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take pleasure in his little fellow-prisoner, allowing her to pick (which she does very gently) about his whiskers, and to clean his claws from the minute fragments of chesnuts which happen to adhere to them. This attachment on the one part, and mild condescension on the other, may, perhaps, be partly the effect of mutual misfortunes, which are found not only to knit mankind, but many species of inferiour animals, more closely together, and shows that the disposition of the blue jay may be humanized, and rendered susceptible of affectionate impressions, even for those birds which in a state of nature he would have no hesitation in making a meal of.

The Baltimore Bird (Oriolus Baltimorus) or Hanging Bird, is particularly described. The extent of its range, the singular formation of its nest, and the errours of European writers respecting its manners, are fully discussed. The author has also here, as well as elsewhere, given us a specimen of his poetical talents, which we could have wished had been still more numerously interspersed. The circumstances of building and incubation are thus delineated.

High on yon poplar clad in glossiest green,
The orange, black-capped Baltimore is seen,
The broad extended boughs still please him best,
Beneath their bending skirts he hangs his nest;
There his sweet mate, secure from every harm
Broods o'er her spotted store and wraps them warm;
Lists to the noontide hum of busy bees,

Her partner's mellow song, the brook, the breeze;
These day by day the lonely hours deceive,
From dewy morn to slow descending eve.
Two weeks elapsed, behold a helpless crew!
Claim all her care and her affection too;
On wings of love th' assiduous nurses fly,

Flowers, leaves, and boughs abundant food supply;
Glad chants their guardian as abroad he goes,,
And waving breezes rock them to repose.

The Wood Thrush is represented as a "sweet and solitary songster." His character is thus described on his first arrival in spring.

"With the dawn of the succeeding morning, mounting to the top of some tall tree that rises from a low, thick shaded part of the woods, he pipes his few but clear and musical notes in a kind of ecstacy; the prelude, or symphony to which, strongly resembles the double-tonguing of a German flute, and sometimes the tinkling of a small bell; the whole song consists of five or six parts, the last note of each of which is in such a tone as to leave the conclusion evidently suspended. The finale is finely managed, and with such charming effect as to sooth and tranquillize the mind, and to seem sweeter and mellower at each successive repetition. Rival songsters, of the same species, challenge each other from different parts of the wood,. seeming to vie for softer tones and more exquisite responses. During the burning heat of the day they are comparatively mute; but in the evening the same melody is renewed, and continued long after sunset. Those who visit our woods, or ride out into the country at these hours, during the months of May and June, will be at no loss to recognise, from the above description, this pleasing musician. Even in dark, wet, and gloomy weather, when scarce a single chirp is heard from any other bird, the clear notes of the Wood Thrush thrill through the dropping woods, from morning to night; and it may truly be said, that the sadder the day the sweeter is his song.

"The favourite haunts of the Wood Thrush are low, thick-shaded hollows, through which a small brook or rill meanders, overhung with alder bushes that are mantled with wild vines. Near such a scene he generally builds his nest, in a laurel or alder bush. Outwardly it is composed of withered beech leaves of the preceding year, laid at bottom in considerable quantities, no doubt to prevent damp and moisture from ascending through, being generally built in low wet situations; above these are layers of knotty stalks of withered grass, mixed with mud, and smoothly plastered, above which is laid a slight lining of fine, black, fibrous roots of plants. The eggs are four, sometimes five, of a uniform light blue, without any spots.

The Wood Thrush appears always singly or in pairs, and is of a shy, retired, un obtrusive disposition. With the modesty of true merit he charms you with his song,

but is content and even solicitous to be concealed. He delights to trace the irregular windings of the brook, where, by the luxuriance of foliage, the sun is completely shut out, or only plays in a few interrupted beams on the glittering surface of the water."

The history of the Robin (Turdus Migratorius) is accompanied by a striking representation of that well known bird, which we instantly recog nise. But the Gold-winged Woodpecker (Picus Auratus) challenges still more our attention. This bird, we are told, has been described by Europeans, as forming an intermediate link between the Cuckoos and Woodpeckers, having the greatest resemblance to the former, so as to have been arranged by several eminent ornithologists with the Cuckoo. This notion Mr. Wilson endeavours to prove to be without foundation, by a minute description of the conformation of the tongue of the species, the tail-feathers, manners, food, mode of constructing its nest, and a variety of other circumstances. He attempts also, and with considerable humour and effect, to vindicate this species from the aspersions thrown on the whole of the woodpecker tribe, in the well known philipick of Buffon. The following are the passages we refer to.

"The abject and degraded character which the count de Buffon, with equal eloquence and absurdity, has drawn of the whole tribe of Woodpeckers, belongs not to the elegant and sprightly bird now before us. How far it is applicable to any of them will be examined hereafter. He is not 66 constrained to drag out an insipid existence in boring the bark and hard fibres of trees to extract his prey;" for he frequently finds in the loose mouldering ruins of an old stump (the capital of a nation of pismires) more than is sufficient for the wants of a whole week. He cannot be said to "lead a mean and gloomy life, without an intermission of labour," who usually feasts by the first peep of dawn, and spends the early and sweetest hours of morning on the highest peaks of the tallest trees, calling on his mate or companions; or pursuing and gamboling with them round the larger limbs and body of the tree for hours together; for such are really his habits. Can it be said that neces sity never grants an interval of sound repose" to that bird, who, while other tribes are exposed to all the peltings of the midnight storm, lodges dry and secure in a snug chamber of his own constructing; or that "the narrow circumference of a tree circumscribes his dull round of life," who, as seasons and inclination inspire, roams from the frigid to the torrid zone, feasting on the abundance of various regions? Or is it a proof that "his appetite is never softened by delicacy of taste" because he so often varies his bill of fare, occasionally preferring to animal food the rich milkiness of young Indian corn, and the wholesome and nourishing berries of the wild cherry, sour gum, and red cedar? Let the reader turn to the faithful repres sentation of him given in the plate, and say whether his looks be "sad and inelancholy." It is truly ridiculous and astonishing that such absurdities should escape the lips or pen of one so able to do justice to the respective merits of every spe, cies; but Buffon had too often a favourite theory to prop up, that led him insensibly astray; and so, orsooth, the whole mily of woodpeckers must look sad, sour, and be miserable, to satisfy the caprice of a whimsical philosopher who takes it into his head that they are, and ought to be so.

"But the count is not the only European who has misrepresented and traduced this beautiful bird. One has given him brown legs,* another a yellow neck,† a third has declared him a cuckoo ; and in an English translation of Linnæus's System` of Nature, lately published, he is characterized as follows: "Body striated with black and grey; checks red; chin black; never climbs on trees" which is just as correct as if in describing the human species we should say-skin striped with black and green; cheeks blue; chin orange; never walks on foot, &c. The pages of natural history should resemble a faithful mirrour, in which mankind may recognise the true images of the living originals; instead of which we find this department of them, too often, like the hazy and rough medium of wretched window glass, through whose crooked protuberances every thing appears so strangely distorted, that one scarcely knows their most intimate neighbours and acquaintances.” (TO BE CONTINUED.)

* See Encyc. Brit. Art. Picus. † Latham, + Klein. #ransversim striatus." ¢ truncos arborum non scandit” Ind. Orn.

S" P. griseo mgroque
vol. i. p. 242.

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SPIRIT OF THE MAGAZINES.

THE HINDOO CITY, DHUBOY.

The following description of the once celebrated Hindoo city, Dhuboy, situated to the northward of Baroach, is entirely new to the European world. We have reason to believe that there are in India many cities, now fallen from their original splendour, or even in ruins, which formerly boasted of their illustrious residents, and their own magnificence. They deserve the attention of the curious, as marking the manners of a part of mankind; and even the histories of their foundations are not without interest, as they manifest the mode of narration adopted by the natives; and their traditionary variations from simple truth

DHUBOY is a Hindoo city, that can boast of the most valuable remains of very remote antiquity. The fortifications which surround it are nearly three miles in circumference; and the ancient parts, that yet remain, are constructed in an elegant and costly manner, being formed entirely of a beautiful hewn stone, having a covered piazza, supported by pillars and pilasters that are formed of triangular stones, and are adorned by very curióus sculpture.

The four principal entrances, or gates of the city, are yet more magnificently decorated, and exhibit a more expensive, and valuable species of workmanship, particularly that which opens towards the east. This is called, by way of eminence, the gate of diamonds.

Many lacks of rupees were expended upon the decorations of this gate alone, and so great is the profusion of carved work and fine basso-relievos, and for the Indian style of sculpture, they are so admirably executed, that the most superficial and idle spectator must, of necessity, be forcibly struck by its magnificent appearance.

Near the centre of this justly celebrated city, a spacious tank of the purest water expands its broad and placid surface, which is adorned by several small but beautiful islands, bearing groves of trees that are clothed by an eternal verdure.

This artificial tank is surrounded, for the greatest part, by flights of marble steps, which descend to the very bottom of the water. It was originally made for a reservoir of water, for the use of the inhabitants, and was formed at a vast expense. Notwithstanding it adorns the centre of a large city, and that containing many very considerable manufactures, the banks are ornamented by beautiful groves of mango and tamarind trees, that suspend their luxurious foliage and fruits over the reflecting surface of the tank; while all around, trees of the same species are seeĥ overshadowing the Hindoo pagodas and splendid houses of the Bramins, who are a very numerous class of people in Dhuboy.

I have seldom seen so interesting a spectacle as is to be observed almost every day in this city. Under the grateful shade of these verdant canopies, the weavers fix their looms, and carry on various branches of the cotton manufacture; and, together with the surrounding objects, form a most pleasing and gratifying sight, to a man who feels delight in the contemplation of earthly comfort, and of human happiness.

As the harmless inhabitants never persecute, or even molest, any part of the animal creation, the face of this beautiful tank is covered with large flocks of wild ducks, pelicans, and a variety of water fowl, which remain in perfect security, and feed unconscious of fear; while the trees are filled with peacocks, cranes, doves, and many other beautiful birds; and thousands of monkeys jump about, and play their antick tricks, even on the very roofs of the houses. These animals swarm, to such a degree, in the streets of Dhuboy, that they appear far more numerous than the other inhabitants.

The multiplicity of birds and monkeys, resident in Dhuboy, is owing to the universal protection that is afforded to them by the Hindoos who are the principal and most numerous inhabitants of the city, which is by much the most beautiful and interesting place I have seen in the east; and the appearance of so many animals, that in other places are wild and will scarcely allow a stranger to approach them, but which are here so tame that they exist under the immediate power of the lords of the creation, forms a striking picture, and recalls to the mind of the spectator, the beau tiful allegory of men in a state of innocence, when surrounded by all the monsters of the forest, and the various species of the animated creation, without fear of danger or dread of persecution.

The scite of this city is so extremely low, wet, and marshy, that the stranger is astonished how its early founders came to fix upon so disagreeable a spot (when compared with the delightful situations that almost every where surround it) for the foundation of so famed a city. But an account of its origin, which has been carefully handed down to the present generation, and which is generally believed by the inhabitants to be true, at once explains the cause.

I have little doubt but this story is founded upon fact; but, as almost all the Asiatick traditions, and what the natives term historical facts are mingled with the most extravagant fable, it requires a long and accurate intimacy with their manners, customs, and literature, in order to select that which can be relied upon as truth, and distinguish its simple garb, from the rich and many coloured robes that clothe their fable, allegory, and metaphor; but, as I am convinced that all those of my readers, who possess even the smallest degree of taste, will be much gratified by the account of the origin of this city, I will present them with the best authenticated relation I have been able to obtain.

Many centuries have now rolled away, and have shrouded the innumerable events and actions of men, in a universal gloom of doubt and uncertainty, that now can never be removed; yet, amongst those few records which have survived the wreck of ages, is one that remains to inform posterity, that the rich and powerful kingdom of Guzerat was (in the early ages of Asiatick history) governed by a mighty, and invincible monarch, named Sadara Jaising (which, according to the derivation of their peculiar language, means the successful and strong lion) who held his residence at Putton, a celebrated and magnificent city of the north.

This powerful monarch was blessed in the possession of seven wives who were the most beautiful and accomplished females of his empire, and by them he had many children; but, as is always the case, where one man is in possession of so many women, he had his favourite, and this was the youngest and most fascinating of his wives, who, by way of eminence, was called, Ruttanalee, or the Lustre of Jewels; but unfortunately for her, and for her royal consort, she had not the happiness to be a mother.

The other ladies of the haram, who were extremely jealous of Ruttanalee, and had ever entertained a deadly hate towards her, and sought by all the means in their power to weaken that peculiar affection which the Rajah always evinced towards her, had hitherto made the unfortunate circumstance of her barrenness, their principal plea in order to alienate his love.

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But, notwithstanding the beauteous Ruttanalee produced not the delightful fruits of her interesting connexion with the puissant emperour of Guzerat; yet that virtuous monarch had too much judgment, and too ardent a love for her who contributed so much towards his earthly happiness, to cast her off at the iniquitous instigations of a nest of jealous, envious, and abandoned women.

But at length, a circumstance occurred, that caused a very great sensation throughout the haram. This was no other than the long-wished-for pregnancy of Ruttanalee, which had been so ardently longed after by herself, and the Rajah; but no event, whatever, could have been more unwelcome to her enemies, and their hatred became still more rancorous; till, at length, it knew no bounds, and they were determined to have recourse to supernatural agency, in order to prevent the birth of the expected infant.

According to the superstitious opinions and customs of the Indians, they firmly believe in the power of the charms and spells which are made use of by their religious devotees; and in the belief that the existence of the child, whose birth was so much dreaded by the implacable enemies of Ruttanalee, could be averted by these means; those wicked wretches immediately employed the necessary agents, and as soon as the superstitious rites were performed, they remained easy, under the ridiculous idea, that the unborn babe would never be an inhabitant of this world.

Indeed, so credulous was the much envied Ruttanalee, that she firmly believed in the power of the witchcraft that had been employed against her; and was very uneasy under the idea, that the talisman had already taken effect, and that so long as she remained in the place where she then was, her babe would never see the light.

Impressed with these melancholy ideas, she requested permission from the Rajaḥ, to remove from the haram, to a considerable distance in the country, there to remain until the days of her travail should be passed; and, in order to prevail with him the more effectually, she stated to him some of her reasons for wishing to take this step.

The Rajah immediately consented, and ordered a very numerous, and splendid retinue to accompany her, together with every necessary and luxury she might want; and with this magnificent equipage, she set out from the imperial city of Guzerat, in order to sacrifice at a distant but sacred temple of the Hindoo gods, situated on the verdant banks of the majestick Norbudda.

After a very long, and tedious journey, she arrived, about the close of the day, at a hallowed grove, about ten miles distant from the temple to which she was travelling, and which was situated in the very spot where the city of Dhuboy now stands. The dews of night falling around, and the light of day gradually giving place to the increasing gloom of darkness, she ordered her camp to be fixed in the grove for that night, intending to pursue her journey on the following morning.

While engaged in her evening devotions, in her own tent, a holy dervise, or faqhir, who had long ago renounced all connexions with the world, and who had, for many years, resided in the recesses of that grove, in a seat of

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