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An Inquiry into the real Difference betcu el ACTUAL Money, comffting of
Gold and Silver, and papir Money of 7); risus. ffer ptions. Also a" Examination into the Confii 2.11n of Banks; onid the Impossibility of th ir combining the trio Characters of Brink ad Excbiquer. By Magens Dorrien Magens, Esq. 8vo. Pp 63. 25. Od. Asperne, at the Bible, C:own,
and Conftitution !!! 1804. DEFORE we say a wid of the author or of his tra&t, we must congraO tulate him on having discovered a 'ookieller who bas had the ingenuity to invent a sign which had never before been thought of the sign of ibe wont tt0:! (ood heavens! what an age of invention, and of improvement is this ! Bu: let us obse ve, however, in favour of our less ingenious ancesiors, that if they never invented such a fign, the reason is plain; the thing was impoti le, because their figns exhibited a visible mark or semblance of the thing intended to be reprelented; and even Mr. Alp rne's ingenuity, we conceive, would be puzzled to give to any painter luch a description of the Cofitution as would enable him to exhibit it on a fign. We beg pardon, however, of Mr. Magens, for thus giving p ecedence to his publither.
We have read this inquiry with that degree of attention which the importance of the subject discuffed feemed to require. But we confess that to us it appears, that a very large proportion of it is devoted to the pu pose of defining that which is obvious to every man s underlianding; and whib, therefore, stands no more in need of arfin 2011, ihan the difference between a loaf and a bun. A L mbard-Itreet criiic, however, would probably be of a different opin on. On the fub eet of ac?ommodat v?? notes Mr. Magens is, we think, more correct than Mi. 'l bornton; his diliinction between their use and abure is accurate; and his notion of the deception contained in the value receirid, where, in point of fact, no value is represen ed, is perfectly just. Not fo, bis cer:fure of the government for a measure which to us, and to every person whom we ever heard mention the subject, appeared a. measure not more expedien: in its apphication, than wile in its priciple; we allude to the iflue of Commercial Exchequer Bills in 1793, for he rehief of the commercial world, then diftre: ed by e traordinary and unforeseen pretture. The censure is grounded on a suppofition not very folid, that the issue of those bills iended to encourage commercial speculations, and to force trade beyond that consumption and demand which should invariably regulate it's extent
in p 25. Mr. Magus claffes'a ligure among the current coins o' Europe, wh reas he thould bare k own that it is only a noi, inal coin ; like our ponnid florliny. * The chief obj At of his tract is to prove, whai, 10 our undirftarding, at least, he has complete y failed to pro e-that it ihe bank Veit 10 tabe 10 advance's to govern ent, pa: nients in fpecie night immediat ! be resumed. As it is, he denies that any danger wou d accrue from fish pai ments; and contends that if money should in the firft in
* Tine pita Itirling was formerly a real coin; and so was the livre; but for o leiries no fich money has been coined ; though, for the conveniu va calculatii g the names are fill retained,
stance be exported, it would speedily return with interest. But however clear this may appear to him, he certainly has not made it clear to others. We mall lay the burden of his song before our readers..
" Separate, therefore, the Exchequer from the Bank;. let the former depend upon itselt alone, and let the Bank maintain its own sphere, as a house of agency for government, and of acc mmoda'ion and convenience to ibu mercantile part of the conm nity.” To our dull urmercantile understanding it seems strange that the fare writer who deprecates the relief of cominercial men by the accommodation of Exchequer Bills advanced by government, should recommend a similar relief by the accommodition of note ad anced by the Banco England! There inay be an essential difference in the nature and principle of these modes of relief, but we are lo stupid as' not to perceive it. And, indeed, to say the truth, it looks as it the grand objection to the advance of money by the Bank to Government were founded on the inconvenience resulting from some limitation o: the accomm diation usually afforded by the lank to individuals.“ By such nieans it may speedily be enabled to resume its payments in specie ; tie government will be m re secure, and gee al confidenc better established. Nothing is wanting, but a resol. tion, on the part of the minister, to consider the Bank only as an agent; and never to bor:ow from it, or interfere with its concerns, unless s me viole:st convulsion overturns a'l system, and renders nieasures necessary, which no circumstance would justify Maintaining this plan, h.th would be strengthened, and the national weal'h'enco raged and increased. Pu suing the system of the last ten years, nothing but weakness and eventual disgrace can be expected to nccur.” It we niay be allowed to judge of the future by the past, there is no foundation whatever for any luch expectation.
Reflections proper for the present Times.' 1800. Pp. 36. 6d. or 5s. per do
zen. Hatchard. 1804.
In his previous Address to the public, the sensible author of this ufeful little book ble ves--1 hroughout the greater part of the following pages are extracts from auth rs of establi, ed re, utation, wh ch / col not re. frain from fubmitting to the pu lic, judging that they might not be without their use if in this form they were offer. d 10 its infection); more efecially, since it must be notorious to he observauon of every one, that, in these our days, the lentiments ihry contains, and the du ies they inculca e, are very much won the wane ainongit us." . : We fear his lait rem rk is but 100 true, and a lawen able consideration it is ; for these sentinents are such as every me wristian and good subject ought n entertain, and these dijes are such as every man ought to discharge. In the first part of ibes Reflections, a oncile view is taken of the punishments inii ted by Gud on he 1..! Os o' aniquity, for their vices and fins, for the laudable purpose of thewing ihat the same causes may produre the saine effects in the prelent times. The autuor thus closes this art of his book: · " It is, therefore, no less useful than curious, in reading history, to
mark th: different difpofitions anvers, and cha a ers, of nations and • their rulers ; fince there are the instrum n's, w.nikiog under the direction
of Provide ce, for the accomplishinent of its designs, wiihout any infringemeni of man's true. will. If you behol a kutiwa diltinguished by irreligion and contempt of things sacred, by icentioufaeli, faction, lux
: ury, ury, dissipation, and effeminacy, be assured, that, without reformation, the conquest of that nation by some other is becoming more and more feafible every day. Such were the characteristics of the ancient people of God, in the times preceding their several captivities. Such was the case when the old Affyrian Empire perished with Sardanapalus ; when Babylon was surprised by Cyrus ; when Darius was overthrown by Alexander; when Greece fell u: der the dominion of the Romans; when these last were overwhelmed by the Northern Nations; and when Conftantinople was taken by the Turks. Let these instances suffice, and let every man who has the prosperity of his country at heart, very seriously consider how far these tokens are to be found upon ourselves; what can be done to pre. vent the farther spreading of the infection, and to eradicate the seeds of the disorder. Those in the higher ranks of life have a moft brilliant example of virtue held forth to them from the Throne. Happy would it be for themselves, happy for the community, would they study to reflect its lustre in the wide extended circles of their inferiors and dependents.
The second part of the Reflections exhibiis some of the most prominent features of the French Revolution, which, during the late i hollow, armed truce," men seemed disposed to consign to oblivion, and so to deprive the world of the most useful lesson, and the most useful example, that were ever offered to it. The author has drawn a tolerable sketch of the character of the Corsican Usurper ; and he truly remarks, “ With this most extraordinary man we have now tried the experiment of peace, and we find by that experiment that he cares not for public faith or justice ; that he regards not either the laws of nations or those of hospitality ; that he is governed by no principle but ambition, and acknowledges no other law but that of his own will. Let it not be imagined that this is an exag. gerated pidure; every trait will be found in the decrees, the reports, the public records, of French infamy and wretchednets."
No, it is not an exaggerated piciure; nor is it in the power of the pen or the pencil, we will not say to overcharge, the picture of this monster of iniquity and guilt, but to give any thing like an adequate representation of the original. The author is entitled to the thanks of every religious mind for this laulable effort to direct the attention of the people to objects which they ought incessantly to contemplate.
A New Dictionary of Ancient Geograpby, exbibiting the Modern in addition to the
Ancient Names of Places; designed for the Use of Schools, and of tbose wbo are reading the Classics, or other ancient Authors. By Charles Pye." P.7. Longman and Rees. 1803. .
The study of ancient geography, though essentially necessary to a knowledge of history and classics, is not generally cultivated with that affiduity which its importance seems to demand. Indeed the numerous contradictions which abound in ancient writers with respect to the names and boundaries of places, may have deterred many from this useful and intereiting study. These contradictions are thus noticed by Mr. Pye in his Preface. " In the time of Strabo, Mela, and cther ancient writers, the science of geography was in its infancy, and th-refore it is not surprizing that they should have assigned different boundaries to the fame diftrias; but we are also to consider that the continued warfare which sul fisted between contending nations, frequently extended the limits of one region, · and of course contracted those of another. Hence we may find a town represented by one person as situated in Macedonia, and by another as in
Theffalys Theffaly, yet both may be right ac ording to the time they respectively wrote The same remarı, is applicable to other districts, as is clea ly de. monstrated in the present irnes, for which reason the buundari.s are genera ly omitted in th's publication." ;
The au' hør here seems to decl ne any attempt to reconcile the various con radictions on these subjects. His avowed object is to arrange the ancient a d mode n names in a clear and methodical manner, so as to give a re dy reference to each; and in-add tion to this arrangement of anc'ent appellations, both of people and places, witii the modern names, he has given con ie chr 'nological history of the principal places ; by which tie book al o erves in many ases as a Gazetteer.
The autho, in hi, Pr face, prof íses to lay claim to no other merit than th t of industry, and in all cases to have taken his materials frim the most approved doc ments. But while we allow ths Itatement to be generally correct we have to po nt out some inaccuracies, which we recommend to his notice and cor ection in a future edition.
We do not always find even all the ancient names detailed which places bore at different periods. It is not stated here that Scotland was once called Albania, and at another period Scct:a Minor, to diftinguish it from Ireland, which was then called Scotiu Major. In giv og reterences, likea wi'e, the places or names referred to are not always inserted : such are the following: Brigbist:w, see Bristol ; Scoti, see Scots; Cam:us Martius, see Campus Tiberinus, &c.
To enter into a minute detail of the inaccuracies of a work of this națure, would .e ted ous and difficult, and in some cases invidious, where the subject, are of the most vague character. In such instances the errors a e often either dou' tful or unimportant. We fird, upon the whole, a clear and practical arrangement of arti les which are difperied in more volum nous works. Mr. Pye has here conden'ed within a narrow space the substance of Cellarius, Lamprie:e, Macbean, &c. In short, the work wiil be found very useful and convenient to all persons reading the Classics, or lludying modern geography, and, indeed, to all readers of history, whether sacred or protane.
EXTRACTED FROM Aikin's ANNUAL REview for 1803, PAGE 510. Art. XV.- The Revolutionary Plutarch; exhibiting the most distinguished Charac
ters literary, military, and political, in the recent Annals of the French Republic : " the greater part from the original information of a Gentleman resident ai Paris.
To which, as an Appendix, is reprinted entire, the celebrated Pamphlet of
“ Killing no Murder." 2 vols. Art. XVI. - History of the French Consulate under Napoleon Bonaparte: being an *.authentic narrative of his administration, which is so little known in Foreign
Countries. Including a sketch of his Life. The whole interspersed with curious anecdotes, and a faithful statement of interesting transactions until the renewal of kostilities in 1803. By. W. Barre, witness to many of the facts related in the
narrative. 8vo. 5. LEAR is always cruel. The Romans had once been driven to the
T very brink of ruin by the abilities of Hannibal, and never after ~ thought them.elves secure till treir persecutions had driven the exiled war
rior rior to self-destruction. The ambition of Louis XIV. was stopped in the inidst of his career by William III.; and when the victorious arms of the confederates were on the point of inflicting on France the desolation which had atleided the march of her troops through the states of Germany, and the provinces of Belgium, a plot to assassinate the redeemer of the liberties of Europe was contrived by the French ministry, and sanctioned by its mo. narch. The ungenerous policy of England filled Ireland with difaffection, and her alarmed Ministers of torture were let loose to quell, by means which would have dilgraced even an Alva, the commotions of her own raising. Bonaparte has threatened us with invasion, and Englishmen have been found to propole an atrocious and unsparing warfare, which in modern times has been commanded only by Robespiere, and has been practised by none.
" In the late war, and in the present, the British Ministry has been loudly accused of participating in, and encouraging, those plans of aflafination which have been direcied against the person of the Chief Magistrate of France. Let the Ministry, if they can with truth, vindicate themselves from fo black a charge, by solemn and authentic disavowal; and let the British public niew the high honour and intrepid courage for which they have long been renowned, by consigning to merited contempt and abhorrence all works, together with their authors, whose direct tendency is to degrade the generous and high-spirited patriot into the lurking atlaitin.”
We should have taken some pains to expose the writer of this miserable jargon, miscalled criticism, who seems not to underland the English grammar, and his vile Jacobinical principles, as manifested in his commendations of a man, loaded with more crimes than any other individual whore actions are recorded in history, if a correspondent had not spared us the trouble.. We shall insert his remarks, therefore, instead of our comments.
TO THE EDITOR.
. SIR, VOUR known loyalty and candour make me hope that you will not re
1 fuse a place for the inclosed short review of Arthur Aikin’s Annual Review. The copy of his review of the Revolutionary Plutarch, shews you his manner of reviewing loyal productions. Mine, I hope therefore, is! neither illiberal nor unjust. I am, Sir,
Jacobins are always cruel. Under Robespierre they crowded the prifons and scaffolds with victims; and every man who detelted their crimes, or abhorred their principles, was imprisoned as suspected, and executed as a conspirator against the French republic. Jean de Brie, now Buonaparte's preseći at Besançon, proposed, when a member of the national convention, to erect a corps of regicides, whose employments were to be the murderers of all lawful princes. Gustavus III. the king of Sweden, was killed by the Jacobins; Louis XVI. was murdered by them, and Louis XVII. was poi1oned by them.
The vigorous policy of England prevented the destruction of liberty in Ireland, and preserved that country from the worst of all tyrannies, that of Jacobins. Buonaparté has threatened us with an invasion, and Englishmen