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of view. A jewel may sparkle with peculiar lustre in a given situa. tion, while its effect may be totally lost in another; and, to come nearer to the point, the enormities of Zeluco can only be held up to view with peculiar detestation, when we behold the villain begin with killing a bird, and conclude with destroying his child. In many pas. sages, we see the disadvantage of separation, of the injury which the liberal use of the scissors inflicts on the beauty and the spirit of diffe rent passages. The merit, indeed, of Dr. Moore's writings consists more in detached representations, than in general plans; and he therefore suffers less from this kind of mutilation, than a writer of a different character. Our editors' choice of passages, also, in general, we cannot disapprove: but of the attempt of this mode of representing an author by detached portions, we cannot speak highly.

The life of Dr. Moore, prefixed to the collection, is short, and not very satisfactory. The portrait, which precedes it, has the merit of a strong, but a somewhat harsh, likeness. Art. 44.—Modern Discoveries; or a Collection of Facts and

Observations, principally relative to the various Branches of Natural History, resulting from the geological, &c. Researches of modern Travelers in every Quarter of the Globe. Carefully translateil, prepared, and re-printed, from the IVorks of the most eminent Authors. By Francis Blagdon, Professor of the French, Italian, Spanish, and German Languages. 2 Vols. 12mo. 10s. royal; coloured, 14s. Ridgeway.

The design of this collection is explained in the title ; and it is but justice to add, that the editor and translator, so far as he has proceeded in the two volumes before us, seems to have completely fulfilled his promises. The works of the different travelers will be presented entire, except, “in a very few instances only,' the condensing “such matter in the original works, as may be conceived generally interesting.' These volumes professedly contain Denon's late splendid publication, without any mutilation-an assertion which we cannot support, as we confess that we have not engaged in the labour of collation, which, nevertheless, as far as our memory assistsus, is correct. The maps are elegant and faithful, and the plates and vignettes sufficiently illustrative. They cannot claim the merit of superior elegance, as the latter are wooden cuts. To reduce, however, a work from twenty guineas to half the number of shillings, and to combine, at the latter price, elegance with accuracy, merits no common praise, The translator's preface relates to the supposed great object of Bonaparte, in the possession of Egypt; viz. to obtain an easy route for the Indian com. merce, or, as a step to our Indian possessions. This object, once avowed, may be successfully opposed. The English have foiled all his schemes, as they will continue to do. All his power, his immense system of espionage, cannot prevent English goods from being publicly exposed to sale in his metropolis; nor will even the honourable mission of Sebastiani fix his memory, with any favourable impressions, in the hearts of the Egyptians. Alexandria and Jaffa will not soon be erased from their minds.-On the whole, we wish the editor success in this attempt, as he seems to have merited it by his zeal and liberality.-The translation, we observe, differs both from Mr. Aikin's

and Mr. Kendal's, in the parts which we have compared; but, that the work is wholly re-translated, we dare not affirm. ART. 45.-Thoughts on the Formation of the Earth. By a

Farmer. 4to. Is. Richardson. 1802. Our farmer,' if the appellation be not intended for a disguise, appears to have observed the little space to which his attention has been directed, with great sagacity. Placed in the neighbourhood of mountains abounding with marine exuvia, he 'forms' this globe very plausibly, by means of subsiding water. He has not, however, confined his views to the Welsh mountains, but has extended them to Dartmoor and to Torbay. On the whole, this may be considered as the first sketch of a self-taught Neptunian geologist, and displays very considerable sagacity and penetration. Further inquiries would extend some of his views, and correct others; nor indeed can this, in any respect, be considered as more than an outline, consisting of suspicions and probabilities. ART. 46.-An Essay on the Relation between the Specific Gra

vities and the Strengths and Values of Spirituous Liquors; with Rules for the Adaptation of Mr. Gilpin's Tables to the present Standard, and two new Tables for finding the Percentage and Concentration when the Specific Gravity and Temperature are given. By Atkins and Co. Mathematical Instrument Makers. 4to. 55. sewed. Cadell and Davies. 1803.

This essay contains much valuable information on the different strengths of spirituous liquors, and the use of the hygrometer, adapted, however, rather to the trader, than to the philosophical inquirer. Yet the latter may derive considerable instruction from many parts of the pamphlet; and it is the minute nature of the inquiry only, joined with its not being peculiarly interesting, that induces us only to pass over the essay with general commendation.

The tables, added to facilitate the use of Mr. Gilpin's in the Phi. losophical Transactions, contribute greatly to the value of the work. ART. 47.--An Essay on the Character and Doctrines of So

crates. 4to. 1s. No Bookseller's Name. 1802. " This is an essay from an unsuccessful candidate for an Oxonian prize. It is not without merit; and the printing it, though it cannot in the least challenge the decision of the examiners, will do the writer no discredit. ART. 48.-A System of Book Keeping, on a Plan entirely new. By W. Boardman. 4to. 5s. sewed. Seeley. 1802.

Systems of book-keeping are very numerous; and the mode of keeping accompts is very different in the various shops and 'comptinghouses of London. Mr. Jones's method served to put a large contribution into his pocket; but we do not find that it has met with much success in practice. The present plan has its advantages, and deserves the attention of those who give instructions in this branch of knowledge

ART. 49.-Case respecting the Maintenance of the London

Clergy, briefly stated and supported by Reference to authentic Documents. By John Moore, LL.B. 8vo. Is. Rivingtons. 1802. .

The income of the London clergy bears no proportion to the population of their parishes; and a country.clergyman, with merely a tenth part only of the duty to perform, has often a ten times greater income than several of his brethren in town. This difference arises from the different modes of payment. In the country, it is regulated by the tithe of the produce of the land ; in London, by different proportions of the house-rent, or a modus, settled at different times and on different principles. The first principle is that of an oblation, taken from the Tecommendation of St. Paul to the early converts to Christianity, to set apart their destined charity for the support of Christians on the first day of the week. This excellent custom has unfortunately ceased to exist; and its disuse is owing to popery, which, not content with the oblations on Sunday, made a pretext of introducing various holidays for the same purpose, and insisted, at last, on the payment of such oblations as a right, not as a free gift of the donor. Hence, in the times of popery, various disputes arose between the clergy and the citizens of London, on the quantum of payment, which was at last generally settled by papal bulls : but the Reformation, by invalidating their authority, weakened the power of the clergy; and the citizens took advantage of such inefficiency, and broached the doctrine, that the clergy were not entitled to rateable payments, but to specific sums chargeable on the several houses of their respective parishes. The great tire of London brought the question to an issue; and, by an act of parliament, 'the maintenance of the parochial ministers of the fifty-one churches to be restored, was fixed at certain specific sums, levied by an equal rate on the houses in their respective parishes," Now, from the alteration of the value of money, the sum at present levied is far short of what the legislature intended to be the income of the clergyman; and hence the writer thinks there is ground for another application to the legislature. The subject is treated with great candour ; and, should it ever be introduced into parliament, the work before us will claim the attention of its members. From the specimen before us, we hope to hear that the writer meets with encouragement in a prospective work, which he thus announces :— A new Edition of Walton's "Treatise on the Payment of Tithes in London," with Notes, and a Continuation by the Editor,' in one volume quarto, at twenty, five shillings. The work to be sent to press, as soon as there are two bundred and fifty subscribers.

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ART. I. - The Grenville Edition of Homer, continued from

p. 12 of our last Volume. BEFORE we resume our account of the text of the Gren.. ville Homer, it may be of some use to give a short outline of the state of the ancient 'AQIAOI, and to hazard a few notices upon the manner in which those Heroic Ballads have been conveyed to us. · In the early ages of Greece, the historian and the bard were united, and the popular ballads of the 'AQIAOI, like those of the scalds of the north countrie, preserved the rudi. ments of real events embellished by fancy. Amongst the various means of showing pastime at the entertainments of the great, who, fond of the tales of other times,

- call’d for harp and song, And pipes of martial soundthis order of men was frequently introduced, who chanted, by ' fits' or 'intermissions,' the feats of ancient prowess, fomenting and refining a martial spirit, and exciting those strong sensations of delight, which are felt only by untu. tored minds. Homer, who is described as a 'poor eyeless pilgrim,' recited, probably ' for small earnings and good cheer,' His poetical effusions to throngs of admiring villagers or citizens.

Τοίσιν δ' εν μεσσοισι πάις φόρμοχή λιγεία

Ιμερόεν κιθάριζε and, wherever he went, his character must have procured him hospitable reception ; for

what land so savage,
Where minstrels cannot practise their lov'd art

In honour'd safety?" And his great celebrity seems to have laid the foundation of a native minstrelsy, which successively acquired reputation and subsistence, by exhibiting their diverting talents at festi. vals and banquets, and by greeting the victor on his exploits at the public games. Hence Simonides

. lap yep eno nai aondos ampwe are told,

Circumire cæpit urbes Asiæ nobiles,

Mercede acceptâ, laudem victorum canens.' CRIT. Rey, Vol. 38. June, 1803.

K

Though these fragments of genius were scattered abroar} by their heedless parent among his countrymen by piecemeal only, yet their merit seems to have ensured their permanence': they were learned in childhood with quickness, and preserved with purity: they were the ainusements of youth, and the delight of age.

: Previous to their being collected, his doings' are likely to have suffered material injuries from time, and not a few from interpolation: succeeding minstrels would make no scruple to alter each other's productions to suit their own convenience, or the humour and prejudices of their audience. The compilers, however, were as faithful as the mutilated state of their materials would admit. The pieces most approved were selected, and combined into such forms, as, according to their ideas, were most excellent; some passages, which, they were apprehensive, might discredit the bard, were neglected or suppressed ; some conjectural supplements were attempted through an anxiety of rendering them more complete ; and some insertions were made for political purposes.

We will not dispute the probability of this matchless minstrel availing himself of preceding models, which might have heen transmitted to his age by successive songsters ; but we can by no means accede to the wild supposition of WOLFIUS”, that the compositions attributed to Homer wero made up of the scraps of different rhapsodists of different ages. Hunc virum e scriptis ejus, postea epistolarum officio cognitum, unum in primis exterorum accuratæ literarum scientiæ caussa magni faciebat [RUHNKENIUS] ; ejusque Prolegomena Homerica tum recens allata, singulari cum voluptate legit, etiam ubi ab eo dissentiret: velut in ea disputatione, quæ magnam libri partem complectitur, qua ostendere conatur, Homeri carmina, non ab uno sed pluribus poëtis, variis ætatibus composita, non nisi rhapsodorum memoria cantuque servata, ignoto adhuc apud Græcos scribendi usu, Pisistratidarum demum ætate scripto mandata esse. Hanc sibi opinionem non probari aiebat Ruhnkenius: at vehementer probari designatam egregie viam carminum Ho. mericorum ad criticam scripturæ auctoritatem restituendorum 3.

The characters of the persons, from whose memories those traditionary songs were taken, and of those critics who incorporated them, cannot now be discussed; the inquiry is hopeless, and calculated only to infuse general distrust.

True fortitude of understanding consists in not suffering

Many papers of the learned and pious archbishop Wake were purchased at a chandler's shop.

2 Prolegomena, p. xxxix.
3. Wyttenb. Vita RUHNKEN. P. 214, 215,

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