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repositories of their transactions, models, &c. The legislature may enjoin on these schoolmasters, the combination of the subject of agriculture with the other parts of education. This may be easily effected, by introducing as schoolbooks, those on this subject, and thereby making it familiar to their pupils. These will be gaining a knowledge of the business they are destined to follow, while they are taught the elementary parts of their education. Books thus profitable to them in the common affairs of life, may be substituted for some of those now used; and they can easily be obtained Selections from the best writers on husbandry may be made by the society The essays of our own experimentalists or theorists, and the proceedings of the society will also afford information; and, as many of these will, no doubt, be good models of composition, they may form a part of the selection for the use of the county schools. And thus the youth in our country will effectually, and at a cheap rate, be grounded in the knowledge of this important subject. They will be easily inspired with a thirst for inquiry and experiment, and either never acquire, or soon banish attachments to bad systems, originating in the ignorance and bigotry of their forefathers, which, in all countries, have been the bane of good husbandry. It will also be the business of the society to recommend the collection of useful books on agriculture and rural affairs in every county. The citizens of the country should be drawn into a spirit of inquiry by the establishment of small, but well chosen libraries, on various subjects. This would not only promote the interests of agriculture, but it would diffuse knowledge among the people, and assist good government, which is never in danger while a free people are well informed.

5. The general meetings of this society, consisting of such members as may choose to attend, and particularly those charged with communications or information from the county and other societies, should be held at Philadelphia, at a time, in the winter sessions of the legislature, when citizens who may be members thereof, or have other business, can, with most Convenience, attend. At these meetings, the general business of the society can be arranged, its funds and transactions examined, and its laws and rules reported, discussed, and rendered generally serviceable and agreeable to the whole.

6. It will be necessary that a contribution be made by each member, annually, for a fund But this should be small, that it may not be too heavy a tax. The funds will, no doubt, be increased by donations from individuals; and if the state should find the institution as useful as it is contemplated to be, the patriotism of the members of the government will be exercised, by affording assistance out of the monies of the state. They will perceive that it is vain to give facility to transportation, unless the products of the country are increased by good husbandry: and though these facilities are important to the objects of this society, yet an increased knowledge of agriculture is the foundation of their extensive utility. The subjects of both are intimately connected, and mutually depend on each


7. When the funds of the society increase sufficiently to embrace the object, it will perfect all its efforts, by establishing Pattern Farms in different and convenient parts of the state. Let the beginning of this plan be with one establishment, under the direction of the society, and committed to the care of a complete farmer and gardener. In this, all foreign and domestick trees, shrubs, plants, seeds, or grains may be cultivated, and if approved as useful, disseminated, with directions for their culture, through the state. The most approved implements may be used on this farm, and

either improved by additions, or simplified to advantage. Inventions may be brought to trial, and the best selected. Models thereof may be made and transmitted to the county and other societies. Those who are sent to, or occasionally visit the farm, will gain more knowledge, in all its operations, from a short inspection, than can be acquired, in a long time, by reading on the use and construction of instruments, or the modes of cultivation. The cheapest, best and most commodious style of rural architecture-the most proper and permanent live fences-improvements in the breed of horses, cattle, and sheep-remedies for occasional and unforeseen visitations of vermin-the times and seasons for sowing particular crops-the adapting foreign products to our climate-and preventives against all the evils attendant on our local situation, or arising from accidental causes-may here be practically introduced. The thoughts and suggestions of ingenious men may here be put in practice; and, being brought to the test of experiment, their utility may be proved, or their fallacy detected. This farm need not be large. On it the best systems now known may be carried through, and further experiments made. Promising youths may be sent from different parts of the state to learn, practically, the art of husbandry. Manures, and the best mode of collecting them, may be tried Native manures should be sought after, and premiums given for their discovery. Their efficacy may be proved by small experiments on this farm, which should, in epitome, embrace the whole circle of practical husbandry. Similar farms may be added, as the funds increase; and thus practical agricul tural schools be instituted throughout the state.

8. When the pecuniary affairs of the society become adequate, it will highly contribute to the interest of agriculture, if, at the expense of the society, some ingenious person or persons were sent to Europe for the purposes of agricultural inquiries. It would be well, too, if a few young persons of promising abilities were sent thither to be instructed in the arts of husbandry, the breeding of cattle, &c. and to gain a practical knowledge on all subjects connected with this interesting, delightful, and important business, on which the existence, wealth, and permanent prosperity of our country so materially depend.

9. Although it would seem that a great portion of this plan has reference to the older settlements of the state, yet, in fact, many of its most useful arrangements will apply to new settlements in an eminent degree. These settlements are, for the most part, first established by people little acquainted with a good style of husbandry. The earth, in its prime, throws up abundant vegetation, and for a short period rewards the most careless husbandman. Fertility is antecedent to his efforts; and he has it not to recreate by artificial means. But he is ignorant of the most beneficial modes whereby he can take advantage of this youthful vigour with- which his soil is blessed. He wastes its strength, and suffers its riches to flee away. A bad style of cropping increases the tendency of fresh lands to throw up weeds, and other noxious herbage; and that luxuriance, which with care and system might be perpetuated, is indulged in its own destruction. It is discovered, when it is too late, that what was the foundation of the support and wealth of the improvident possessor, has been, by his ignorance and neglect, like the patrimony of a spendthrift, permitted, and even stimulated rapidly to pass from him in wild extravagance.

The products of nature, in our new countries, seldom have been turned to account. The timber is deemed an incumbrance, and at present is, perhaps, too much so. The labour and expense of preparing for tillage are enormous; and, when the sole object is that of cultivation, very discoura

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ging.* European books give us no lessons in these operations. But when the experience of our people is aided and brought to a point, by a union of facts and the ingenuity of intelligent men, now too much dispersed to be drawn into system, it is to be expected, with the surest prospects of success, that our difficulties on this head will be abated, if not overcome. The manufacture of potash, and the products of the sugar maple, may be objects of the attention of the society. More profitable modes of applying labour will hereby be promoted, and returns for expense, in the preparation for culture be obtained. Facilities for clearing lands may be discovered. Minerals, earths, and fossils, now either unknown or neglected, may be brought into use, or become objects of commerce. In fine, no adequate calculation can be formed of the effects which may be produced by a consolidation of the efforts, and even speculations, of our citizens, whose interests will stimulate them to exertion. Channels of communication will be established, and the whole will receive the benefits arising from a collection of the thoughts and labours of individuals, whose minds will be turned to a subject so engaging and profitable, as well to themselves as to their country.


The Dramatick Mirrour, containing the History of the Stage, from the earliest Period to the present Time; including a Biographical and Critical Account of all the Dramatick Writers, from 1600, and also of the most distinguished Performers, from the Days of Shakspeare to 1807; and a History of the Country Theatres in England, Ireland, and Scotland, embellished with seventeen elegant Engravings. By Thomas Gilliland, Author of Dramatick Synopsis. 8vo. 2. Vols.

A WORK that would properly satisfy the promise of this title page, instead of being comprised in two moderate octavo volumes, might be extended to the number of the mighty production of Grævius and Gronovius, which are hardly complete in twenty ponderous folios. This work, however, may be probably both convenient and useful to the frequenters of the modern theatre, now so changed from what even we ourselves remember it, that could the shades of Betterton, Quin, and Garrick, rise from their elysium, it may fairly be questioned whether, with one or two exceptions, they would acknowledge their brethren of the sock. They might be apt to exclaim: Call ye this a play, or that an actor? In this respect at least we confess ourselves laudatores temporis acti. Some very neatly executed heads of various performers are introduced, of the resemblance of which we are not able to judge.

The Duties of Religion and Morality as inculcated in the Holy Scriptures, with preliminary and occasional Observations. By Henry Tuke. 12mo.

THE preliminary observations in this excellent little book are on the importance of religion and morality; on religion as the basis of morality; on the love of God, the holy scriptures, and the divine attributes. The author then proceeds to the discussion of religious duties, and moral duties general and particular. The general duties are those of justice, charity, temperance, industry, &c. The particular duties, those of husbands and wives, parents and children, masters and servants, &c. &c.

This is an unexceptionable book for young persons, and indeed for adults, and is highly creditable to the duly tempered zeal of the amiable author.

* At the present time [1808] the expense of clearing land is much lessened, owing to the great influx of population in our new countries. For five dollars per acre, land may be completely cleared of timber.




RICHARD PORSON was born at East Ruston, in Norfolk, on Christmas day, 1759; so that he was only in his forty-ninth year. Every thing about this most eminent scholar, and particularly the circumstances which laid the foundation of that most inestimable memory, by which he was enabled to store his mind with all the riches of literature, ancient and modern, will become truly interesting to the world. He owed the blessing to the care and judgment of his father, Mr. Huggin Porson, who was parish clerk of East Ruston; and who, though in humble life, and without the advantages himself of early education, laid the basis of his son's unparalleled acquirements. From the earliest dawn of intellect, Mr. Porson began the task of fixing the attention of his children, three sons and a daughter; and he had taught Richard, his eldest son, all the common rules of arithmetick, without the use of a book or slate, pen or pencil, up to the cube root, before he was nine years of age. The memory was thus incessantly exercised; and by this early habit of working a question in arithmetick by the mind only, he acquired such a talent of close and intense thinking, and such a power of arranging every operation that occupied his thought, as in process of time to render the most difficult problems, which, to other men required the assistance of written figures, easy to the retentive faculties of his memory. He was initiated in letters by a process equally efficacious His father taught him to read and write at one and the same time. He drew the form of the letter either with chalk on a board, or with the finger in sand; and Richard was made at once to understand and imitate the impression. As soon as he could speak, he could trace the letters; and this exercise delighting his fancy, an ardour of imitating whatever was put before him was excited to such a degree, that the walls of the house were covered with characters, which attracted notice, from their neatness and fidelity of delineation.

At nine years of age, he and his youngest brother, Thomas, were sent to the village school, kept by a Mr. Summers, a plain but most intelligent and worthy man; who, having had the misfortune in infancy to cripple his left hand, was educated for the purpose of teaching, and he discharged his duties with the most exemplary attention. He professed nothing beyond English, writing and arithmetick, with the rudiments of Latin. He was a good accountant, and an excellent writing master. He perfected the professor in that delightful talent of writing, in which he so peculiarly excelled; but which, we are doubtful whether it was to be considered as an advantage or a detriment to him in his progress through life. It certainly had a considerable influence on his habits, and made him devote many precious moments to copying, which might have been better employed in composition. It has been the means, however, of enriching his library with annotations, in a text the most beautiful, and with such perfect imitation of the original

manuscript or printing as to embellish every work which his erudition enabled him to elucidate. He continued under Mr. Summers for three years; and every evening, during that time he had to repeat by heart, to his father, the lessons and tasks of the day; and this, not in a loose or desultory manner, but in the rigorous order in which whatever he had been occupied about had been done; and thus, again, the process of recollection was cherished and strengthened, so as to become a quality of his mind. it was impossible that such a youth should remain unnoticed, even in a place so thinly peopled, and so obscure, as the parish of East Ruston. The Rev Mr. Hewitt heard of his extraordinary propensities to study; his gift of attention to whatever was taught him; and the wonderful fidelity with which he retained whatever he had acquired. He took him and his brother Thomas under his care, and instructed them in the classicks. The progress of both was great, but that of Richard was most extraordinary. It became the topick of astonishment beyond the district, and when he had reached his fourteenth year, had engaged the notice of all the gentlemen in the vicinity. Among others, he was mentioned as a prodigy to an opulent and liberal man, the late Mr. Norris, who, after having put the youth under an examination of the severest kind, and from which an ordinary boy would have shrunk dismayed, sent him to Eton. This happened in the month of August, 1774, when he was in his fifteenth year; and in that great seminary phe, almost from the commencement of his career, displayed such a superiority of intellect, such facility of acquirement, such quickness of perception, and such a talent of bringing forward to his purpose all that he had ever read, that the upper boys took him into their society, and promoted the cultivation of his mind by their lessons, as well, probably, as by imposing upon him the performance of their own exercises. He was courted by them as the never failing resource in every difficulty; and in all the playful excursions of the imagination, in their frolicks, as well as in their serious tasks, Porson was the constant adviser and support. He used to dwell on this lively part of his youth with peculiar complacency; and we have heard him repeat a drama, which he wrote for exhibition in their long chamber, and other compositions, both of seriousness and drollery, with a zest that the recollection of his enjoyment at the time, never failed to revive in him. We fear, however, that at this early age, his constitution received a shock, which was soon after aggravated by the death of his worthy patron. An imposthume formed on his lungs, and he was threatened by a consumption. But it fortunately broke, and he recovered his health, though his frame was weakened.

The death of Mr. Norris was the source of severe mortification to him; for though, by the kindness of some eminent and liberal persons he was continued at Eton, he felt the loss he had sustained in the most poignant degree. But we do not mean, this day at least, to do more than trace the dates of his progress to the professor's chair. He was entered of Trinity college towards the end of 1777; and, his character having gone before him to the university, he was, from the first, regarded as a youth, whose extraordinary endowments would keep up and extend the reputation of the unrivalled society into which he had entered. Nor did he disappoint the hopes that had been formed of him. In every branch of study to which he applied himself, his course was so rapid as to astonish every competent observer. By accidents, which in a more detailed biographical article will be explained, he was drawn first to read in mathematicks, in which, from his early exercises, he was so eminently calculated to shine, but from which he drew no benefit ; and then, by the prospect of a scholarship, which, however, did not become


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