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appointed. They are in duty bound to make their complaint to the bishop, and to put the cause in a train of being fairly tried. We remember an instance in point, of a curate giving offence to several of his parishioners by the doctrines which he preached, and which they termed methodistical. Upon complaint to the bishop, the curate was removed. It is a great mistake, as is properly observed in these pamphlets, to suppose that the people have no concern in the conduct of the clergy. In the first place, they can stop the ordination of any man by a representation to the bishop, of his misconduct; and, if a clergyman be guilty of immorality, omission of the regular service of the church, or introduction of any false doce trine into it, the cause will be fairly decided by the bishop, and justice done between the parties. Let the complainant then pursue the steps which, as a member of the church of England, 'he is bound to pursue' ; but let it be strongly inforced upon him, at the same time, to follow the scriptural rule of first warning the minister himself, and then making his complaint in a regular manner. The people cannot; indeed, as in a dissenting meeting, analyse among themselves the character and condnet of their minister, and dismiss him by a majority of voices; but, in a sober and dignified manner, they may make their objections to a superior ; and, if these be well-founded, the minister will doubtless be removed from his cure. ; ART. 21. -Ä Letter to à noble Duke, on the incontrovertible - Truth of Christianity. 8vo. 2s. Robson, 1803. ;) • This is a re publication of Mr. Leslie's Short and easy Method with the Deists, a work of very great merit, and deserving the perusal of confirmed Christians. , As long as any Christian has a friend so un. happy as not to have embraced the truths of Christianity, he will do well not only to read this little tract himself, but to put it into his friend's hands. Its argument is well known to be complete; yet it cannot be too often brought before the public. Four rules are laid down by which true religion may be distinguished from the device of man; and it is clearly seen that these four marks concur in revealed religion. .
1. That the matter of fact be such, that men's outward senses, their eyes and ears, may be judges of it.
* 2. That it be done publicly in the face of the world.
"3. That not only public monuments be kept up in memory of it, but some outward actions to be performed.
• 4. That such monuments, and such actions or observances, be instituted, and do commence from the time that the matter of fact was done.' P. 5. "' '
Dr. Middleton endeavoured in vain, for twenty years, to find some false assertion in history in which these marks concurred; and we may safely prophesy that similar researches will prove equally futile. . ART. 22.-The Recorder: being a Collection of Tracts and
Disquisitions, chiefly relative to the modern State and Prine ciples of the People called Quakers. By William Matthews, 1 of Bath. Vol. I. 8vo. 58. Johnson. 1802. The society of quakers has been chiefly distinguished for its disap
probationi, or supposed disapprobation, of buman ties and articles, on the subject of religion ; and if, in point of discipline, its attention to morals have been regarded as pressed beyond the common mark, a gene. ral laxity with respect to doctrine is esteemed to have been equally so. Indeed it could hardly be otherwise ; for, not having, like other churches, a fixed standard to regulate opinions, the members seem to have been left very much to themselves; while, in consequence of their having been gifted, or so supposing themselves to have beert, with an inward light, they could not easily be brought to any temporal tribunal to determine on the propriety of their conduct. In this situation, the society has existed for a considerable period; few of them giving themselves the trouble to examine minutely the opinions which distract the Chris tian world, and the great body exhibiting that contented formality which is the peculiar characteristic of the sect. Of late years, how. ever, the peace of the community of quakers has been much disturbed; a spirit of inquiry has been excited, and the Scriptures have undergone a more serious examination. Hence, the great question on tithes has been, with much propriety, proposed and asserted by the writer of these tracts to be a matter of mere temporal, instead of spiritual, concerns and that, in submitting to an act of parliament, the rights of church-membership ought not to be violated. This, of course, has given great offence to the heads of the society; for the quakers haye chiefs among them, notwithstanding their boast of equality ; and chiefs, whose authority cannot be called in question by any member with impunity. That the payment of tithes is justifiable, few of our readers will doubt; and nothing can be more ridiculous than to suppose, that, because a man is a quaker, he is to be enabled to purchase an estate to so much greater advantage than any of his neighbours,
There is a sufficient quantity of land, free from tithes, which the members of this society might purchase, if they chose to be proprietors of land in which this supposed grievance would cease to be burdensome. But doctrinal, and not temporal, matters, it seems, have of late pro duced the greatest disturbance; and Hannah Barnard, a very powerful preacher, has been silenced in a manner which does no great credit to the interior government of the community; while it is curious to observe that a chief article exhibited against her, is on a point on which the quakers are supposed, by the rest of the world, to extend their principles to an extravagant excess. They admit that war is contrary to the principles of Christianity ; and that it cannot conscientiously be exercised by a Christian. Hannah Barnard proceeds completely with them in this doctrine ; and she asserts, that what they now declare to be true, was always and essentially so, and might be applied to every man in all ages. Consequently, in her opinion, God has never ordained war of any description; and yet the quakers are such constrained logicians as to be indignant with her for propagating such a doctrine. She has been tried for this offence in various quaker courts; and, by the final judgement of twelve persons, is condemned to perpetual silence. Her preaching has, however, produced many converts ; and the perusal of the Scriptures is, in consequence, become very prevalent. In this work the whole affair is impartially stated. It deserves the attention of the society, and may gratify the curiosity of those who are fond of church history. Its editor was ori. ginally a quaker: but his opinion on tithes has operated to his exclusion from the body. He nevertheless remains attached to its principles; but takes a latitude in some points of doctrine, of which it is difficult to say, whether they be, or be not, principles of quakerism. He is a strenuous asserter of the unity of the Godhead, to whom Christ is, in his opinion, a being of inferior powers. The doctrine of endless torments he maintains to be presumptuous; and supports his opinion with great firmness and judgement.' Throughout all the pieces here collected, we meet with a great spirit of candour and liberality; and from them may be formed a tolerable judgement of modern quakerism. ART. 23. -Reasons for withdrawing from Society with the · People called Quakers; with additional Observations on sun
dry important Subjects. To which is aldeil, a friendly Erpostulation; and serious Considerations on Revelations the Scriptures, Religion, Morality and Superstition. By John Hancock. 8vo. 4s. sewed. Johnson, 1802. ;,,;
The society of quakers retains the discipline of the church, on the subject of excommunication, more than any other sect of Christians; and, of late years, the instances of their power have been unusually numerous. But, while this communion has felt itself compelled to reject many of its members, whose mode of life or habits of thinking did not correspond with its rules, others have voluntarily separated themselves, through a persuasion that it has deviated from its ancient order or discipline. Amongst the latter, is the author of the work be-fore us, who brings forward some strong arguments, tending to excite a belief that the discipline of the society is not exactly what it was in the times of its foundation. There are two points, however, which seem to render him essentially disqualified for membership. He adds to the general opinion of the quakers, on the sinfulness of war, his conviction that God, though he be expressly declared in the Old Testament to have ordered it, could not have issued such a command: and, on the subject of marriage, he thinks it sufficient that the parties entering into that state should declare their intentions before certain unofficial witnesses, and that the formality of a church meeting for the purpose is not requisite. Some persons in Ireland, it seems, have been married in this manner, and consequently have been disowned by the society. The pamphlet is drawn up with great spirit; and the so. ciety will find it very difficult to prevent a schism. To those who are not acquainted with its general principles and conduct, it will convey a great fund of information; and the opinion maintained in the following extract warrants the insinuations which are very general in the world at large. On
Upon a review of the whole, it appears clearly manifest to me, that the present state of manners is in many instances opposite to the dietales of a sound morality; and that our social institutions contain much practical error. A commerce too widely extended, produces an unwarrantable selfishness, and absorbs an undue proportion of the at. tention of most. Luxury, by producing artificial wants, and leading into many unnecessary expenses, appears to countenance, and in some
respect to render necessary, this system of overgrown trading : thus error supports error; and there appears no way to get rid of it, but by adopting a line of conduct, almost entirely different from that which is now pursued; and to act according to the pure and enlight. ened maxims of morality and religion, when these terms are rightly understood, and freed from all injurious mixture. The reproach of singularity will doubtless attend those, who dare to move in this line; but then such will be supported by a consciousness of having endeavoured to do their duty, and to act their parts well in their present allotments. P. 141.. . i . !" " . i. !
ART. 24.-An Examination of the first Part* of a Pam
phlet, called an Appeal to the Society of Friends. By Vinder. 8vo. Is. W: Phillips. 1802.
Vindex endeavours to prove that the early quakers were not what are now called unitarians. We would recommend to him to prove that they were trinitarians--an attempt which must be done by showing that they believed not only in the holy three,' but that each of these holy three 'was in himself omnipotent, 'omnipresent, and supreme. It appears from this work, that Penn, Barclay, Fox, and Pennington, were not so decided upon this point as the modern unitasians; but that they were very far removed from the Athanasian creed, which is the truest and best standard of the trinitarian faith, The concluding remark in this book-may be turned either way.
• It would be ruinous in a great family, if the servants, instead of duly performing the work of the house, which each of them sufficiently understood, were to be spending day after day in disputing about their master's pedigree and alliances'- for the ruin may arise from the upper servants castigating the lower, in consequence of not concurring with them in opinion; and may make it part of the work of the house to recite daily the titles of the master.. .
osis and ART. 25. - An Inquiry into some of the Effects of the l'ene
real Poison on the Iluman Boily; with an occasional Application of Physiology, Observations on some of the Opinions of Mr. John Hunter and Mr. Benjamin Bell, and practical Remarks. By S. Sawrey, Surgeon. 8vo... 5s, Boards. Lickington. 1802. We have been greatly pleased with this work, as it shows a considerable knowledge of the subject, combined with much reflexion, and an accurate philosophical discrimination. , Yet we must add, that Mr. Sawrey has not convinced us that the diseases are the same, and that their different appearance is owing to the surface affected. Chancres, even on the lips of the urethra, have never yet produced ganorrhæa;
and the latter, except in peculiar circumstances, even when applied to the external surface, as often happens, does not excite the former,
The question, concerning the cause of the continuation of the disease, is next examined. It does not continue by any powers peculiarly its own ; for a gonorrhæa frequently disappears spontaneously : but, on the contrary, the lues gradually increases, unless the fomes be abruptly checked. Cut out or destroy the chancre on its first appearance, and there is little reason to expect the continuance of the complaint. Let it remain ; and no power, without mercury, will curtail its progress. How this disease becomes permanent, has been, for a long tiine, matter of curious speculation. Mr. Sawrey considers Mr. Hunter's opinion at some length: but it is confused and unphilosophical. Fermentation has been long abandoned ; yet his own system, that inflammation is excited, and that fluids are poured out, in themselves innoxious, but tainted with the poison remaining on the part, is scarcely less liable to objection. It is, at least, an assimilation : but we yet know of no such process, except that of fermentation itself. It may, indeed, be alleged, that the poivon is so virulent and subtile, that it may admit of being greatly diluted, and still remain virulent: but, in this view, the virulence must be indefinite. A man may have a venereal ulcer for years, and every particle of the matter discharged during the whole of the time will produce the infection. This is, to a certain extent, true in the small-pox: but it will not admit of an am. plification so considerable as that now described. Indeed, this infi. nite or indefinite dilution is not well founded, since the blood in a person most intimately affected is innocuous. "
In the third part, our author considers the disease to be continued, and even increased, in the circulating mass, and that the product of sores is actually poisonous. With thcse, many analogous considerations of importance are conjoined; and the whole, we think, forms a performance truly respectable. The author speaks with firmness, but with modesty ; sometimes with confidence, but never with a pe
tulant pertness. He opposes Mr. Hunter with arguments and facts, 'not with wild and wanton assertions.
ART. 26.--Résultats de l'Inoculation de la Vaccine, &c. The Results of the Inoculation of the Vaccine, in the Departments of the Meurthe, the Meuse, the Vosges, and Upper Rhine; preceded by a preliminary Discourse, and followed by the Effects of Vaccination in other Animals. By Louis Valentin, M. D. &c. &c. 8vo. De Boffe.
We have perused this work with peculiar satisfaction. The preliminary discourse contains a candid and excellent history of the origin and progress of vaccination, and places the disputed points of spurious vaccina, &c. on a just foundation. The candour of the author is peculiarly conspicuous, as he had lately published a work in defence of variolous inoculation. His answers to the opponents of vaccination are truly satisfactory. This part of the work well merits a popular translation by some of the members of the Jennerian Society.
The results of the author's practice merit particular attention : but these we cannot abridge. The most interesting respect the concurrence of vaccina with variola ; in which, the infection of small-pox,