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Codex Alexandrinus to be of the highest antiquity; for there is no perceptible difference between it and them, though the letters of Codex Bezæ have very little resemblance to either.

To the arguments of Grabe and Woide for the high antiquity of the Codex Adexandrinus, which arguments are not here contuted, .. Michaelis opposes the following as determining his judgment.

“ I confess that there is a circumstance which excites a suspicion, that the Alexandrine manuscript was written aller Arabic was become the native Janguage of the Egyptians, that is, one, or rather two centuries after Alex andria was taken by the Saracens, which happened in the year 640. The transcriber confounds, and that, if I am not miliaken in many inliances, the two letters M. and B. an exchange which fiequently takes place in Arabic." (P. 207.).

But does such an exchange as this take place in no language but Arabic? We have seen a Greck manuscript written where Arabic was never the native language, in which the letters MP were frequently substituted for B; and who knows that some such confusion of letters was not frequent in Egypt before the taking of Alexandria by the Saracens? It seems likewise to be very little probable, that after Ma. hommedanism had beconie the dominant religion of Egypt, and wheir there is reason to believe that the Christians of that country were deeply infected with the heresies of the age, the writer of the Alexandrine manuscript would have prefixed to the psalms the epiltie of

Attanasius on their value and excellence. No doubt, this might have · been done by some good Catholic, who, amidst the apostacy of the age, ftill revered the memory of the orthodox father ; but how many chances are there against the individual Codex Alexandrinus being, in the eighth or ninth century, written by such a Catholic ?

In our author's account of this manuscript we have a wonderful instance of German prolixity in the composition of books. He had published, in the third edition of his introduction to the New Testament, a description of the Codex Alexandrinus, which he afterwards discovered to be defective, and, in some particulars, erroneous; and he was desirous, as became a lover of truth,ato corre a his errors in the fourth edition. In such circumstances, an Englishman would either have written a new description of the codex, or have altered and enlarged the description which he had formerly publithed; hut Michaelis adopted a method of correction different from both ihele, He published his former description without the flighteft alteration or improvement of any kind ; but prefixed to it a new description fupplying iis defects, and correcting its errors; by which means he . directly contradicts himself, oftener than once, when treating of the same subject, in the same section of the eighth chapter of his work! This clumsy contrivance is noticed by Mr. Marsh, though he felt not himkelf at liberty, in performing the duties of a translator, to impiove the plan of his author. Since the seats of modern miffionaries and true churchmen arose, we


ipture iste evidencebear. toimhich are selis, who a very

have repeatedly had occasion to exhort our national clergy to pay more attention, than seems generally to be paid, to the works of antient Chriftian writers, whether deened orthodox or heretical. In the ninth chapter of the work before us the reader will find some very cogent arguments to enforce our exhortations. Michaelis, who values the fathers, as we do, not for their opinions, which are often erroneous, but for the testiinony which they bear to important matters of fact, has proved, with complete evidence, that the true reading of a particular text of scripture may often be ascertained, with greater confidence, from the writings of an Origen, a Clemens Alexandrinus, or an Ephrem, than from the most antient manuscript of the New Testament, which is now in existence. To this excellent chapter we have nothing to object: it is learned, rational, and candid.

To the tenth chapter the fame character cannot be allowed. The Subject under discussion is conjectural emendation of the Greek Teftament; a desperate reinedy, to which, as the learned translator well nbierves, ,recourse ought never to be had, but when the disease is otherwise incurable, Such was the case of the very few manuícripts which the editors of the firit printed Bibles had an opportunity to collate; but it is far ocherwise now; and no reading ought to be admitted which is not authorized by sonie antient manufcript, some antient verfiori, or the testimony of some ecclesiastical writer of established character. It is true that our author reprobates in the severeit terms theological conje&ure, or protested emendations according to what is called the analogy of faith; but between theological and critical conjecture the boundary is not distinctly marked, and it is not possible so to mark it. Every {criptural critic is likewise a divine, and every divine favours a particular lystem. .

In the eleventh chapter there is nothing worthy of particular notice; but, the twelfth is a valuable morsel of criticism. The reader will find in it a very satisfactory review of the principal editions of the Greek Testament which have been published since the revival of learn ing and the invention of printing. Among these the Complutenfian : edition, the various editions by Erasmus, by Stepbens, and by Beza; the editions of Colinæus, of Bishop Fell, of Mill, of Bengel, of Wetstein, of Griesbach, of Marthci, and of Birch, claim most attention both from our author and from his excellent translator. In the course of their disquisitions, they have made it very apparent that Erasmus translated occasionally from the Latin version ; that Stephens sometimes applied conjectural criticisin to the sacred text; and that Beza, with the good faith of modern Calvinists, introduced, at least, into his first edition, such readings as favoured his peculiar notions; though different readings were authorised by ten times the number of antient manuscripts. Of all the editions which have yet been published, the text of Griesbach's seems most worthy of confidence; for it app ars from this review, that the learned editor admitted not into it a single word or phrase, for which he had not some antient and unquestionable authority. Ic is indeed an edition of the Christian scriptures, which,


as it may be republished at no great expence, ought to have a place in the library of every clergyman; whilft the more voluminous editions of Mill and Wetstein are calculated only for those who have leisure and inclination to devote their time to sacred criticism. In comparing the merits of those two celebrated editions, Michaelis, with the learned world in general, gives the preference to that of Wetstein; though he conviAs the editor of many inaccuracies, and more than insinuates that his judgment is occasionally warped towards the Socinian mode of criticism. Mr. Marth, without inquiring into Wetstein's theological opinions, very ably defends bis critical integrity, and convicts Michaelis of inaccuracy himself in almost every objection which he has made to the accuracy of Wetstein.

In the thirteenth chapter, which concludes the first part of this elaborate and valuable work, the less learned reader will receive much curious information concerning the marks of distinction, and divisions of the Greek Testament. The various points, which have a place in the printed editions, are all modern; and our author gives concise, and, with the aid of his translator, a satisfactory history of them; Thewing that difficulties may often be removed from the scriptures, merely by a change of the punctuation, which is of no authority as being no part of the original text. The Iota subscriptum, and the Spiritus asper, are likewisc suspicious in manuscripts professing to be antient; and all the accents of the New Testament are clearly proved to be fpurious. Both Michaelis and Marsh, however, are of opinion that the antient as well as modern Greeks read and spake by accent; and many authorities are quoted to prove that the antients attended to accent without violating quantity; but this is a question, which learns ing alone cannot decide. Is it possible to place an accent on a short vowel without lengthening the sound of that vowel? Those, who have the best musical ear, and who have paid particular attention to the structure of the larynx, and the modulation of the human voice, seem to be agreed that it is not; and what is in itself impoffible was certainly not performed by the antient Greeks. When professor Reiz declared that he heard a Greek priest “ raise the tone of his voice without lengthening the found when he pronounced a short fyllable which had an accute accent,” he doubtless said what he believed to be true. We question not his authority, but the delicacy of his ear; for we know, by experience, that the priest would tell him that he had not lengthened the syllable; and if the professor was not accustomed to measure musical or vocal sounds, or had not an ear capable of such an operation, he would naturally give credit to his informer. The writer of this article has heard a Greek ecclefiaftic and a very learned Hungarian read Homer; and they both affirmed that they had not lengthened the short fyllables, on which they placed the accute accent; but he took the liberty not to believe them, because his own ear and the ears of other people more accustomed to the measuring of sounds, allured him that the affirmation was false. The case is fac otherwise with respect to what is called the English accent. By it, the tone is

. neither

neither raised nor lowered ; and when the stroke is given to a corifos nant, the stress may be very distinctly marked, and yet the syilable be pronounced in the shortest tip.e possible.

(To be continued.)

An Account of the Travels into the interior of Southern Africa. In which

is considered the importance of the Cape of Good Hope 10 the different European Powers, as a Naval Military Statien; as a Point of Security to our Indian Trade and Settlements during a War, and as a Territorial Aiquifition and Commercial Emporium in time of Peace : with a Statistical Sketch of the whole Colony. Compiled from authentic Documents by John Barrow, Elg. 4to. Vol. II. p. 452.

Cadell and Davies. 1804. THE estimation in which the author's former volume has been,

and is held, encouraged him to add the present performance, which he confiders as an attempt to finish an incomplete work. In a preliminary chapter our author presents his conception of the first and second subjects of his production.

“ The natural history” (he fays) “ of a country little known; the gene, ral defcription of its irface and appearance; the manners, curioms, and state of society, of the leveral claliis of inhabitants, furnith a valt fund of useful and agreeable information ; but they do not confiitute a whole.”

After this outline of the objects of his first volume, he proceeds tol the second.

« A number of other subjects must be discussed and described before our knowledge of that country can be aid to be complete. Among the e are, not the least important, the local advantages it may command in a political, military, and commercial point of view, either with relpect to itieii, or in its relations with other countries; its resources, and their application; its revenues, juritprudence, population, and a variety of other points which, when attentively taken, torni a topographical and statistical account, froin, whence boli the statelnian and the philosopher may be instructed and amuied.”

A great variety of opinions were entertained refpeeting the importance of the Cape of Good Hope, most of them, Mr. Barrow thinks, founded on a very limited view of the subject, and on an imperfect knowledge of the country. This writer deems the Cape very important to Britain, and by sorreans approves the policy which ceded such a valuable poffeffion. He notices the assiduity of the French in extending their knowledge of India, and the parts of Africa that have an intercourle with that country. He gives a short account of the va. - rious authors who have written concerning the south of Africa, and all the charts which illustrate those coafts. He calls in question the authenticity of a very great portion of Vaillant's travels. The preli


minary chapter closes with enlarging on the value of the Cape of Good Hope to Britain.

The second chapter describes a military expedition to the Kaffer frontier. On the departure of Lord Macartney=for England, the natives, instigated by malignant persons in the Cape Town, became unruly and rebellious, and were guilty of various acts of disorder and insurrection. The activity of government having suppressed the dira turbances, Mr. Barrow offered to visit the interior country, to conciJiate the inhabitants, and send to the Cape those whom he should find instigating sedicion. The offer was accepted, the journey was undertaken, and afforded the materials for describing the physical and moral Itate of Caffraria.

On the 8th of March 1799, Mr. Barrow joined a Serjeant's party of Dragoons, at a pass that leads over the mountains near Cape Town, and crossing the ridge penetrated into the country of the Hottentots and the Dutch colony. The first circumstance wbich struck our traveller in contemplating these people was their cruelty to ania mals. In that part of Africa the pasturage is good, but there is not much agriculture. Trees are as rare (lays Mr. Barrow) as Dr. John. fon found them in Scotland. On the second day of their journey they could find no place of entertainment but a shoe maker's hovel, which also served the neighbours as a kind of a tavern ; but victuals and liquors were prelented in such a disgusting stile as Britons could not bear. As they advanced, they met with various Missionaries, whole manners and habits assimilated more with their own. Leaving tho districts which there occupied thev proceeded in their journey, and loft two soldiers in crossing a river. For several pages our author fufpends the narrative, and exhibits a differtation on the probable advances and recesses of the lea in those parts. His reasoning being merely conjectural upon this subject, it would answer no purpose to repeat it to our readers. On the tenth day of their journey they reached a country which was very beautiful and fertile, abounding in tobacco, fruit, and vines; the vineyards are extremely good, but there is very little skill employed in making the wine. Our travellers kept near the Ealern coast, and by the time they had reached Moffel Bay, about threc hundred miles from the Cape, they found a tract composed of large and beautiful plains inti: iected by numerous rivers, and abounding in lakes full of excellent fith. I lie bours, of Dutch extraction, work very little, but make the Hottentots labour for them; and Mr. Bar. row thinks that thcfe colonists are better led, moie indolent, more ig; norailt, and niore brutal, than any set of men bearing the reputation of being civilized, upon the face of the whole earth. We are not indeed surprized that an Englishman (kould find an amalgamation of Dutchmen and Hottentots, a composition very little to his talte; hue we think him too liberal in allowing to Dutch boors the reputat:on of being civilized.

Hitherto our traveller had chiefly contemplated the general aspect of ...- the country, and the manners of the inhabitants. Arrived in Plaiten


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