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any grievances, but to the religions intructions of their spiritual pastors. It is much to be lamented that the Engliih nation are much mistaken on this point. We cannot, indeed, be surprised al this, when the Irish Roman Catholics have a great number of writers employed in England, at this time, to misrepresent the real state of Ireland, to vilify the government, and to calumniate the Protestants; and they have some of the public prints deyoted to their service. . THE EXPENCE OF ALL THIS IS DEFRAYED BY A FUND ANNUALLY COLLECTED ON THE BODY AT LARGE.
The English are thus led to believe that the Irish Papists are in a state of oppression, though they are in a much better situation than their fellow religionists in England. They enjoy the benefit of the constitution as much as the Protestants, except a right to fit in Parliament, and an admillion to a few of the high confidential departments of the liate; to which not one in fifty thousand could even aspire. But it thould be recollected that they disgraced their native country for more than a century and a half previous to the revolution by treasonable confpiracies, by rebellions, massacres, and invitations to foreign powers, to allist them in separating it from England; and yet during that space they enjoyed the full benefit of the constitution.
The following persecutions were occafioned by the sanguinary principles inseparable from popery, and not by any discontent excited by a deprivation of civil rights, of the Albigenses and Waldenses in the 13th century, under the 4th council of Lateran, which Mr. Plowden allerts is infallible in faith and morality, and not liable to deceit or error. Great 'numbers were burnt in England from the beginning of the 15th century till the reformation was established; and again in Queen Mary's reign, the persecutions in the · Cevennes, in the Netherlands, in France, and in Germany arose solely from the fame cause. So late as the year 1732, 30,000 Protestants, of the territory of Saltzburgh in Germany, were expelled from their country in the depth of winter, because they would not become Papists; without clothes to cover them, or provisions for their journey; for they were not allowed to carry away their effects. This was contrary to the treaty of Westphalia, by which the free exercise of religion was ensured to all the inhabitants of Germany. In the beginning of the year 1802, the elector of Bavaria gave the Lutheranis in his dominions permillion to exercise their religion publicly, in their own way; and his Popish subjects made a strong remonftrance against it.
I shall conclude with an obfersation of Mr. Locke, on the Intolerant Spirit of Popery, occafioned by the doctrine of exclusive salvation; which exposes the absurdity of Mr. Plowden's assertion... .
“Neverthelels, it is worthy to be observed, and lamented, that the most violent of these defenders of the truth, the opposers of errors, the exclaimers against schisin, do hardly ever let loose this their zeal for God, with which they are so warmed and inflamed, unless where they have the civil magistrate on their fide; but fo soon as court favor has given them the better end of the staff, and they begin to feel themselves the stronger, then presently peace and charity are to be laid aside; otherwise, they are to be religiously observed. Where they have not the power to carry on persecution, and to become masters, there they defire to live upon fair terms, and preach up toleration. When they are not strengthened with the civil power, they can bear most patiently, and unmovedly, the contagion of idolatry, supera Itition, and heresy, in their neighbourhood, of which, on other occasions, the interest of religion makes them to be extremely apprehenkive. No
body, therefore, in fine, neither single persons, nor churches, nay, nor even commonwealths, have any jult title to invade the civil rights and worldly goods of each other, upon pretence of religion. Thole that are of another opinion, would do well to consider with themselves, how pernicious a seed of discord and war, how powerful a provocation to endless hatreds, rapines, and slaugh . Jers, they thereby furnish unto mankind. No peace and security, no not so much as common friendship, can ever be established or preserved amongst men,' so long as this opinion prevails, that dominion is founded in grace, and that religion is to be propa. gated by force of arms."-Locke ON TOLERATION.
ANTI-POPE. Our readers may recollect that, in one of our late numbers, we professed our intention of entering into some discussion on the subject of the Irish Papists, with a view to Thew the impolicy and the danger of acceding to the claims of those who have, receptly, been 10 claniorous for what they, most abfurdly, term Catholic Emancipation, but what we should rather regard as Popish ascendancy. But our able correfpondent has anticipated so many of our observations and arguments, on this topic, that but little would remain for us to say. We thall, however, resume the subject ourselves, un. less our correspondent, which we earnestly hope, should be induced to continue it, and to direct his attention to that part of it, which is connected with the claims successfully urged, fome years ago, by Mr. Grattan, who pledged himself, if our memory fail us not, that no farther claims would be urged, and that the Romanists were completely satisfied. In the mean time, we earnestly recommend the very important facts, ftated by our core ! respondent, to the most serious attention of those who are entrusted with the government of the country, as well as to the noblemen and gentlemen who have been the inconsiderate advocates of the Papal claims, and to the PROTESTANT PUBLIC at large. Those facts are derived from such autho. rity as leaves not a shadow of doubt on our minds of their perfect authenticity; but, anxious for the establishment of truth, beyond most other confiderations, we challenge a confutation of all or of any of them, by any of the Romish advocates who are employed in this country, for promoting the views of their Church, and for enforcing the pretensions of their party:They are damning facts, and, if not shaken, must be decisive of the question at illue.-EDITOR.
VINDICATION OF THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE VOLUNTEERS
: TO THE EDITOR.
T DID not receive your Magazine, though I am a constant subscriber to it,'
for the month of April, till a few days fince, otherwise I should not have suffered the letter of your correspondent, who takes the signature of B, on the “ Irreverence of A Volunteer Corpis," to pass fo long unnoticed. As I am always ready to judge favorably and charitably of the motives of men, where I think truth and propriety will bear me out, I shall willingly attribute the zeal which is exhibited by your correspondent to his regard for religion, and for decorum and decency in religious worship : but I must
at the same time take the liberty of observing that in my humble opinion - he has not taken the wisest method of exhibiting his zeal in that cause. I · am ready enough to allow that the indecency and « irreverence" of a certain nameless volunteer corps, which he notices in his letter, was reprehen
fible in the highest degree; but I think the mode in which that circuinstance has been brought forward to the public notice, is, to say the best of it, extremely ill-judged. What I object 10 is that the whole of this business has been conducted anonymously: if it was proper to bring forward the cica cumstance at all, it should have been done in an open and manly manner. The name of the letter-writer, the name of the volunteer-corps, and the name of the “ city formerly distinguished for its attachment to the cause of loyalty and religion," are all concealed! If it were right to conceal these particulars from the public, it would alio have been right in my humble opinion to have concealed the “ irreverent" conduct of which the letter-writer justly complains, from the public eye, or at least from the public at large. I think it, might have had a very good effect if the circumitances mentioned by your correspondent had been properly noticed and circulated only in the formerly loyal city, and its immediate neighbourhood, where the offence was viven; becaule in such case it would have fixed the blame where it was justly due, namely upon one particular corps of volunteers which had given such just public offence. But the mode of castigation which your corresponde ent has thought fit to adopt, appears to me very likely to induce the public at large to think less favourably of the aggregate body of volunteers throughout the united empire than they ought to think. For it seems hardly possible, that any other effect ihould be produced by laying before the public instances of the “ irreverence of a volunteer corps," in a formerly loyal city-the indecorum of a nameless Earl in receiving the colours from the hand of his countels in a most vulgar and indecorous manner, or some few folitary instances of volunteers exercising during the hours of divine service on the day more immediately dedicated to the honour and worship of Almighty God. These circumstances have all very recently been detailed in the public prints of the day, and certainly must tend to fix a ftigma on the whole body of Volunteers, who may naturally be expected to act in the fame improper manner, in a thousand instances which have not been submitted to the public eye.
The Volunteer system, Mr. Editor, has lately created very warm debates in the House of Commons; its partizans and adversaries have certainly pulled their respective opinions to an extreme: on the one hand, ftating that the Volunteer force of the realm might be considered as equal in die cipline to regular forces, and superior to them in exertion as being actuated by a sense of the great stake they have to defend: on the other hand it has been said that they are soldiers only for a review, and not for real service, and that they would probably turn their backs to the enemy at the first appearance of real danger; nay, a certain military character has thought pros per to rise up in the fenate, and explicitly declare he would rather command a body of pealants armed with pitchforks, pikes, &c. than the best armed and best disciplined volunteer corps in the united kingdom. The truth in all probability lies in the middle opinion. No impartial person can for an inliant believe that those whose habits have hitherto been con versant only with the calm and peaceful scenes of domestic life, can be equal in order and di cipline to thole whose business and profession are the ule and exercise of arms: but again, it may fairly be fupposed, that those who, from a deep sense of the magnitude of the danger which surrounded us, have voluntarily and patriotically stepped forward to defend whatsoever is near and dear to the heart of man, will contend with the enemy of God and foodness; and relift the proud and insolent distur ber of the world's repose, and our most bitter and implacable enemy so long as life remains, . I candidly own mya
. : felf,
felf, Mr. Editor, a warm and steady friend of the volunteer-system; as I am firmly persuaded that if the plan had not been carried on to the extent which it now is we thould long since have cealed to be a nation; and must therefore have bent beneath the iron yoke of a proud, an insolent, and an atheistiçal foreign usurper. By rising up unanimously, as though it were one man, in defence of our beloved king and glorious conftitution, we have, by the blessing of almighty God upon us, hitherto been able to set at nought the threats of wicked men; and I hope, by the protection of the fame supreme and all powerful being, we fliall still be prelerved in safety,
But to come to the point which is more immediately the object of my prea fent address. From ihe obfervations I have myself been enabled to make;. , and from the intelligence I have received from those whose knowledge has.
been far more extended than my own; I am induced to believe that the charges brought against a particular volunteer-corps, by your correspondent, and against other volunteer corps by different anonymous scribblers in the various publications of the day, are lo far from being the character of the aggregate body of volunteers throughout the united kingdom; that they are, on the contrary, remarkable for their devout and exemplary attendance on divine worship; for their attention to military discipline, and improvement in the use of arms; and for every duty which is becoming in a christ tian soldier, and in those who voluntarily enlisted themselves in the service of their country, their king, and their God. Amongst the vast body of volunteers now in arms it is very likely, some acts of indecorum might be adduced against some of them, but it is not surely becoming in any one to place those errors in the most glaring light before the public eye, neither do I conceive it can poflibly answer any one good purpose whatsoever. Let us fairly and impartially weigh their merits against their demerits, and I am ant to believe that the former will greatly outweigh the latter. For my own part, as a tingle individual, I think it my duty to express on every proper occasion that warm respect which I feel for the general merit of, and that sincere gratitude which I owe, the loyal and patriotic volunteers of the united kingdon, for their eminent services which they have already done, and are still ready to do in the hour of danger, for my dear King and beloved Country, Amidtt the wreck of empires and the ruin of states; the revolutions and counter-revolutions which daily happen around us; may the glorious, free, and happy constitution of this united kingdom still remain, and may the bleffing and protection of Almighty power still overshadow us to the latest posterity and remotes annals of time.
I am, Mr. Editor, Creech St. Michael,. Your very obedient and humble Servant, .. June 10, 1804.
N. B. Our correspondent B. transmitted to us the name of the corpse whose irreverence he so properly censured; and of the city in which the circumstance occurred. We did not then, nor do we now, think it necessary to publith either.-EDITOR.
- TO OUR READERS. The great length of the interesting observations on the conduct and print ciples of the Irish Papists lias obliged us to poltpone many articles of cri .. ticism prepared for this Number, and the communications of several Core nofpondents, which were intended for insertion.
&c. &c. sc.
Caligula intended to invade Britain, but that, by his skittle head, sudden ose repentance, and foolish attempts against Germany, it came to nothing. Yet f he came on as far as Batavia, where Adminius, the son of Cunobeline, being,
for some offence, banished by his father, was, with those few that accom. panied him, by this vain-glorious Emperor, taken into protection. Who thereupon bragg'd in his letters to the Senate, that the whole island was
yielded to him. The issue of this his expedition was, that he made his army sh march embattel'd to the sea shore over against Britain, and commanded them
to gather cockles, mulcles, and other shell filhes into their helinets, terming o them the spoils of the conquered ocean; and, in memorial of this exploit, o lie built a high watch-tower, which was afterwards named Brittonhuis, and
then returned to Rome, leaving his enemies, the Britons and Germans, to laugh at his strange folly and madness.
· Milton's Hist. oF ENGLAND, p. 84.
Thoughts on the Calvinistic and Arminian Controversy. By G. S.
Faber, B. D. Pp. 46. 8vo. Is. Rivingtons, London. 1804. THE learned author of this pamphlet has given in his title-page
1 the 6th article of our Church, and a quotation from the Bilhop of Lincoln's late charge, each of them very applicable to his subject, and the latter fufficiently decisive, we think, of the present controversy.
He begins his judicious and satisfactory little work by stating, that all extraneous matter should be separated from the points on which the controversy turns, and that no doctrines should be termed Calvi. nistic but such as belong exclusively to Calvinism ; that the Calvinist, in maintaining some of the orthodox doctrines of our Church, has no right to claim them as entirely his own; and that our Church, in holding some things in common with Calvinism, is not therefore to be * NO. LXXIV, VOL. XVIII,