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pler glasses cost 1500l. The house of Count Trattner is worthy of note. The establishment consists of about 600 persons. The possessor came originally from Hungary as an insignificant painter, and is now said to expend 30,000l. per annum.
Among the publick establishments, we shall just mention the six great barracks for infantry, cavalry, and artillery; and the immense hospital that contains 3000 patients; also doctors, surgeons, attendants, cooks, midwives, lying-in women, foundlings, and lunaticks.
The mixture of national costume is an interesting sight to a stranger, on his first arrival in Vienna. The erect and stiff walking Hungarian wrapt up in his pelisse, with an immense long tail; the round head Pole, with his hair cut à la Brutus; the Armenians, Wallachians, and Moldavians, in their half oriental dress; the Greeks in their white habits, and with long pipes; the bearded Mussulman with his broad dagger and yellow slippers; the scarecrow Polish Jews with their swollen cheeks, and filthy, uncombed hair; and the Hungarian and Transylvanian boors with their greasy sheep skins in the form of cloaks. To this we may add the confusion of at least sixteen different languages constantly clattering in his
In Vienna, as in every other capital, many sacrifices are made to procure an equipage or a saddle horse. They reckon 300 gentlemen's carriages, 636 hackney coaches, 300 glass coaches, and about an equal number of publick vehicles. The amount of draught and riding horses, within the lines, may be taken at 10,000. Many a noble horse has been sold for 400%. and some of the princes keep 80 or 100 of them. The number of dogs, of all kinds, is estimated at 24,000.
The national blood has been so blended and intermixed with that of other nations, that the only characteristick feature now remaining to a real Vienna man, is the long sharp chin. He is of a middle size, slim, and long-limbed. The females are well grown, fresh coloured, lively, and fine skinned. Their beauty fades rather early. But who can paint their vivacity; what pen is swift enough to catch all that thousand variations; to trace on paper all those little nothings that constitute the essentiality of female attraction, and are continually fluttering on the wings of frivolity?
The citizens are courteous, open hearted, ready to oblige, docile, ingenuous, and good patriots. In their transactions they are upright and conscientious, condescending to their neighbours, and generous towards their friends. Their fundamental maxim is: Live and let live." They are very fond of feasting, dancing, and of the theatres; but, as they seldom become bankrupts, on the contrary are in easy circumstances, we may conclude that their pleasures do not exceed their economical means. "There is only one Vienna," they exclaim in the fulness of joy. Were they singular in this delusion, there might be some reason for rallying them on the subject; but what nation do we hear of, whose capital is not the best? The Parisian says the same; the Portuguese exclaims: "He who has not seen Lisbon, has seen nothing." A Spaniard, on his death bed, begged his son for once in his life to see Madrid. The Neapolitan, in his horrible jargon, calls out : "See Naples, and then die." And what says John Bull? Have not the Viennese, then, as much right as others to consider their capital as a paradise?
Who can reckon up the number of princes, barons, and counts, in Vienna, who constitute the three classes of high nobility? It is very natural that a great nobility should be collected in such a capital. The throne, publick affairs, the great world, ambition, family connexions, pleasure,
&c. are the grand attractions. Old parchments and fine clothes no longer procure the favour of the monarch, the esteem of the publick or honourable posts. A dashing young man may spend his income as he pleases; may drive six horses; keep open house; and boast of his pedigree; but if he considers these only as sufficient to render him a person of consequence, he will never acquire it. The most ancient families have long been distinguished for their publick services, their wealth, and their personal qualifications.
The society of the female nobility, also, is as instructive as it is delightful. In their circles, time is not wasted at the card table. Musical parties, friendly converse, literary information, observations on books, travels, works of art, the theatre, &c. beguile the hours of a long winter's evening.
When the poor man has been working for days together, in a garret, to muster up a few pence, he comes down in the evening, stands a few minutes at the house door to consider the passing multitude, and then descends thirty steps under ground into a wine cellar. The atmosphere of these places is saturated with vinous exhalations, to such a degree that intoxication soon takes place. Here the workman takes his evening's meal; the vintners sell wine from two pence to six pence the measure; they furnish also cheese, cold fish, sausages, &c. The most noted wine cellar, of the common sort, formerly belonged to a convent, and is filled with immense butts of red and white wine. The cellar men very seldom see the sun; and in this one cellar they are said to burn 18,000 wax lights annually. The fashionable ones, particularly the Hungarian cellar, are fitted up with a display of taste; and in that you may order wine from one shilling a bottle, up to imperial Tokay at half a guinea a pint.
Institution of the Deaf and Dumb.
Joseph II. who observed every thing in his travels that merited the attention of a thinking mind, having visited the school of the Abbé l'Epée at Paris, determined on erecting a similar one in his own capital. The number to be maintained gratis was fixed by his majesty at thirty; but not exactly confined to it. Whoever wishes to introduce a deaf and dumb person, above that number, pays the moderate annual sum of 107. for board, clothing, instruction, &c. They are taught language, religion, physicks, and arithmetick. A printing office has also been erected, the operation of which appears to be well adapted to their capacities. The girls learn common household affairs. There is also a riband manufactory to employ other girls, as well as those boys who cannot be engaged in printing. At seven in the morning they have prayers, and then proceed to church to hear mass. According to the first regulations, they were allowed to walk out every day; but now they are confined to three times a week. Every Sunday evening the institution is open to the publick.
The Oriental Academy
Contains twelve scholars, who are particularly instructed in the Oriental languages, as well as in the living ones of Europe, and other necessary sciences. When duly qualified, they are sent to the Austrian embassy at Constantinople; and either recalled when a vacancy takes place, to the chancery for Oriental affairs, or are appointed as consuls to Moldavia, Wallachia, and the islands of the Archipelago. When there is war with the Porte, they are attached to the army as interpreters.
No person can be buried at Vienna without having been previously inspected by the Visitation Office. Every physician, on the death of a patient,
must draw up in writing the cause of his death, which is delivered to the above office. The object of this regulation is of great importance. If the deceased died of any suspicious disorder, the bed is carried away and burnt, or else thoroughly cleansed. Persons who die suddenly are examined whether they have been poisoned, or been killed by any violent means. In short, it is similar to our coroner's inquest. A daily list is published, specifying the name, age, condition, quarter of the city, and even the number of the house, and the disorder of the deceased. The smallest number of deaths per day is seven, the greatest thirty-six.
As wood is very dear, and an immense quantity is consumed in coffins, Joseph II. issued an edict in 1784, that for the future, all bodies should be merely sewed up in a sack, and put into the ground. This created general disgust. The Greeks first began, by representing the edict as contrary to their ritual. Those provincial families who had relations in Vienna were greatly alarmed. At last the emperour was obliged to issue a contra-edict, stating, that "as the living set such a value on their carcases, and wished them to be longer in rotting, he did not care how they were buried; and that in regard to the coffins, every man might do what he chose with his own corpse."
FROM THE LONDON ATHENAUM.
Patent of Mr. Allan Pollock of Paisley, for a Stove on a new construction. Dated June, 1807.
IN Mr. Pollock's stove, the fireplace occupies but a small part of its cavity much nearer the back part than the front, and is in fact a small grate, like a common chamber grate, surrounded with a stove, or case of cast iron, containing the following parts.
The grate is enclosed at the sides and back with brick, or fire-stone. Behind the brick work is placed an apparatus of metal for heating the external air as it passes into the room, which consists of a case containing several parallel shelves, arranged one over the other, each having an aperture at the opposite end to the one adjoining to it. To admit the air to pass from the bottom of this case, a pipe proceeds beneath the floor to the outward air; and from its top, another, about five inches in diameter, passes upwards through the middle of the stove, to an ornamental vase at top, perforated with apertures through which it enters into the apartments, after becoming well heated in its passage through such a length of tubes; which are placed so as to obtain a due temperature, without any danger of their heat increasing so far as to produce bad vapours, or vitiate its respirability; from which they are defended by the interposition of the brick work at the part next the fire.
Above the fireplace a hollow column rises about three feet, divided into three or four chambers by horizontal partitions. These chambers have also vertical partitions which pass from the circumference to the centre of each; an aperture is made in each horizontal partition, through which the smoke passes, but so placed that it is at the contrary side of the vertical partition from the aperture in the adjoining one. By this means the smoke circulates near the sides of the column, and communicates heat to it, till it rises to the top, from whence it is conveyed by a pipe into the chimney.
At the bottom of the stove is placed a door, for removing the ashes, in which is fixed a register to regulate the admission of the air to the fire,
and, of course, the degree of rapidity with which the air of the apartment is changed. In the front of the stove, which is several inches before the grate, is another door, through which coals are conveyed to the fire. This door, and two other apertures at each side of it, are furnished with plates of transparent talc, through which the fire is visible; which circumstance forms the most conspicuous distinction between this stove and those in
Mr. Pollock mentions in his specification, that all the air tubes of the stove are lined with a sort of glazing, to prevent any bad effect on the air from the heated iron. The general appearance of the stove is elegant ; the view of the fire through the windows has a pleasing effect, though from their smallness, the radiant heat which passes through them can be but very little, and it diffuses a very equable temperature over the chamber where it is used, the thermometers placed in various parts of it, for trial, having all uniformly indicated 60 degrees of Fahrenheit.
The contrivance used in this stove, for heating the air, is the same as that of the Philadelphia stove described many years ago in a publication of Dr Franklin's. The brick work interposed between this part and the fire, will certainly prevent the tubes from acquiring heat enough to decompose the air; but the possibility of glazing them, by merely coating the cores of the moulds in which they are cast, with lime, sand, &c. as mentioned in the specification, seems extremely doubtful.
The appearance of the stove, as well as its effect, would be much improved by increasing the size of the glazed apertures. The diminutive dimensions of those in that exhibited, makes them too much resemble the glasses of a raree show-box, though in other respects the stove forms a pleasing ornament to the chamber, and seems fully to answer the objects for which it was intended, of producing much heat with little fuel, and of admitting at the same time a due circulation of warm, fresh, and wholesome air.
NOCTURNAL AERIAL ASCENSION.
Letter from M. Garnerin to the editors of the Journal de Paris.
BEFORE I undertake the second nocturnal aërial voyage, which will take place at Tivoli on Saturday, the 19th of September, I ought to give some account of that which I performed in the night between the fourth and fifth of August last. My balloon was lighted by twenty lamps. Many persons felt some alarm from the number of these lights, and their proximity to the balloon, in case a diminution of the pressure in the upper regions should oblige me to let out the hydrogen gas by the lower orifices. They feared lest, in this case, the gas should find its way to the lights, take fire, and communicate the flames to the balloon. I had foreseen this inconvenience. In the first place, the balloon, which was the same in which I ascended at Milan, was only two-thirds filled, that I might defer the emission of the gas as long as possible. In the next, the nearest lamps to the balloon were fourteen feet distant from it: and lastly, conductors were placed in such a manner, as to convey the gas away in a
direction contrary to the lights.. Having made these arrangements, I felt no hesitation to undertake a nocturnal voyage. I ascended from Tivoli, at eleven at night, under the Russian flag as a token of peace There was not any decided current in the atmosphere, but only undulations, which tossed me about, I believe, a great part of the night. To this it was owing, that I was at first carried towards St. Cloud, and afterwards brought back over Vincennes, in a diametrically opposite direction. How favourable this circumstance would have been to the speculation of those who pretend to direct balloons! I was in the full force of my ascension when the fireworks of Tivoli were let off. The rockets scarcely seemed to rise from the earth. Paris, with its lamps, appeared a plane, studded with luminous spots. Forty minutes after my departure I attained an elevation of 2,00 fathoms. The thermometer fell three degrees below °. My balloon dilated considerably as it passed through a cloud in which the lights lost their brilliancy, and seemed ready to be extinguished It was as urgent to give vent to the hydrogen gas, dilated to such a degree as to threaten to burst the balloon, as it was interesting to collect some of the air of this region. Both these operations I performed at once, without difficulty, and the emission of the gas brought me to a milder region. At 12 o'clock I was only six hundred fathoms from the earth, and heard the barking of dogs. A quarter of an hour afterwards, I lost sight of all the lights on the earth, grew extremely cold, and could no longer perceive the stars, doubtless on account of the clouds At one in the morning, the cold still continuing, I was carried to a higher elevation. The hydrogen gas again expanded. About two, I perceived the stars, and saw several meteors dancing about the balloon; but at such a distance as not to give me any alarm. At half after two the day began to dawn with me, and having again descended, I perceived the earth, which I had not before seen since my departure. At a quarter to three, I heard country people speak, and remarking the illumination of my balloon. Having asked them, they informed me that I was over the department of L'Aisne. The sun gradually approaching, afforded me, at half past three, the magnificent spectacle of his rising above an ocean of clouds. The warmth of his rays acting on the balloon, the hydrogen gas again expanded. The atmospherick air became more rarified, while there was nothing to add to the quantity of the counterbalancing weight. The conseque ce was The conseque ce was a new ascension, during which I was tossed about between Rheims and Chalons, and carried, at four o'clock, to an elevation of more than eight thousand fathoms. There, under a magnificent sky and resplendent sun, I experienced a cold of ten degrees. The balloon dilated much more considerably than it had yet done. The temperature was insupportable Tormented by cold, hunger, and a disposition to sleep, I resolved to descend, in an oblique direction, which brought me to the ground in the commune of Courmelois, near the banks of the Vesle, five leagues from Rheims, not far from Loges, and fortyfive leagues from Paris, after a voyage of seven hours and a half. The air collected, forty minutes after my departure, in a cloud in which the lights lost their brilliancy, and seemed on the point of going out, presented, on analysis, no remarkable difference from the air taken on the surface of the earth. There was only a very small additional portion of carbonick acid, but not sufficient to produce any change in the state of my lights. It was nothing but the density of the clouds, ready to be converted into rain, that diminished their brilliancy. Though I was carried, at four o'clock, to the height of more than three thousand fathoms, my head was not so swollen but that I could put on my hat. On the contrary, I felt