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faulty and more intelligible than it has hitherto appeared. At the end of this advertisement, I quote some of the numerous passages where I have endeavoured to rescue Dryden's lines from the obscurity or nonsense in which they had before been enveloped by typographic inaccuracy. I leave to the reader, whose curiosity may prompt him to compare this with the preceding editions, to discover a much greater number, which, for brevity's sake, I omit to notice. Nor shall 1as policy might perhaps dictate, if I were inclined to magnify petty minutiæ, and claim great praise for small services --select first the grosser blunders, to stand prominent at the head of the phalanx, and morc forcibly to arrest the reader's attention. I rather choose to consult his ease and accommodation, by placing them in regular order, as they successively occur in the course of the work, for the sake of faci. litv in referring to them, if he should be so disposed, as he proceeds through the volumes. Neither do I intend (except in one or two instances, where indispensably necessary) to notice any of the much more copious crop of errors which have successively sprouted forth in subsequent editions, without being directly propagated from that of 1098: for, whoever will take the trouble of examination, may easily reap a plentiful harvest of them without my assistance; and it is sufficient for me to observe, in general, that every error of the second edition has been preserved uncorrected in the third, the fourth, &c. &c. to the end of the list.
• To quiet the scruples of the English reader, who may perhaps be surprised to find some of the proper names spelled in a manner different from that to which he has hitherto been accustomed, be it observed that I have, throughout the work, adopted the orthography of the learned and accurate professor Heyne, wherever I found it practicable. In acting thus, I do not conceive that I have taken any li. berty with Dryden, much less an improper liberty: and so far was I from venturing to alter or even transpose a single word of bis, that, rather than attempt it, I have suffered some names to pass which are materially wrong, as E:ymanthus for Erymas (Æn.ix, 950), Iolas for
Eõlus (xii, 769), Phyllis for Galatea (Past. iii, 97), Aunus for the anonymous son of Aunus (En. xi, 1034), Clymë ne for Clymène (Geo. iv, 489), Thermodon for Thermodon (Æn, xi, 956),
. In the Latin quotations with which Dryden has interspersed his prefaces and notes, I have occasionally been obliged to differ from him, because the text which he used was not every-where so correct as that of ihe present day; and, besides, quoting sometimes from memory, he gave words that are not to be found in any copies, ancient or modern; a striking instance of which I have noticed in niy second remark on the dedication of the Æneïs.
"Had the plan of this edition admitten notes at the bottom of the pages, I should have taken the liberty of offering conjectures and observations on many parts of the work which I have, for the present, been obliged to pass over in silence. I have, however, made memorandums of the most material, which I may perhaps take some future opportunity of communicating to the public, if what litile I have here dose should neet the approvation of the candid and discerning reader.'
Advertisements No man is, perhaps, better qualified for the laborious task of correcting the text, either of Virgil or Dryden, than Dr. Carey, whose natural inclination, as well as habits of life, have peculiarly capacitated him for verbal criticism; and we rejoice to find that a poet of Dryden's pre-eininent merit has at length fallen into hands so competent to the friendly office of expurgation.
To the advertisement, whence we have just selected the above extract, is added a 'Specimen of atteinpts to correct some of the errors of the first and second editions, which have been copied in all the others hitherto published:' from which, as it will give the reader a fair idea of the acies oculi and indefatigable pains of our industrious editor--and more especially as it will save ourselves the trouble of a very la. borious investigation for the same purposewe shall transcribe a few passages * • Georgic iii, 45.
· Next him, Niphates, with inverted urn,
And dropping sedge, shall his Armenia mourn.
But neither shore his conquest shall confine.
And grandsires' grandsons the long list contains. No very long list is requisite to furnish the grandsons of grandsires. The petty isle, which harboured no other human being than Robin. son Crusoe and his man Friday, contained at that moment the granda soms of grandsires. But Virgil's expression includes at least six genera. tions —" avi numerantur avorum," i. e. as I have printed the line, and as, no doubt. Dryden wrote it
· And grandsires grandsires the long list contains. · Georgic iv, 352. (first edit.)
..... Lurking lizards often lodge by stealth
Have found in combs, and undermin’d the seat. Agreeably to a direction given in the crrała to the first edition, that of 1698 exhibits the third line thus
And lizards sbunning light, &c. This alteration I have not adopted, being fully convinced that it is the offspring of an oversight on the part either of the author or the printer: for Dryden, after having translated " stellio" lizard in the first line, rould never have thought of again introducing lizard in the third, as
" Every quotation, act otherwise marked, is the same in both ihe first and secord? edions.
the translation of “blarta," which appears to be the moth.worm, or some other tiny creature of that kind, as Horace describes it preying upon drapery (Sat, ii, 3, 119)
cui stragula vestis, Blattarum ac tinearum epulæ, putrescat in arcâ. · Georgic iv, 453. . « On Penëus's banks he stood, and near his holy head.
For the information of the unlatined reader, I observe, that, “ Per nëus " being always three syllables, this line was intended by the author for one of fourteen, such as he has elsewhere used in this work ; and it was accordingly so printed in both the folio editions; though succeeding printers, not aware of the measure of the word, contrived to cut the verse down to an Alexandrine, hy improperly contracting the "eu" to a diphthong, and then giving
On Pencus' banks he stood, &c. • Georgic iv, 586. (first edit.)
• The slipp'ry god will try to loose his hold,
A dragon hisses, or a tiger stares.
· The slipp'ry god will try, &c.
Or biss a dragon, or a tiger stares. Having altered the tense of the verbs, Dryden probably forgot to strike his pen through the final s of “ snares" to make it rnime with “stare," as he intended. The printer, determined not to spoil the rhime, preserved both “snares” and “stares ” in defiance of sense and grammar. I have printed “share” and “stare” according to the poet's intention, · Georgic iv, 667.
“The realms of Mars remurmur'd all around instead of “remurmur." • Georgic iv, 776.
The soft Napæan race will soon repent
Their anger, and remit the punishment. Virgil's expression is “ iras remittent," which Dryden, no doubt, trans. lated, and very properly, by “relent their anger:" but the printer officiously corrected it 10 " repent”-not dreaming that “relent" (like its French original, ralentir) was a verb active, signifying to slackon, repress, mollify—and that, when used as a verb neuter, it is merely an elliptic form of speech. Georgic iv, 797.
- T'appease the manes of the poets' king. Dryden, I doubt not, wrote, as I have printed, "the poet king," i.e. the poet and king, or the royal poet; Orpheus having, according to some accounts, been king of the Cicones. • Dedication of Æneis, vol. II, p.ii, 1. 10.
“The trifling novels, which Aristotle and others have inserted in their poems.”
- There cannot be a doubt that Dryden wrote “ Ariosto." The printer, however, having probably never seen or heard the name of Ariosto, and finding that of Aristotle several times repeated in the same sheet--concluded that the author had here made a mistake, which he accordingly correcied in his way! • Dedication of Æncis, vol. II, pp. Ixxvii and lxxix. • Quoting, probably, from memory, Dryden gave
Non me tua turbida virtus Terret, ait instead of
Non me tua fervida terrent Dicta, ferox — as the passige stands in the original, Æn. xii, 894. On restoring the true reading, I felt myself obliged, in p. lxxix, to alter the word “ valour” to “threats.” Although I might perhaps more properly have said “taunts," yet there was at least an implied threat in those taunts; and "ibrears" better suits the context. • Æneis, i, 179.
• He rear'd his awful head above the main;
Serene in majesty, then roll d his eyes, &c. Virgil's “ summâ placidum caput extulit undâ " naturally directs us to read
• He rear'd his awful head above the main,
Sirene in majesty,—then roll d his eyes, with as much anger and indignation as you please, but with very little serenity, on viewing the disastrous effects of the late hurricane. - Æneis, i, 229.
"An island - - -
- forms a port secure for ships to ride,
Appears above, and groves for ever green. Did Dryden ever pen such nonsense, with Virgil by his side? No: we owe it all to his printer. The poet wrote thus
"-- forms a port secure for ships to ride :
Eneïs, v, 211.
• Bui, steering round, he charg'd his pilot stand
Let others bear to sea. Here the printer has converted the word "stand" into the infiriitive, with a very harsh ellipsis of the particle " 10."-Dryden had writien it in the imperative
- he charg'd his pilot-“ Stand, More close to shore, and skim along the sand!
Let others bear to sea." • Aneïs, v, 3CO.
• If giv'n by you, the laurel bind my brow, - Assist to make me guilty of my vow.
A snow-white bull shall on your shore be slain....
• If, giv'n by you, the laurel bind my brow,
A snow-white bull shall on your shore be slain....
· The last in order, but the first in place. While the English reader is fruitlessly exercising his sagacity to find a solution of this paradox, let the classic scholar turn with me to Virgil, who will instantly prove that Dryden most certainly wrotem
· The last in order, but the first in gruce
Lxtremus, formúque ante omnes pulcher, Tülus....
Eneïs, v, 759.
• Again they close, and once again disjoin,
They meet, they wheel, &c.
• Again they close, and once again disjoin :
Antis, vi, 219.
" by Pelides' arms when I lector fell. The poet had probably placed a comma after “ arm," and the printer convertert it into s. Dryden would have written “spear" or "steel, if he had intended the weapon.