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of the civil part of the Mosaical law, and the obligation of the moral part. Bishop Horsley.

Erit ligatum et in cælo, i. e. idem erit meum patrisque judicium, quod fuerit tuum. Intellige, si Petrus potestate hac legitime utatur, non ex odio, favore, &c. sed juste judicet, sequatur leges Dei et Christi. Nam si insontem ligaret, id non esset ratum in cælo. Hæc ergo auctoritas Petro data nullum præjudicium adfert juri Dei, quasi is ut pedarius judex subscribere cogatur hominis sententiæ. Lucas Brugensis, Poly. Synop.

The first book of Locke's ESSAY, which with submission I think the worst, tends to establish this dingerous doctrine, thai che human mind, previous to education and habit, is as susceptible of any one impression as of any other; a doctrine, which, if true, would go near 1o prove that truth and virtue are no better than human contrivances, or; at least, that they have nyining permaneat in their nature, but may be as changeable as the raclinations ani ca vacities of inen. Surely this is not the doctrine that Locke meant to establish? ''Bui his zea a gai ist innut: idea and innate principles put hina off his scarů, ad male din aliow too little to instinct, for fear of allowing too much. Beactie on Tum, p. 238.7

. In Mr King's cale latioon, fic erruracy of which has never yet been questioned, he asscrts, thai, of ihi:ly-rine will osuf acres of land in England, tea millions, or more than a fouth, consisted in bear'ı, noors, mountains, and barren lands, and this esc'usive of woods, furests parks, commy.s, roads, &c. . There have, since that tiwe, beez many improvements madle; but it will be surely allowed no improbable supposition, that one fiftieth part may, yet be gained from the unprofitable state in wiscia it is. Campbeli's Pol. Survey, vol. ii. p. 732. . .

inat is a very mode ate supposition.

When the Elomites fled from David, with their young king Hadad, into Egypt, it is probable that they carried thither also the use of LETTEPS; for letters were then in use, among ihe posterity of Abrahain, in Arabia Petiæa and upon the borders of the Red Sea, the law being written there by Moses, in a book and in tables of stone, lorg before; for Moses, marrying the daughter of the prince of Midian; and dwelling with him forty years, learnt them among the Midianites; and Job, who lived among their neighbours, the Edomites, mentions the writing down of words, as there in use in his days; Job, xix, 23, 24. And there is no instance of letters, for writing down

sounds, being in use, before the days of David, in any other nation besides the postë· sity of Abraham.' The Egyptians ascribed this invention to Thoth, the secretary of Osiris, and therefore letters began to be in use in Egypt in the days of Thoth; i. e. «a

.. nils ir 11: : '.si ir t.. little

tittle after the flight of the Edomites from David, or about the time that Cadmus brought them into Europe. Sir Isaac Newton's Chronol. p. 210. · See this opinion of Sir Isaac's argued against in the Divine Legation, vol. iii.

It appears, from the express testimony of Moses, that God did indeed teach man language, Gen. ii. 19, 20; yet we cannot reasonably suppose it to be any other than what şerved his present purpose. After this, he was able of himself to improve and enlarge it as his future occasions should require, consequently the first language musi needs be very poor and narrow. Warb. Divine Leg. vol. iii. p. 108..

On the whole we see, that, before the institution of letters to express sounds, all characters deiloted only things; -Ist, by representation, or curiologic hieroglypbic. Qdiy, by analogy or symbols, i. e, tropical hieroglyphic. 3dly, by, arbitrary instituition. But it may be worth while to consider more particularly the origin and intro-duction of these arbitrary marks, the last advance of hieroglyphics towards alphabetic writing. We may observe that substances and all visible objects were at first very naturally expressed by the images of the things themselves, as moral modes and other sideal conceptions of the mind were more aptly represented by marks of arbitrary institution. For, as all nations in their ruder state had hieroglyphic images, or analogic or symbolic figures, for marking things, so had they likewise simple characters or notes of arbitrary institution for mental conceptions. Warb. Div. Leg. vol. i. p. 88, 89, 95., smoga ' : But, if they had from the beginning characters of arbitrary institution for mental conceptions, how can this be called the last advance towards alphabetic writing? And, if they were made use of for this purpose, why might they not for the purpose of conveying azy other idea? especially as the learned author observes before, “ that the first language must be very poor and narrow, and therefore the fewer marks or note's of arbitrary institution would be necessary.” For, as he remarks farther, " when men had once observed (and this they could not but observe early and easily, by the brute and inarticulate sounds which they were perpetually hearing emitted) how small the number is of primitive sounds, and how infinite the words are which may be formed by varied combinations of those simple sounds, it would naturally and easily occur to them, that a very few of those marks, which had before casually excited the sensation of those simple sounds, might be selected and formed into what has since been called an alphabet, to express them all. And then their old accustomed way of combining primitive sounds into words would as naturally and easily direct them to à like combination of what were now become the simple marks of sound, from whence mould arise literary writing," p. 153. One would think, then, that, as language was coeval with mankind, that letters were of a very early date, and prior to the invention of hieroglyphies, which were confessedly the institution of the Egyptians; and, if letters were abbreviated characters from the hieroglyphics and symbolic figures, it might be imagined that at first they would have been very numerous, and gradually


lessened in time; whereas it is certain that the first alphabets contained tlié fewest num ber of letters; anel this learned author observes, from Irenæus, * Antiquæ et prind Hebræorun literæ, quæ sacerdotales nuncupatæ, decem quidem fuere numcro," p. 158. And, again, he takes notice, “ That Moses increased the number of the letters, which he brought from Egypt, from sixteen to twenty-two, and thai he altered the shape of them to take off their resemblance to the hieroglyphic characters, and'reduced them into something like those simple forms in which we now find them."-: P. 164. If this was the case, there can be but little drawn from the analogy between the hierogly. phic forms and the shape of the letters.

There is.. . He goes on, p. 166: « To this let me add another consideration. The vowel-points (as seems now to be generally agreed on) were added since the Jews ceased to be a nation. The Hebrew language was originally, and so continued to be for a long time, written without them. Now, if God. first taught Moses 'an alphabet, can we believe that the vowels would have been thus generally omitted? But, suppose Moses learnt his alphabet of the Egyptians, and only made it fuller and altered the form of the letters, we may easily give a good account of the omission." .'.';

Here the learned author is certainly guilty of a mistake in supposing that the vowels did not exist before the vowel-points; for, it is past a doubt that the n, 17, 1, ', which answer to the a, e, i, o, u, were as much vowels in the Hebrew, as they are in our language or any other, the y having the two powers of o and u. 2.; ;. .

For my part, says Mr Bryant, I believe that there was no writing antecedent to the law of mount Sinai. Here the divine art was promulgated: for, if the people of the first ages had been possessed of so valuable a secret as that of woriting, they would never have afterwards descended to means less perfect for the explanation of their ideas. And it is to be observed, that the invention of hieroglyphics was certainly a discovery. of the Chaldæans and made use of in the first ages by the Egyptians, the very nations who are supposed to have been possessed of the superior and more perfect art. They might retain the former when they became possessed of the latter ; but, had they been possessed of letters originally, they would never have deviated into the use of symbols, at least for things which were to be published to the world, and which were to be commemorated for ages. How comes it, if they had writing so early, that scarcely one specimen is come down to us, but that every example should be in the least perfect character? Bryant's Myth. vol.iii. p. 123. - But, if the hieroglyphics were the saered mysterious, 'character, as they seem ty have been, may not this account for their being so particularly preserved? See hieros glyphics, alphabet, vowels, and writing. : ?" ...... . .

Letters seem to have been invented much earlier than the days of Moses; for, the Israelites, at the giving of the law, upon the two tables, do not express their surprise at all; and the people must have been inspired to read the law at first sight, which they probably did, had not letters been invented before; and Vossius, de Arte Gram


ma. observes;' “ Liquet, cum Phænices sint Cananæi, rectissime dicere, quibus lite: ræ Phænicum sint antiquissimæ. Vere enim Hebræicæ sunt, quibus Abraham, Heberi inclyta progenies et posteritas ejus usa est. Sunt vero istæ Cananææ sive Phæniciæ, &c.

That the art of writing, or the invention, of letters, was imparted or discovered to Moses by revelation is made good by two arguments, which are these: that it is never once mentioned before the giving of the Law, and that it is scarce ever omitted on any natural occasion after the giving of the Law, in all the books of Moses. , Winder's Hist. of Knowledge, vol. ii. p. 33.

The first language was most probably from revelation, by which divine gift the first men were capable of correspondence with each other; and the first alphabetical writing was also imparted to Moses by revelation, which was the means of correspondence with different ages. And, by the best conjectures from antient history, sacred or profane, compared together, it appears that the knowledge of letters could not be capable of a transition to any other nation, from the Hebrews, till about the reigns of David and Solomon. That there were no Letters in Egypt before Shishak, and none in Greece before Cadmus. Id. vol. ii. p. 339.

· Quoties unaquæque litera in lege, prophetis, et hagiographis, usurpetur, cognoscere
est ex Hebræis Rabbi Saadias versiculis, qui hodieque exstant. Numeros eos notis
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313452 633923
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1 66420

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à 29537 .48253 P 22979
7 32530 5 41517

1 22148

77778 w 32148
776922 1 41696 on 59343
122867 D13580


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Hæc curiosa nimis opera videtur, nec tamen penitus inanis est, quia nonnihil facit ad integritatem Scripturarum observandam. Vide Vossius de Art. Gram. lib. i. p. 33. .

But, unless it could be made appear that the copy which Ben Saadias made use of was pure and genuine, it could answer no purpose.

Walton, in his Proleg. from the same author, makes the whole number 815280, which exceeds this 191,

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«!! LEX MOSAICA non in Judæorum gratiain-duntaxat introiducia fuit, aut prophetæad solos Judieos missi, a quibus affligebantur, sed in hoc destinati, rit universi orbis: magistri ac pædagogi essent, et pro publicâ scholâ ef sacrosaricia; tam in iis quæ per-' tinent ad Deum, quam in iis quæ spectant ad animæ disciplindin." Sic Athanasius de Incarn. Dei. Voss. Hist. Pelarlibvii. p. 1, thès: 4. ' ; 'pere ::. . ."

.. Dr LOWTH, afterwards Bishop of London, was a man of learning and ingenuity, and of many virtues; but his friends did his character no service by affecting to bring Iris merits, whatever they were, into competition with those of the Bishop of Gloucester, lurburton. His reputation as a writer was raised chiefly on bis Hebrew literature, as displayed in those two works, his Latin lectures on Ilebrew poetry and his English version of the prophet Isaiah. The former is well and elegantly composed, but in a vein of criticisin not above the common: the tattét; I thitik, 'is chiefly valuable as it shews how litile is to be expected from Dr. Kennieott's work, (which yet the learned bishop pronounces to be the greatest and most important that has been undertakeri andi accomplished since the revival of letters,) and from a new translation of the Bible for public use. Hurd's Life of Warburton, p. 94.

But see the letters which passed between Lowth and Warburton, wherein the former has the advantage. ',' 'n sweatsi Tuled .. .! ! !

The stupendous acquisition of the knowledge of the properties of the LOADSTONE may, in my opinion, be safely assigned to divine revelation, vouchsafed to Noah, that it might be an unerring guide to that holy and favoured patriarch when enclosed in ile dark bosom of the ark. -- The momentous secret, thus intrusted to the patriarch, might be transmitted down to his immediate posterity, and by them inviolably preserved, till the period arrived when the enlarged population and increasing commerce of mankind rendered its divulgement necessary towards fulfilling the benevolent designs of that: Providence, who constituted man, a social and an inquisitive being. And the magnet is mentioned by the most antient classical writers, under the name of lapis lleraclius, in allusion to its asserted inventor, Herculis. Maurice's Ind. Antiq. vol. vi. p. 191, 192.

That wonderful property of the loadstone, (or magnet,) by which it communieates sacla virtue: to a slender rod of iron or needle, as 10 point towards the poles of the earth, was discovered by Flavio Gioia, a citizen of Amalf, in Naples, about the year 1302. Robertson's History of America, vol. i. ...:

Jacob's LADDER,, according to the best interpreters, is an emblem of the divine Providence, which governs all things. Its being set upon the earth denotes the steadiness of Providence, which nothing is able to unsettle; its reaching up to heaven signifies its umiversality, or that it extends to all things; the several steps of the tadder are the motions and actions of Providence; the angels going to and dort, she thirt

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