter initiated his readers into that strange and mysterious learning, which relates to the process or manner of commencing a suit at law. The pleadings, or routine of subsequent proceedings from the process to the trial, and the conduct of the trial itself, are comprehended in ten additional lectures, which, with consummate skill and humour, complete the poem.
Although the technical language which his subject necessarily requires, may partially obscure the taste and lively wit of the poet, yet few readers will be insensible to his pleasant raillery, of which we shall extract numerous specimens.
We begin with a eulogium on legal diction, and the blessings of legal confusion.
· Melodious as Apollo's lute
* In our 19th vol. New Arr. p. 284.
Sİ Declarution—or tale containing the story of the plaintiff's case, see book I, lect. 8.
of Double plea--a plea is the defendant's answer to the plaintiff's declaration, and is either general or special. A double plea, is in the nature of two distinct answers to the plaintiff's allegation : originally it was required that every plea should be certain and single. A double plea was not allowed to be good, nor the defendant permitted to plead two distinct matters, till the 4th and 5th Ann, c. 16, by which statute the defendant is allowed to make the most of his case, by pleading, with the leave of the court first had and obtained, which form of words is uniformly so expressed in the plea) as many distinct matters, as may be advisable and necessary to his defence. This wholesome statute may be considered as the foster-father of all special pleading.
• Replication is the plaintiff's answer, or exception to the defendant's plea.'
What a revenue to the state
Or senseless block to work upon.' P. 24. The pacific attorney, who dares decline to cheat in lawful mysteries,” is deprecated with indignant heat.
· Perish the man who dares control
• Are these true'orthodox attornies ?
« * “ Turkish moriar."-Extraordinary as it may appear, it is a fact not to be doubted, that the lawyers in Turkry when sentenced to capital punishment, have the privilege of being pounded to death in a mortar. Baron de Tots in his Menoirs, records an event that happened during his residence at Consta:tinople, which occasiuned the pesa tles and mortars to be dug up, by the order of Sultan 0..1140, for the purpose of pound. ing the refractory lawyers to death. “This order,'' the baron adds, “bad the desired ef. fect, and the body of Ulemats were all submission.” Bar. de Tott Memoirs, vol. I.'