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moment both slaves and tyrants, there is no longer room for astonishment.' P. 2:8.
« The vine is a more considerable object of cultivation and of conmerce in this country. It will grow any where, though it is more generally and more successfully cultivated at the foot of the mountains, The wines they produce are light and watery, but they possess a very agreeable flavour, and a nourishing quality. Those of Pietra are esteemed the best, and they are sometimes even considered superior to the best Tokay wine; and, if the country produces very little of it, it is entirely the fault of the inhabitants, who neither know how to make or preserve it, the cultivators of vineyards being unaccustomed to weeding them carefully; and, ignorant of the method of trailing them, similar to that practised in vine countries, content themselves with raking up the earth once a year round the stalk, and take no further care to prevent the growth of weeds. The most considerable commerce for these wines is with Poland and the Ukraine. A certain quantity is even conveyed as far as Moscow. I have already mentioned the quantity of fruits of every kind produced in Walachia, where it is common to meet with even whole forests of fruit-trees, such as pears, cherries, and apricots, &c. The greatest part of the mountains, in this circumstance of the variety of its fruit-trees, re. semble our best cultivated gardens, which undoubtedly will always be inferior to those I saw in Walachia. I observed in general a greater population in the mountains than in the plains, notwithstanding their being less fertile. This is easily accounted for, when it is considered that these mountains answer the purpose of an asylum to the inhabitants during the ravages of war. They instantly fly to them for refuge when the flatter parts of the country are exposed to the fury and ra. vages of a lawless Turkish soldiery, whose violence it is difficult to restrain, and who bear in mind the consciousness of being the support of the thrones of the sultans, who dare not punish them. On these un. happy occasions, the Walachians find in these mountains a secure retreat against the rage of their tyrants, who carefully avoid pursuing them thither, dreading the stratagems and intrepidity of those who inhabit them. The paths leading to these mountains are almost inaccessible, and known only to those who constantly reside in them.' 8. 259.
Weyd (probably woad), employed in dyeing blue, succeeds very well in this country. The skompi, used in the dressing of Morocco leather, and a sort of strawberry which gives a yellow colour, are also said to be common. Three Hundred and forty thousand horned cattle arc annually sent from Walachia to Constantinople; and several millions of horses, with numerous flocks of sheep, are driven every year to graze in the country. Some millions of sheep are sold annually for the Constantinople market at about 2s. 60, cach; and a broad cloth is manufactured in this country from the wool, usually dyed blue or green. Bces are much attended to; and the honey, nearly white, is carried to Constantinople; the way to Venice. A green wax is produced by bee's of a particular species, smaller than the common, but very scarce. Near Bucharest is a mine of fossile salt; and, as the mountains of Walachia are a continuation of those of Hungary, they may probably be equally rich in metals. Grains of gold are frequently brought down by the rivers, mixed with sand.
. • Though Walachia, no more than other southern countries, has escaped the invasions and inundations of barbarous nations, yet the Roman name and language have ever been preserved in it. The inhabitants still call themselves Romans. The name of Walachians is without doubt a Sclavonian name adopted by the Turks. The present Walachians being a mixture of several nations, their language also is mixed with a quantity of terms, so much disfigured, that it is very often quite impossible to trace their origin. Each barbarous nation has left in it some of its own language, and a most disgusting jargon is the result of the whole together. Meanwhile, the Roman language has finally been paramount; but without experiencing a better fate in Walachia than in the other countries in which it formerly prevailed ; it is even much more corrupted in Walachia than in most other pulaces.
The Walachians are in general tall, well built, robust, and of a very wholesome complexion. Discases are very rare amongst them ; and the plague, though so frequent in Turkey, has never been known in Walachia, excepting in times of war, when this disease is brought among them by the troops who come from Asia.
It is melancholy to consider, that so beautiful and fertile a country, situate in so fine a climate, and inhabited by beings of this description, should be so thinly peopled. I am persuaded that the coun: try is capable of subsisting five or six times more inhabitants than it at present contains. Its population, far from increasing, has been die minishing for a great number of years; the principal reasons for which are easily conceived :-the despotic government of the Turks; the taxes which the hospodar is obliged to levy on the country, to be enabled to pay the annual tribute, and to buy powerful friends at the court of the grand-signior; the tyrannical manner of collecting these taxes; the oppressions of the boyards, who take revenge on their vas'sals for the sovereign contempt with which they are treated by the Turks; the frequent wars in which the Porte has been engaged, the consequences of which have been so sensibly felt by Walachia, and of which it has often been the theatre; the barbarities and cruelties exercised by the soldiery in times of war; the plague itself, which frequently follows in their train ;-this combined multitude of destructive evils, any single one of which is sufficient to lay waste and depopulate the most flourishing country, contributes in equal portions to diminish the number of the inhabitants of this province, and every day to increase their emigration. The wise and benevolent policy of their neighbours receives them with open arms; and Transylvania, in particular, has derived many advantages from these forced or voluntary emigrations of the inhabitants, who in the similarity of the soil, maniers, and language of Transylvania, acknowledge a second country, and a government less subject to such fatal revolutions.' P. 268.
The Walachians are not temperate; yet their manners are simple, and their customs chiefly Turkish. They are idle, covetous, and blindly superstitious.
The embassy soon enters Moldavia; but, in the narrative, the passage of the Danube is strangely omitted ; and indeed many circumstances lead us to believe that this is an abstract of a larger and more important work. The Danube is highly useful, both to Moldavia and Walachia; and, with the Dniester on its north-west, renders these provinces best adapted for very extensive commercial enterprises. The neighbourhood of the Black Sea, its connexion with the Mediterranean and with countries the most distant, by its central situation and the course of its chief river, together with the fertility of the soil, might render the inhabitants a very rich and powerful, and, would their government permit, a happy people.
• The colonies that would be sent there would have no cause for ap. prehending the same inconveniences and misfortunes as have been ex. perienced by those of Astracan, because they would be removed to a shorter distance, and would have all the resources of civilised Europe to hope for. They might likewise avoid the inconveniences to which the establishments of the Bannat of Temeswar have been subjected, by being more judicious in the choice of the lands to be fixed on for their habitation. In this view the tracts of Walachia and Moldavia on the Danube are the most favourable, and the climate itself the most salutary of any to be met with. Nothing more would be necessary than to drain the lands, and to carry off the stagnant waters, in order to purify the atmosphere, and render the soil more proper for cultiva. tion. The opening the mines and clearing the woode, the tilling the grounds, and cultivating vines and fruit-trees in a more skilful man. ner, would be objects which in the space of a few years might enrich two hundred thousand indigent families, who are at present condemn. ed to idleness and want, and bring into the coffers of the sovereign more than sixty millions of livres. The nature of the soil of the plains and hills exhibits in general such favourable properties, that planta. tions might almost any where and indiscriminately be formed of rice, tobacco, or sugar-productions that are foreign to our continent, and singularly calculated to succeed in this soil. In this corner of Europe would then be collected almost every object of cultivation known in the globe. The desert, which extends from Jassy to the Dniester, and to the frontier of Podlakia, in a space of twenty leagues in breadth and thirty in length, offers one of the best soils that it is possible to meet with for the cultivation of barley, wheat, and orchards. There is not a single tree in all this space; but the land is covered with high verdant grass, which every where announces the abundance of productive salts with which it is impregnated. This land is undulated on all sides by an infinity of small hills, with springs of water at every
Crit. Rev. Vol. 38. June, 1803.
ster. Nothing could be easier than to plant orchards in it, or evere woods, either of which would succeed extremely well.' P. 284. · The account of the Moldavian dances is amusing, but too long for insertion. The ancient history of this province has still less claim to our particular attention; and its present state, its productions, government, &c. contain no facts of very particular importance. Three glasses of its wine, it is said, will intoxicate the hardest drinker; yet, it is added, the liquor is not heady. Some inistake must have occurred in the translation. • The account of the government of Moldavia we must 'omit. The Moldavians themselves are described as proud, audacious, and quarrelsome; but easily appeased, lively and jocose. Their arins are the bow and the javelin; and the Turk and the Tartar, the Armenian and the Jew, meet no quarter. Moderation is a virtue unknown, either in wine or in other circumstances. They are haughty in prosperity, cowardly in adversity; eager to attempt, but, if foiled at first, immediately discouraged. The men are robust and .well made, and bave a considerable facility in learning the
inilitary exercises. · The Walachians are more lively, have more intellect and courage, but drink like the Moldavians, and are equally, perhaps more, hospitable. The women are handsome, but pale; and their dress displays very accurately their forms. In both provinces, in a circumference of near six hundred leagues, the inhabitants do not exceed sixty thousand, of very different races. Moldavia, we are told, could once furnish forty thousand fighting men. At present, the hospodar could not bring ten thousand into the field. His ordinary revenues amount to about three millions of livres; those of the prince of Walachia to nearly twice as much.
The remainder of the tour is entertaining, but not highly interesting; and, as our article is already sufficiently extended, we shall refer the reader to the work itself, which is not, on the whole, uninteresting or unimportant, thought unequal.
Art. VI.-The Principles of Analytical Calculation. By
Robert Woodhouse, A.M. F. R. S. &c. 4to. 85. Boards.
QUANTITY is of two kinds, continued and discrete. · The ancients were more conversant with the former, the moderns, with greater reason, apply themselves to the latter. On the advantages and disadvantages of each, much dispute has arisen ; and a preference has been capriciously given to one or other of the systems, without knowing the grounds on which it should be established. The ancients were compelled by necessity to pursuie long and laborious investigations of continued quantity, because their symbols for discrete quantity were only to be managed with extreme difficulty: they made but little progress in arithmetic; and algebra was scarcely known to them. The slight cir: cumstance of the introduction of the Arabian or Indian numerical figures, wrought a prodigious revolution in science : discrete quantity became the object of investigation ; algebraic calculations were pursued to a great extent. The doctrine of fluxions, or the differential calculus, was invented; and problems, which would have tortured an ancient geometrician during his whole life, are now solved with great ease by a young mathematician in the commencement of his scientific career.
Mathematics, being the science of quantity, are naturally, from this division of quantity, arranged into two branches; that of continued, and that of discrete quantity ; each of which should be studied separately; and, when the student has obtained clear notions of each in his mind, he will readily see the connexion between them, and that they may be made to impart mutual assistance. Thus, having ob. tained from Euclid the information that the square of the ordinate, in a semicircle, is equal to the rectangle under the abscissas, he can convert this into an algebraic proposition, by making ar-re=y*: he now considers his right line as separated into parts, on which he erects perpendiculars; and, by numbers, assigns to each ordinate its proper magnitude. Thence he ascertains that the greatest square is that of the ordinate which passes through thc centré ; and the same truth is now established by both algebra and geometry. The difficulty of finding areas is, by the ancient methods, almost insuperable. An unfortunate term introduced by sir Isaac Newton throws an unnecessary ambiguity over the modern system. He changed the meaning of equality, a term of which we have the clearest idea. Throughout all his work, where the words ultimately equal are used, the proper terms should be never equal; that is, the quantities which he affirms to be ultimately equal, are never equal to each other; but their difference is small; and they are approaching to a limit, which limit may be used in his reasonings. Thus, in his second Lemma, the discrete quantities, the interior parallelograms, can never be equal to the area of the curvilinear figure; in the seventh, the chorsi and tangent, that is, the hypochenuse and side of a right-angled triangle, are said to be ultimately equal, though it is well known by Euclid that