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nomenon; and, as Mr. P.'s notice of it is short, we ribe ii. fingular circumstance, in the history of European literature,
touriidied in the remote republic of Iceland, from the Surteenth century; and, independent of the fabulous Sagas, conted by hundreds, the folid and valuable works then
i land might fill a considerable catalogue. From Iceland úda, and our knowledge of the ancient Gothic mythology. - Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, and Orcadians, draw their
concerning their ancient history; Snorro, in particular, Ierodotus of the north: and the Landnamą, or book of the i is a unique work, displaying the names and property of all "s, and ihe circumstances attending the distribution of a
(.503.) en minutely attentive to trace, as far as it could be, nitive population of every country on the face of the r and concise specimen of the manner in which he ing subjec, we shall exhibit what he says of the first Penmark, with whom our connection is intimate and
population of Denmark appears to have consisted of Cim.
the Goths froni the N. and E., the Cimbri were expelled;
while the remainder of the Chersonele was possessed by
there is still the province of Anglen. The original pos. which, with Sweden, constitutes the ancient Scandinavia, i the Fins and the Laps, who were driven to the northern Gothic invalion, allegorically said to have been conductJ of war. The population has since continued pure and i conquesis; and the Norwegians still retain the muscus r countenance, and yellow hair of the Normans, so well laly, and England.” (p. 488.) 3 are certain, would be highly gratified by Mr. P.'s Laplanders, which is extracted from Leems, a Dang resident in their bleak and dreary region. Înof the northern nations is, altogether, exceedingly is that of Switzerland, at all times an interesting Sly, of late, endeared to every feeling mind, on ac
calamities inflicted on it by the great unprincipled ne of the richest, most curious, and most elaborate Mr. P.'s system, is that which contains his observa
tions on mountains, those great and striking features of count In those on the celebrated chain of the Alps, their diretion, heig and internal constitution, the lover of nature, and the student of logy, will find an ample fund of entertainment. We have room no more but a beautiful, though general, sketch, which rivals, think, the subject itself in fublimity. .
" It was reserved for this age of enterprise to disclose the secret won of the superior Alps. The enormous ridges, clothed with a depth of petual snow, often crowned with harp obelisks of granite, tyled by Swils horns or needles; the dreadful chalms of some thousand feet in pendicular height, over which the dauntless traveller sometimes stands Thelt of frozen Inow; the glaciers or seas of ice, sometimes exceeding th or forty miles in length; the sacred silence of the scenes before unvisi except by the chamois and goal of the rocks; the clouds, and someti the thunder-storm, passing at a great distance below; the extensive proipe which reduce kingdoms as it were to a map; the pure elasticity of the
exciting a kind of incorporeal sensation ; are all novelties in the history "human adventure.” (p. 583.).
With the following more extended description, in no degree, think, inferior to that which we have just now given, we are una the necessity of difmising the first volume of this great and valual work. On the second volume, which is fingularly important, remarks must be reserved for another number.
- To enumerate the natural curiosities of Swisserland would be to e fcribe the country. The Alps, the glaciers, the vast precipices, the descer ing torrents, the sources of the rivers, the beautiful lakes and cataracts, a all natural curiosities of the greatest fingularity, and niost sublime destr tion. Of late the glaciers have attracted particular attention; but the seas of ice, intersected with numerous deep fillures, owing to sudden crac which resound like thunder, must yield in Tublimity to the stupendous su mits clothed with ice and snow, the latter often descending in what a called avalanches, or prodigious balls, which, gathering as they roll, som 'times overwhelmn travellers, and even villages. Nay, the mountains ther selves will fometimes burst, and overwhelm whole towns, as happened the memorable instance of Pleurs near Chiavana, in which thousands peris ed, and not a vestige of a building was left ; nor are recent inflances, thoug less tremendous, wholly unknown. The vast reservoirs of ice and sno give birth to many important rivers, whose fources deeply interest curiolit As an example, the account which Bourrit gives of that of the Rhone ma be selected. "At length we perceived through the trees a mountain of ic as splendid as the sun, and flashing a similar light on the environs. Th first aspect of the glacier of the Rhone inspired us with great expectation A moment afterwards this enormous mals of ice having disappeared behin thick pines, it soon after met our fight between two vast blocks of rock which formed a kind of portico. Surprised at the magnificence of this spec tacle, and at its admirable contrasts, we beheld it with rapture. At length we reached this beautiful portico, beyond which we were to discover al the glacier. We arrived : at this fight one would suppose one's self in another world, so much is the imagination imprelied with the nature and immensity of the objects. To form an idea of this superb spectacle, figure in your C 2
mind a scaffolding of transparent ice, filling a space of two miles, rising to the clouds, and darting Aashes of lighi like the sun. Nor were the several parts less magnificent and furprising. One might see as it were the streets and buildings of a city, crected in the form of an amphitheatre, and embellined with pieces of water, cascades and torrents. The effects were as prodigious as the immensity and the height; the most beautiful azure, the most splendid white, the regular appearance of a thousand pyramids of ice, are more ealy to be imagined than described. Such is the alpect of the glacier of the Rhone, reared by nature on a plan which she alone can execute: we admire the majestic course of a river without suspecting that which gives it birth, and maintains its waters, may be still more majeltic and magnificent.' (Bourrit, iii. 163.) He afterwards describes the river as illuing from a vault of ice, as transparent as crystal, and illuminated by streams of sunshine darting through apertures in the roof.” (Pp. 589, 590.)
(To be continued.)
Military Memoirs, rélating to campaigns, battles, and fratagems of war,
ancient and modern. Extracted from the best authorities. With occasional remarks. By the Author of the War in Afia, from 1778 to 1784; of the History of Europe, in Dodsley's Annual Register, continued from 1791 to 1801, both inclusive, (1793 excepted ;) and the translator of Mr. Cunningham's MSS. History of Great Britain, in Latin, from the time of Cromwell, to the accession of George I. I vol. 8vo. Pp. 588. Price 1os. 6d.
Johnson. 1804. L'ROM the works mentioned in the title-page, our readers will T perceive, that the author is Dr. William Thomson ; and a dedication to the Duke of York is subscribed by the name of that gentleman. The leading object of the performance is to exhibit military operations and events in such a manner as to thew the causes by which the results were determined. “ The event of war," says the preface, “ generally depends on the superiority of talents in those who form and execute military plans. Here lies the strength of armies more than in their numbers, or even their veteran discipline. History, both ancient and modern, abundantly proves that victory has not so often turned upon the comparative masses of opposite numbers, as on the quantum of matter, to borrow a phrase from the mathematicians, multiplied into its velocity, and both, by skilful evolutions, ably and dextrously directed." That, in the great majority of cases, victory has followed superior genius, wisdom and Telf-poffeffion, is the leffon that
the author of these memoirs seeks to inculcate ; and in his execution of · his task, he has very steadily kept in view UNITY OF DESIGN.
Taking a general view of the qualifications of a leader of armies, our : author observes, that one of the most important attainments is to know
the character of mankind, and particularly the character of the enemy. Julius Cæfar, he observes, in his campaigns against the Gauls, Germans, and Britons, was careful in the firlt place, not only to learn the na
ding of transparent ice, filling a space of two miles, rising to
darting flashes of light like the sun. Nor were the several ificent and furpriling. One might see as it were the streets
a city, crected in the form of an amphitheatre, and embeles of water, cascades and torrents. The effects were as pronmenlity and the height; the most beautiful azure, the most the regular appearance of a thousand pyramids of ice, are : imagined than delcribed. Such is the alpect of the glacier ared by nature on a plan which the alone can execute: we ltic course of a river without suspecting that which gives it ains its waters, may be still more majestic and magnificent.' .) He afterwards describes the river as issuing from a ansparent as crystal, and illuminated by streams of sunshine apertures in the roof.” (Pp. 589,- 590.)
(To be continued.)
's, relating to campaigns, battles, and stratagems of war,
the History of Europe, in Dodsley's Annual Regi-
translator of Mr. Cunningham's MSS. History of -, in Latin, from the time of Cromwell, to the aceorge I. I vol. 8vo. Pp. 588. Price 10s, 6d. 104. works mentioned in the title-page, our readers will t the author is Dr. William Thomson ; and a dedice of York is subscribed by the name of that gentle. ig object of the performance is to exhibit military nts in such a manner as to thew the causes by which -termined. « The event of war,” says the preface, ds on the superiority of talents in those who form ary plans. Here lies the strength of armies more vers, or even their veteran discipline. History, both 2, abundantly proves that victory has not so often comparative masses of opposite numbers, as on the
to borrow a phrase from the mathematicians, mulcity, and both, by skilful evolutions, ably and dex.
That, in the great majority of cases, victory has enius, wisdom and self-poffeffion, is the leflon that memoirs seeks to inculcate; and in his execution of
- Thomson's Military Memoirs. ture of the country, and the military force and resources of the tions which he was about to invade, but to investigate their gove ment, and above all their character. One feature in the military c racter of the Gauls, ealily deducible from their disposicions, he pa cularly points out as applicable to the successive inhabitants of t country, from the age of Julius Cælar to the present. Sudden their resolutions, unsteady, without perseverance, without patien they are more fitted for making than for sustaining and repelling attack. The victories of the French have been owing to their attac their defeats to attacks made upon them. This general fact our a thor undertakes amply to illustrate in his military memoirs. thinks it has been leis attended to by nations at war with Fran. than prudence and expediency required.
The work is divided into three parts. The first comprehends account of war before the invention of gun-powder, beginning w the times of Homer, and ending with the last battles which the E glish and Scotch fought during the reign of Edward II. and in t beginning of the reign of his son.-The second part contains war a ter the invention of gun-powder, beginning with the battle of Crec and ending with the battle of Fontenoy.--The third part describ war since the introduction of the Prussian tactics, and brings it dow to the batıle of Alexandria in 1801, It is now necessary to advert the authorities of our author.
In ancient military history he has chiefly resorted to Xenophon, th most experienced historian of Grecian warfare ; to Arrian, the mo accurate narrator of the exploits of Alexander ; Polybius, the oni authentic war historian of the contests between the Romans and Car thaginians, the only writer who has fully unfolded the genius of Scipio and a Hannibal. The wars of Cæsar he takes froin the mo accurate source; Cæsar himself; and occasionally calls in Plutarc for supplemen:ary information, on different parts of Roman inilitar history; he also has recourse, though not often, to modern militar · criticism on ancient warfare. He has read Sir Walter Raleigh witi considerable advantage, and is impressed with a very high idea of th wisdom of that writer. His authorities for the wars of the middl. ages are in a great degree French, especially Froissard and Mauvillon For English efforts he chiefly refers to Hume, and sometimes to Rymer;. for battles between the Scotch and English, he principally con. sults Hume and Buchannan. As he descends nearer to modern times, he refers to Guicciardini, Father Daniel, Bayard, and Strada. The exploits of Gustavus Adolphus are taken from his historian Gualdo, ang his military inventions from Grimoard. To none of these authorities can we make any objection. When our author reaches the wars of Marlborough, we think of English historians he, too exclusively quotes Cunningham; not that we impeach the authority, but there are other authorities which are also deemed weighty. His accounts of Frederick are chiefly taken from Grimoard's picture of the reign of Frederick, in his account of the American war, his fole . . C3
termin the cupe ce
ry steadily kept in view UNITY OF DESIGN. iew of the qualifications of a leader of armies, our t one of the most important attainments is to know ikind, and particularly the character of the enemy, crves, in hiscampaigns against the Gauls, Germans, reful in the first place, not only to learn the nao;
except in one instance, is Captain Stedman, a very decent, useful wri. ter; but certainly not the only one who has handled that subject ; and certainly one who is not paramount in historical fame or importance. For the events of the last war he refers chiefly to Dodsley's Annual Register. The following reason he adduces for citing that work: “ It may,” he says, “well occasion a smile to see a man, who acknowledges himself to be the writer of the History of Europe, in Dodsey's Annual Register continued, so often quoting that publication among the best authorities. But let it be recollected, that the authorities from whidh his statements of military affairs are there given, aie diftinctly pointed out where those authorities have been published.” Our author adds, that he has been much aslifted by pria vare information. From the object, plan, and authorities of this work, we now proceed to the execution. :: He commences the memoirs by a description of the battle of Thymbrium between Cræsus and Cyrus. This combat is very accurately detailed from X nophon, and the purpose of the narrative is to shew thát Cyrus, with a smaller number of troops, not better than those of the Luojan monarch, obtained the victory, first by his general arrangement, which enabled his forces to act with combined and complete effect, whereas the movements of Cræsus were less connected. Secondly, Cyrus skiltully concealed part of his design of combat ; Crosus manifested the whole of his plan : thirdly, Cyrus had presence of mind to remove unforeseen obstacles, and to avail himseif of unexpected occurrences. Cyrus defeated Crælus, not fron; commanding betier foldiers, but from beiter diiecting his foldiers. He vanquished the King of Lydia, and afierwards other sovereigns, because he was an aller man than any of his adveriaries. Our author makes several observations on the warfare mentioned in the Bible, especiaily a scheme of Johua for cap.uring the city Ai; and a very able itratagem it was. He quotes an account of the I rojan war, and imputes the capture of Priam's city to the superior invention of the Greeks. In mere fi_hting, the Trojans and their allies were a match for the Greeks, but were overcome by stratagen. The next instance adduced to shew the efficacy of genius in war, is a contrivance of Cambyres; but a succeeding example more forcibly illustrates the fanie truth. This was the battle of Marathon, in which, though the small Athenian band was far more warlike than the Persian multiiude, yet they must have been overwhelnied by numbers, it it had not been for the ability of the general. Miluades saw it would be vain to attempt the centre of the enimy, and that his hop s of success must rest on attacking a weaker part, which being thrown into confusien, might disturb the whole line; therefore he resolved the onset should be from the wings, and to prevent his own handful from being surrounded, he occupied such a position' as fer ured his rear, and made such preparations as secured each fok. With these cffensive and defensive difpofitions he proceeded toat:le. The Perfian generals had not ability to counteract these movements, they trusted to their numbers, and the mere weight of
of the oranioune refers.uices to ice a mot Europblic
Regifter coll But let it bilitary affairs have
tance, is Captain Stedman, a very decent, useful wri. y not the only one who has handled that subject; and 20 is not paramount in historical fame or importance. of the last war he refers chiefly to Dodsley's Annual fillowing reason he adduces for. citing that work: oss, “ well occasion a smile to see a man, who acvelf to be the wricer of the History of Europe, in a! Register continued, so often quoting that publicabust authorities. But let it be recollected, that the
whidh his statements of military affairs are there ely pointed out where those authorities have been ir author adds, that he has been much assisted by pri
From the object, plan, and authorities of this 'oceed to the execution. s the memoirs by a description of the battle of ThymCrælus and Cyrus. This combat is very accurately nophon, and the purpose of the narrative is to snew a imaller number of troops, not better than those of rch, obtained the victory, first by his general arrangeird his forces to a 7 with combined and complete effect, ments of Crcelus were less connected. Secondly, Cy
aled part of his design of combat ; Croesus manifested van : 'thirdly, Cyrus had presence of mind to remove es, and to avail himself of unexpected occurrences, Freelus, not from commanding betier soldiers, but in his foldiers. He vanquished the King of Lydia,
he Persian column; but the genius of Miltiades threw this ponder ·body into confusion, and its bulk attacked by skill, and mana
without skill, proved its destruction. Our author could not have lected a happier instance of mind overcoming matter than the ba of Marathon. Another reflection, which he very reasonably int duces upon this subject, is the spirit of enthusiastic valour, by wh generous men are inspired to resist an invading foe. The writer in vertently suffered an error, we presume of the press, to escape to in styling, the Darius, who was king of Persia at the time of the bar of Marathon, Darius Ochus. The Darius in question, as the Doe well knows was the son of Hystaspes. Ochus was one of the last the Persian kings one hundred and thirty years after. After the bat of Marathon, our author proceeds to the exploit of Leonidas; general efforts of the Greeks, and the inefficiency of multitudes hea ed by such a man as Xerxes, against troops which had such comman ers as Themistocles. When the Doctor reaches Epaminondas, we surprised to find that he confines his consideration entirely to t battle of Mantinea, whereas Leuctra is fully as important an epoch military history. There Epaminondas first formed that wedges lumn which the Doctor mentions; and by an attack on a part, bro the whole line of the enemy, with fix thousand Thebans, reckon only secondary in valour, defeated twenty-four thousand Lacedem nians, a nation that had hitherto been deemed invincible. Leuct would have been one of the happiest instances he could have chosen illustrate his maxim, that victory depends much more on the geni of the general, than the troops which he has to command. Epan nondas, a very able man, with fix thousand, not better, if so goo troops, overcame Cleombrotus, an ordinary paffable man, with twent four thousand. At Leuétra the Thebans had to meet an enemy th knew not defeat: at Mantinea they encountered an enemy that the had signally defeated, and reduced from being the dictators of Gree to the lowest humiliation and distress; as the author himself observe: at, Mantinea Epaminondas was greatly superior in numbers. Splendi as was that victory, therefore, it was of much easier atchièvement tha Leuctra, and fraught with less important military instruction. From Epaminondas our author naturally proceeds to Philip of Macedor explains the phalanx, and indeed exhibits a very clear view both the arms and arrangements, and their reciprocal adaptation. He fol lows Alexander through his expedition, and presents an accurate ac count of the battle of the Granicus; but without much remark. O the battle of Illus, the siege of Tyre, and the conquest of Egypt, h makes no remarks; but proceeds to the battle of Arbela, which he de 'scribes with very great accuracy, and clearly shews the vast superiorit of intelle qual powers. Though brave and hardy men, the Macedo nians being about seven and forty thousand to eleven hundred thou sand in an open country, where the chief part of the Persians could act, could be no match in physical strength. · The battle was won b the genius of Alexander fo directing his attack, as to make the num
her fovereigns, because he was an abler man than
Air and a very able itratagem it was. He quotes
is a contrivance of Cambyses ; but a lucceeding
of succes must rest on attacking a weaker part, un into confusion, might disturb the whole line; ed the onset should be from the wings, and to preful fronı being surrounded, he occupied such a poli- rear, and made such preparations as secured each e cffensive and defensive difpofitions he proceeded berlian generals had not ability to counteract these sulied to their rumbers, and the mere weight of