« PreviousContinue »
PHILOSOPHICAL AND ECONOMICAL INTELLIGENCE.
A SINGULAR case of success in applying the magnet, to extract a fragment of iron out of the human eye, has been recently transmitted to the Philosophical Magazine. It seems in the course of last summer, Charles Milsted, a blacksmith of Teuterden, received a particle of iron, about the size of a small pin's head, in the ball of his left eye, while he was striking the head of one hammer against another. Some weeks after this accident, a gentleman applied a magnet to the part injured, but could only draw out a mixture of powdered rust with the tears. This gave no relief, as the fragment of iron was yet in the eye. A surgeon endeavoured to take it out with the point of a lancet, but finding it firmly fixed very near the pupil, he concluded it was impossible to touch it with any instrument without extreme danger. The former gentlemen then sent again for the young man, and examining the eye with a very powerful magnifying glass, he could see a very small particle of black iron; but covered over with the thin coating of the eye. Being satisfied of the exact situation of the piece of iron, and the impediments to be surmounted, the eye-lids were held open, and he applied the north pole of a combined staple-magnet, possessing great power, at the distance of about the sixteenth part of an inch from the eye. Then he used a magnet of less power, but of more convenient construction, and continued to apply them both by turns, till he could at length perceive that the fragment had projected above the surface of the iris of the eye. Still there was a coating to cut its way through, before the magnet could draw it out. In fact, it seemed as firmly fixed as a thorn in the flesh, and was very different from what it might have been, had it been only loosely floating on the outer surface of the eye. During this operation, the young man frequently thought he felt the fragment rush out of his eye, before it really had done so; however, after using magnets of different degrees of power for ten or fifteen minutes, the particle of iron cut its way through the thin teguments of the eye, by the power of attraction, and was taken out by the magnet. By the assistance of glasses, it appeared of an imperfect octagon shape, armed with rough, jagged edges. The eye was, notwithstanding, free from pain, the moment it was out, though for some months before, the patient had suffered night and day without intermission. A small scar still remained on the eye, but it occasioned no pain. Knowing that the magnetick fluid will make its passage even through plates of glass, when any particle of iron is within its influence, the writer is surprised, a mean so familiar and natural as the present is not more frequently recurred to in such
Account of the Magnetick Mountain of Cannay; by George Dempster, of Dunnichen, Esq
Cannay is an island of ten or twelve miles in circumference, with an excellent harbour. In it is a hill of some height, called the Compass Hill, in which there is a little hole dug a foot or two in depth A compass placed in this hole is instantly disturbed, and in a short time veers about to the eastward, till at last the north point settles itself in a due southerly direction, and remains there. At a very little distance from this hole, perhaps on the very edge of it, the needle recovers its usual position.
This singular circumstance was known when Martin wrote his account of the island, and is taken notice of by him. He, indeed, says the compass then settled at due east, which is also curious. What increases the singularity of this alteration in the needle, is a discovery lately made by Hector M'Neil, Esq. tacksman of the island. He mentioned the circumstance to us, and lord Bredalbane, sir Adam Ferguson, Mr. Isaac Hawkins Browne, and the rest of the company, went to examine the fact. The harbour on the north side is formed by a bold rock of basalt, which may be about half a mile below, and to the southward of the Compass Hill, of which this rock is a continuation. We rowed under this rock, and when the boat reached its centre, immediately under the rock, and almost touching it, the north point of our compass veered about, and settled at due south, and remained there. This experiment was frequently repeated with the same success; but this effect was confined also to a very small part of the rock, which seemed to us directly south from the hole on Compass Hill. At a little distance, on either side, the needle recovered its usual position. His
lordship then directed the boat to row with great quickness past the rock, when, upon our crossing the place which had before affected the needle, it was again affected during the passage, though very quick, and recovered soon after passing this point. We could hardly venture to assign any cause for these appearances, but by supposing something magnetical in the rock, extending the whole distance from the Compass Hill to the headland at the mouth of the harbour. If this should prove to be the case, we had no scruple in pronouncing this to be the largest loadstone as yet discovered in the world. A part of the rock was broken off at the very spot where this affection of the needle was observed, and was applied to the compass when removed from the rock; but it seemed to produce no effect upon the needle whatsoever: also, the compass was carried about the length of the boat from the rock, and it was also placed in the same line on the opposite side of the harbour, at about a quarter of a mile's distance; neither of these experiments produced any effect on the needle.
In this island there are many columnar appearances not unlike to Staffa; and several both straight and bent, and every way as regular, which seems also to have, like Staffa, escaped observation till very lately.
PRODUCE OF WHEAT.
The produce of a single grain of wheat, propagated in the garden of the Rev. Dr. Drake, rector of Amersham, Bucks, by Wm. Rebecca, gardener. "On the 1st day of August, I sowed, or rather set, a single grain of the red wheat; and in the latter end of September, when the plant had tillered, I took it up, and slipped or divided it into four sets or slips. Those four sets I planted, and they grew and tillered as well as the first. In the end of November, I took them up a second time, and made thirtysix plants or sets. These I again planted, which grew till March, in which month I, a third time, took up my plants, and divided them into two hundred and fifty-six plants, or sets. For the remaining part of the summer, till the month of August, they had nothing done to them, except hoeing the ground clean from weeds, till the corn was ripe. When it was gathered, I had the ears counted, or numbered, and they were three thousand five hundred and eleven; a great part of which proved as good grain as ever grew out of the earth. Many of the ears measured six inches in length, some were middling grain, and some very light and thin.-This was the reason I did not number the grains; but there was better than half a bushel of corn in the whole produce of this one grain of wheat in one year.-Query, would not this practice (springplanting) be of great use where the crops miss by various accidents incidental to farming?"
Salt, moistened with as small a quantity of water as possible, is said to be an effectual remedy against the inflammation occasioned by the stings of bees and wasps. A wasp being swallowed, unperceived, by a person while drinking a glass of beer, stung him, with all its power, inside of his throat. This simple remedy, salt, effected his recovery, although his gullet was swelled, and his breathing was so strongly affected and interrupted from the violence of the pain, &c. as almost to suffocate him.
German Recipes. For the destruction of caterpillars, ants, and other insects.Take about two pounds weight of black soap, the same quantity of flowers of sulphur, two pounds weight of truffles [ly coperdon tuber. Linn.] and fifteen gallons of water. The whole must be well incorporated, by the aid of a gentle warmth. Insects on which this water is sprinkled die immediately.-Query, is this liquor effectual in destroying that noisome vermin the bug? If so, its composition cannot be made too extensively known; as we do not perceive that it is likely to damage bed furniture, &c.
To restore the lustre of glasses that are tarnished by age, or accident.-Strow on them powdered fullers' earth, carefully cleared from sand, &c. and rub them carefully with a linen cloth.
Mountain Ash-tree bearing Pears.
We have already given the history of several unique or remarkable trees. The following may certainly be added to them.
Report speaks of a mountain ash-tree in the forest near Bewdly bearing pears. This identical tree was described by alderman Pitts of Worcester, in the Philosophical Transactions, as long ago as the year 1678. It still flourishes in the forest of Wyre, near Bewdly, in full strength and beauty. A few years ago it was accurately and
seientifically described by Mr. Sowerby in his English Botany, under the name of the Pyrus Domestica. The plate 350, of that useful and elegant work, represents a branch of the tree bearing fruit and flowers, which was sent to the editor, as a specimen, by lord viscount Valentia, who then resided in the neighbourhood at his seat at Over Asley. This tree is, I believe, quite a rarity, and I think, likely to remain so, as every endeavour to propagate it has hitherto failed of success. The country people call it the "Witty Pear Tree."
It is probable that the seeds or saplings of this tree, it being out of the common course of nature, may not have prolifick power sufficient to propagate their species. We would recommend a trial of the Chinese method of treating the branches;* and if some of the most promising could be induced, by careful management, to take root, by that means, they would no doubt retain the same powers as they possessed while united to the parent tree. This appears to us to be the most probable mean of establishing this accidental specimen into a species.
Rapid Cultivation of Fruit Trees.
The Chinese, instead of raising their fruit trees from seeds or grafts, as is the prac tice in Europe, adopt the following method. They select a branch fit for the purpose, and round it they wind a rope made of straw besmeared with cow dung, until a bali is formed five or six times the diameter of the branch. Immediately under this ball they divide the bark down to the wood, for nearly two thirds of the circumference of the branch. A cocoa nut shell, or small pot, is hung over the ball, with a hole in its bottom, so small that water put therein will only fall in drops. By this, the rope is kept constantly moist, a circumstance necessary to the easy admission of the young roots. In about three weeks it is supposed that some of the roots have struck into the rope, when the remainder of the bark is cut, and the former incision carried deeper into the wood; it is repeated in three weeks more.-In about two months, the roots are seen intersecting each other on the surface of the ball, which is a sign that they are sufficiently advanced to admit of the separation of the branch from the tree, which is done by sawing at the incision, taking care not to cut off the rope, which by this time is rotten, and the branch is planted as a young tree.-It is probable that a month longer would be necessary for this operation in England, from the difference of climate; but by this means, when the branches are large, three or four years are sufficient to bring them to a state of full bearing. Timber trees, it is supposed, may be advan tageously propagated in the same way.
RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS.
By Hopkins and Earle, Philadelphia, Published,
Lectures on the Evidences of the Christian Religion, delivered to the senior class on Sunday afternoon in the college of New Jersey, by the Rev. Samuel Stanhope Smith, D. D. Price $1,25.
Republished, Letters to the Rev. Thomas Belsham, on some important subjects of Theological discussion referred to in his discourse on occasion of the death of the Rev. Joseph Priestly, by John Pye Smith, D. D.
The History of the Church of Christ, by Joseph Milner, M. A. in 4 vols. 8vo. price $9.
Campaigns of the Armies of France in Prussia, Saxony, Poland, &c, under the command of Buonaparte, in 1806, and 1807-Containing also Biographical notices upon those who fell during that memorable campaign-with Historical and Military details of the Sieges, Battles, &c. in 2 vols. 8vo. Price in Boards $4,50. Translated from the French by Samuel Mackay, A. M.
The History of the World, by John Gillies, L. L. D. 3 vols. 8vo. Price bound $7,50. The Gospel Plan: or a Systematical Treatise on the Leading Doctrines of Salvation, by the Rev. William C. Davis, of South Carolina, 1 large vol. 8vo. Price $2,75.
* See the next article.
Corinna, or Italy-a highly interesting Novel, interweaving an accurate description of the state of the Fine Arts and the curiosities of Italy, with a most entertaining Story. 2 vols. 12mo. Price $2,50.
Dr. Andrews's Logick; a new edition revised and enlarged, in use in many of the Academies and Colleges of the United States. Price 75 cts.
A short, plain, comprehensive, practical Latin Grammar, with an Alphabetical Vocabulary. The third edition. By James Ross, A. M. Price 75 cts.
The Medical Guide, for the use of Families, and Young Practitioners, or Students in Medicine and Surgery; being a complete Practical system of Modern Domestick Medicine. First American from the fourth English edition. Price $2,50.
By C. & A. Conrad, & Co. Philadelphia, Published,
The third supplement to the Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal, by Ben. jamin S. Barton, M. D. Price 50 cts.
By Benjamin & Thomas Kite, Philadelphia, Republished, Cowper's Poems in two volumes, miniature size.
By Bradford & Inskeep, Philadelphia, Republished,
In 2 vols. Price $2. Woman; or, Ida of Athens. By Miss Owenson, author of the Wild Irish Girl, The Novice of St. Dominick, St. Clair, &c. &c. The Hungarian Brothers. By Miss Porter.
By Hastings, Etheridge & Bliss, Boston, Published, The Monthly Anthology and Boston Review for April, 1809. Vol. VI. No. 4. Republished, An Essay on the History of Civil Society, by Adam Ferguson, L. L. D? Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh.
PROPOSED AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS.
Hopkins & Earle, Philadelphia, propose to publish,
On the first of January next, and to be regularly continued once a year, the Annual Medical Register, compiled by a Society of Physicians of London; with, an appendix, comprehending a history of Medicine in the United States, for the year, by N. Chapman, M. D. &c. &c.
Lectures on Natural Philosophy, by the Rev. John Ewing, D. D. late Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, as revised and prepared for publication, by Robert Patterson, Director of the Mint, and Professor of Mathematicks in the University of Pennsylvania.
Burr's Trial, as reported by David Robertson, Esq. The first vol. of this work has been published-the other will soon appear.
To Republish, Wettenhall's Greek Grammar, translated by Wm. P. Farrand, much improved.
Beattie's and Johnson's Works, complete, &c. &c.
A. Finley & W. H. Hopkins, Philadelphia, to Republish,
About the 5th inst. the Life of Petrarch, collected from Memoires Pour La vie de Petrarch, by Mrs. Dobson. The first American from the seventh London edition. This work will be printed on a fine paper hy Messrs. Fry & Kammerer, and embellished with two handsome engravings.
W. W. Woodward, Philadelphia, to Republish,
By subscription, the Works of the Rev. John Newton, late Rector of the United Parishes of St. Mary Woolnoth and St. Mary Woolchurch Haw, London. Published by direction of his Executors.
Kimber, Conrad, & Co. Philadelphia, to Republish,
A General Collection of Voyages and Travels, forming a complete history of the origin and progress of discovery by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time; preceded by a historical introduction, and critical catalogue of books, vogages and travels and illustrated and adorned with numerous engravings, by John Pinkerton, Author of Modern Geography, &c.
Geo. Dobbin & Murphy and Callender & Wells, Baltimore, to Republish, In one vol. duodecimo; Patriotick Sketches of Ireland, by Miss Owenson; Author of "The Wild Irish Girl," "Novice of St. Dominick," "Lay of the Irish Harp," &c.
J. Augustine Smith, New York, to Publish,
By subscription, a System of Surgery, chiefly compiled from the Principles of Sur. gery, by John Bell, and the works of other modern authors; in one vol. illustrated with plates, by John Augustine Smith, of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, and Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in the University of the State of New York.
Samuel Wadsworth, New Haven, Conn. to Publish,
By subscription, a new work, entitled Albert, or the Fatal Promise. A poem in three cantos. Founded on recent facts. By Samuel Wadsworth, author of various Fugitive Poetick Essays.
Samuel B. Beach, Easton, Md. to Republish,
John West & Co. Edward Cotton, & O. C. Greenleaf, Boston, to Publish, By subscription, the Works of Samuel Johnson, L. L. D. with an Essay on his Life and Genius, by Arthur Murphy, Esq. in 8 vols. 8vo.
Wm. Wells & Th: B. Wait & Co. Boston, to Republish,
A New, Literal Translation from the original Greek, of all the Apostolical Epistles. With a Commentary and Notes, Philological, Critical, Explanatory, and Practical. To which is added, a history of life of the Apostle Paul. By James Macknight, D. D. author of a Harmony of the Gospels, &c. In 6 vols. To which is prefixed, an account of the life of the Author.
Memoirs of an American Lady, with sketches of manners and scenery in America, as they existed previous to the revolution. By Mrs. Grant, author of the "Letters from the Mountains," &c. &c.
RECENT BRITISH PUBLICATIONS.
A History of France, from the commencement of the reign of Cloves to the peace of Campo Formio in 1797, after the manner of the History of England, in a Series of Letters from a Nobleman to his Son. 12mo. 5s. 6d.
Observations on the Management of the Insane, and particularly on the agency and importance of humane and kind treatment in effecting their cure. By Thomas Arnold, M. D. 3s.
Narrative of the Siege of Zaragoza; by Charles Richard Vaughan, M. B. Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, and one of Dr. Radcliffe's Travelling Fellows from that University. 2s. 6d.
Travelling Sketches in Russia and Sweden, made during a residence in those countries in 1805, 6, 7, and 8; by Robert Ker Porter, S. K. J. with forty-one engravings, coloured. 2 vols. royal 4to. 51. 5s.
The Life of St. Neot, the eldest brother of king Alfred. By the Rev. J. Whitaker, B. D. 8vo. 10s. 6d.
An English Grammar; comprehending the principles and Rules of the Language; illustrated by appropriate Exercises and a Key to the Exercises. By Lindley Murray.
vols. 8vo. 11. 1s.
The Eton Latin Grammar, with Explanatory Notes, collected from various authors, By William Mavor, L. L. D. 6s. 6d.
Essays on the Theory and Practice of the Art of War, including the duties of officers in actual service, and the principles of modern tacticks. Chiefly translated from the best French and German Writers. By the Editor of the Military Mentor. In three handsome volumes, with numerous engravings, 11. 16s. in boards.
Leontina. Translated from the German of Augustus Von Kotzebue. 3 vols. 15s. The Minstrel. Book III. being a continuation of Dr. Beattie's Poems. 4to. 6s. The Pastoral or Lyrick Muse of Scotland. In three Cantos. By Hector Macneill, Esq. 4to. 7s. 6d.
Lectures on Systematick Theology, and on Pulpit Eloquence. By the late George Campbell, D. D. F. R. S. Ed. Principal of Marischal College, Aberdeen, 8vo. 9s.
Evening Amusements for the year 1809; being the sixth of the series of annual volumes, for the Improvement of Students in Astronomy. By W. Frend, Esq. 3s.
The Compositor's and Pressman's Guide to the Art of Printing. By C. Stower, Printer. Royal 12mo. 3s. 6d.
Joseph Lancaster's Spelling Book, for the use of schools. 6d.