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tions are only such simple diagrams as are required to elucidate the text. Besides being an advantage in other respects, this plan sets free a vast amount of space which can be utilized in the more thorough presentation of the principles of the science. For illustrations of these principles, by experiment or fro facts drawn from observation, the instructor is held responsible, as he is also for their practical application.

In adopting this plan, the authors have unquestionably made a decided advance. Although the treatment is mathematical wherever desirable, it is assumed that the student has no knowledge of the differential and integral calculus. In several instances the method of limits has been used, however, and students who are familiar with the calculus will have no difficulty in its application. The subject is treated in the usual five grand divisions, mechanics, heat, magnetism and electricity, sound, and light.

Many physicists will not be able to agree entirely with the authors in some of their fundamental definitions and statements in the chapters upon mechanics. A close examination of these reveals several inconsistencies, into which they appear to have been led by the adoption of certain time-honored definitions and terms. Some of these questions have received a good deal of attention during the past few years, in the columns of this journal and elsewhere, and probably the disputants are no more nearly in agreement than they were in the beginning; but it seems tolerably certain that even the average student will experience a certain turbidity of mind when he places the definition of momentum’ (viz.,“ the momentum of a body is its quantity of motion") and that of motion '(viz., “ the change in position of a material particle is called its motion") a very little nearer together than they are now found on the pages of the book. The first sentence of the introduction, Every thing which can affect our senses we call matter," has a ring of materialism about it which one would hardly expect from at least one of the two famous institutions of learning from which the book comes.

If these and other similar statements are admitted to be defects, they are of minor importance, and do not materially detract from the general excellence of the treatise. It is to be greatly regretted, however, that the publisher has not done his part as well as the authors have done theirs. In mechanical execution the book is substantial, but very far from attractive in its appearance. Industrial Peace. By L. L. F. R. PRICE. New York, Macmillan.

8o. THOSE who have given attention to the treatment of the laborquestion in England have heard of Arnold Toynbee, the young Oxford graduate who founded an institution in the eastern part of London for the purpose of bringing young men of education into contact with the ignorant poor. After the death of Toynbee at an early age, a memorial fund was raised in his honor, and devoted to the work of spreading information by lectures and publications on the subjects in which he was interested ; and the volume before us is the first to be issued by the trustees of that fund. The greater part of the work was first read before the Statistical Society of London, and was published in the journal of that society for March, 1887.

Mr. Price opens his work by remarking, what is sometimes lost sight of by enthusiastic reformers, that“ there is not, nor indeed is it probable that there can be, any single panacea for social ills. . . . So diversified are the details of even contemporaneous industrial society, that any scheme which professes to cure all economic maladies by an uniform unalterable method of treatment may almost be said to carry with it its own condemnation " (p. 1). Some persons, he remarks, think that co-operation is destined to remove all industrial difficulties; but upon this point he thinks that experience is not encouraging. Co-operative distribution has prospered in England to a surprising extent; but in co-operative production there were in 1884 only £800,000 of capital employed, and only 6,300 men. He believes, therefore, that whatever advance may be made in co-operation and profit-sharing, the old relation of wage-payer and wage-receiver will still continue; and the object of his essay is to inquire by what means this relation can be made more harmonious.

The means that he relies on are the creation of boards of conciliation and arbitration, and the establishment of sliding scales of

wages. As an example of the former class, he describes the formation and working of the board of conciliation organized in 1869 in the iron trade of the north of England, which he considers an excellent test of the system, since the fluctuations of wages in the iron trade are greater than in most others, and also because before the board was organized the relations between workmen and employers was very unfriendly. In spite of these difficulties, however, the method of conciliation has proved a great success. The machinery consists of a board comprising representatives of both sides and a standing committee appointed by the board. All questions are first investigated by the committee, and, if they cannot agree, the matter is laid before the board; and, if an agreement is not reached there, an arbitrator is called in to render a decision. The system is similar to the conseils de prud'hommes that exist in France and Belgium; but Mr. Price objects to these on account of their legal character, which is contrary to the traditions of English, and, we may add, of American life. He examines at length the working of the boards of conciliation, and then proceeds to consider the method of sliding scales, by which wages are made to vary with the price of the product. The establishment and maintenance of such scales have been attended with considerable difficulty, owing to disagreements as to what standard of prices and wages should be taken as a basis; but nevertheless they have proved successful in many English collieries, and are still in force there. The special advantages of these scales, in Mr. Price's opinion, are their elasticity and their automatic action ; but he does not fail to point out at considerable length the difficulties attending the working both of the sliding scales and of the boards of conciliation. The chief of these are, “the possibility that the decision might fail to secure loyal adherence, the contentiousness connected with the preparation and discussion of elaborate arguments, and the difficulty of determining upon a satisfactory basis and of ascertaining accurate data” (p. 89).

Such is a brief analysis of the methods of 'industrial peace' that have been tried with no little success in England; and we would earnestly recommend a study of them to the leaders of our American trade-unions and to the employers with whom they are perpetually contending. It is the duty as well as the interest of both parties to maintain peace, and any methods that have been successfully employed for this purpose ought to be carefully considered by them, and, if possible, put into practice. They will not, of course, solve all industrial problems; but the substitution of peaceful methods for contentious ones would of itself be a great gain, and would pave the way for further improvements in the future. Elementary Practical Physics. By B. STEWART and W. W. H.

GEE. Vol. II. Electricity and Magnetism. New York, Mac

millan. 16o. All who are familiar with the contents of the first volume of this work will extend a hearty welcome to the second. Every teacher of physics by laboratory methods has felt the need of a good handbook or guide, which, in the hands of the student, would afford some relief from the labor of giving individual instruction in the details of manipulation, which, when the number of students is large, becomes simply enormous.

Since the publication of Pickering's ‘Physical Manipulations' fifteen years ago, the pioneer in this field, a number of attempts have been made to supply the want. It is safe to say that none have been more successful in producing a book at once satisfactory in plan and material than Professors Stewart and Gee, in this series, the second volume of which has now appeared.

In its general character it resembles the first volume. One of the leading features of the series, very prominent in this volume, is the fulness of detail concerning all operations, the making of every experiment, and the nature and construction of every piece of apparatus used. Nearly all of the instruments described are such as were constructed in the laboratory of the authors: they are simple in design, and instructions for their reproduction are so clear that even the unskilful can hardly fail. The amateur instrument-maker is also greatly aided by the numerous diagrams and cuts illustrating methods of construction.

The value of this feature of the work can hardly be overestimated, for it is a fact that many good teachers have little inventive or mechanical skill. Besides, it will generally be admitted that the construction of the simpler apparatus by the student himself is a most valuable and useful exercise, giving him a firm and lasting hold upon fundamental principles which he can attain in no other way. But this attention to detail does not stop with the instrument itself. All of various steps to be gone over in its use, its proper adjustments, the errors to be looked out for, etc., are carefully considered; and in nearly every instance a numerical example is provided, generally taken from real laboratory note-books, and the solution and reduction are gone through with.

In short, in this respect, as many others, the book comes as near taking the place of the living instructor as can well be imagined. It must not be understood that the book is for the beginner in the study of electricity. It must at least be taken in connection with, and better after, a course in some elementary text-book on the subject, and, in addition, may go along with a course of lectures upon fundamental theories. The recognition of this fact is shown in the plan of the book itself, in which, in the first three chapters, the student is introduced to the leading principles of the science, its nomenclature, units of measure, etc., that the less elementary chapters which follow may offer less difficulty.

The chapter on resistance measurement is naturally full and complete, nearly all important and useful methods being given. A full discussion of the tangent galvanometer is given, together with the ethods of determining its constants. Related to this is the determination of the magnetic elements, and a good deal of space is devoted to a very complete description of the Kew magnetometer: its use is described, and a series of observations is completely worked out. Other parts of the work are equally worthy of commendation, especially the series of appendices at the end, containing among other things a number of valuable hints as to the manipulation of material used in the construction of apparatus.

Nearly all of the formulas used in the reduction of observations are derived from elementary propositions, but the mathematical treatment of the subject is elementary, and well suited to the character of the work. In addition to its adaptability to class-room work, the book can be highly recommended to private students of electricity and magnetism. Introduction to a Historical Geography of the British Colonies

By C. P. LUCAS. Oxford, Clarendon Pr. 12o. This little book is the first instalment of a larger work, to be published in parts, and dealing separately with the various dependencies of the British Empire. It gives not only a brief history of the founding of the British colonies, but treats of colonization generally, ancient and modern, and gives some chapters to what may be called the philosophy of colonization. Mr. Lucas defines a colony as a body of persons who have left their native country and permanently settled in another, and who in their new home form the bulk of the inhabitants. He then proceeds to consider the motives of colonization, the chief of which he finds to be these four: “ love of enterprise, desire of wealth, social or political discontent, and religion.” He does not attribute so exclusive an influence to over-population in the mother-country as some writers do, but thinks that the other motives have in many cases been more important than this. He gives a brief but interesting account of the influence of religion in the founding of colonies and the conquest of dependencies, and also of the effects of climate and race. A colonizing race should be not only enterprising and inclined to emigrate, but also endowed with an aptitude for commerce, and especially for law and government. Of these characteristics the last named is the most important: “Colonizing on any large scale must imply dealing with subject races, and the past has shown, that, in spite of other defects, the people which can govern will in the end prevail” (p. 27).

The brief history of colonization, ancient and modern, which the book contains, and the special account of the English colonies with which it closes, contain a large amount of information in a small compass, and, though treating of matters that are familiar to most readers of history, will be useful for reference. If the projected historical geography of England's colonies is carried out as well as it is begun, it will prove a valuable addition to historical literature.

Electricity for Public Schools and Colleges. By W. LARDEN.

London, Longmans, Green, & Co. 12o. The ceaseless activity in all matters pertaining to electricity is shown in the continued appearance of books relating to the subject, in all parts of the world and in all languages.

This book is intended, as its title implies, to serve as a textbook for high-class public schools, and for colleges in which a thorough training in the fundamental principles of electricity and magnetism is furnished, in the development of which the instructor is restricted to elementary mathematics.

Few institutions of learning in this country can offer to their students more than this, and, in fact, not very many have found it possible to make use of a separate treatise upon the subject, except, of course, in the way of special elective courses.

Of the several books containing an elementary treatment of electricity and magnetism which have appeared within the last ten or fifteen years, this by Larden has the advantage of being one of the most recent, and in breadth of treatment, and thoroughness of execution, one of the best.

Only elementary mathematics is made use of, and it is therefore necessary occasionally to state a proposition on authority. Frequent references are given, however, to treatises in which such propositions will be found fully discussed. In some instances where elementary demonstrations are presented, the author has not selected the easiest and most simple. An illustration of this statement is to be found in his proof of the condition under which a battery gives a maximum current. Some of his discussions are also open to the objection of an excessive conciseness and brevity of statement, thus presenting difficulties which the average student of the class for which the book is intended will have difficulty in overcoming. The diagrammatic illustrations have been drawn especially for the work, and are generally very clear. A number of cuts of complete and well-known forms of apparatus are also furnished.

Among the commendable features of the book may be mentioned a very full discussion of induction machines (electro-static), including the Voss machine, the Holtz machine, and others, the operation of which is often very perplexing to students.

The author is not fortunate in his chapter on atmospheric electricity, and especially where he attempts to account for the varying potential of the atmosphere.

The treatment of electric measurements is tolerably full, sufficiently so for a book of this kind, in which one ought not to expect to find all of the now nearly innumerable methods and devices. The chapter on Joule's law and the conservation of energy is especially complete, although not long; and other chapters, on electro-dynamic induction, the dynamo, induction coils, etc., will be found quite satisfactory. Many teachers and students of the science will welcome the book, and find it useful in their work. The Science of Politics. By WALTER THOMAS Mills. New

York, Funk & Wagnalls. 12o. In taking up a book with the above title, we naturally expect to find it treating of the duties and functions of the State, or of its organization or its history; but these topics are scarcely touched upon in the work before us. The author himself states his subject to be the duties of citizenship and the means of performing them; but he confines himself mostly to the treatment of political parties. Mr. Mills, as he tells us on his titlepage, is a journalist; and the influence of his profession is a little too plainly visible in this work, the style showing some of that offhand infallibility which many journalists affect. As regards matter, the book is not specially profound or original, yet it nevertheless contains much that is good. The author has in the main very correct ideas as to the nature and functions of parties and the rights and duties of the citizen with regard to them. He sees clearly that a party without principles is worthless, and that the fact that a party has done well in the past is no guaranty that it will always do well in the future. He vigorously maintains the right to bolt a bad nomination, and the right and duty of leaving an old party and joining a new one in case the old one proves recreant to its trust. Such views as these are not yet so widely accepted in this country as they ought to be; and, if this book should be read by the right persons, it can hardly fail to


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have a beneficial influence. Mr. Mills sees, as most of us do, the evils attendant on caucuses and on party management generally, but he does not suggest any thing new in the way of remedy. He has also some good remarks on the folly of mere office-seeking and the nobleness of disinterested statesmanship. We are sorry to have to add that the typography of the book is very bad indeed. Such misspellings as “monopilies,' . forsee,' 'weich' for which,' and profit' for 'profit,' are frequent. On p. 159 there are three words misspelled ; and on p. 73 is the following sentence: A party as a party cannot refuse to meet an issue squarly at the ballot box, and then as a party squarly meet it anywhere else." Surely American typography can do better than that. Grundriss der Psychologie. Von Dr. F. WOLLNY. Leipzig,

Thomas. 8°. It is difficult to classify this pamphlet. It is not an elementary text-book, because it lacks ail system, and treats special topics. It is not a technical contribution, for it is full of commonplaces, and has no definite end in view. Perhaps it is best to regard it as an expression of the author's interests, and as such it has little interest. The author declares his atheistic tendencies, and introduces much not very relevant ethical matter. After discussing in a very unsystematic and eclectic manner the elementary mental powers, – sensation, will, perception, memory, — both separately and in combined action, he adds a few short chapters on sleep and dreams, on insanity, on animal mind, and on alleged higher psychic powers. About the only noteworthy passages are to be found in the preface and in the appendix. The former announces that the author intends to keep psychology and physiology distinct, and has no sympathy with tedious and meaningless psychophysical experiments. As a matter of fact, the topics treated often demand a physiological treatment, and many of the chapters begin with the statement of such a fact. Instead of taking it from a physiological text-book, the author records it as his own experience. It is difficult to take his objections seriously. The appendix contains a great discovery.' The human body is susceptible to magnetic influence. Furthermore, if one person in the neighborhood of a magnet concentrates his attention upon another, a subtle connection between the two is made, and one can read the thoughts of the other without sensory transfer. To this so-called 'fact' are added a host of fanciful notions with much mysticism. It is queer in what various forms these unscientific notions arise. Finally, the book is written in orthodox German style, — ponderous, .baggaged' sentences and involved constructions. Italian Grammar. By C. H. GRANDGENT. Boston, Heath. 12o.

In this volume the author, who is tutor in modern languages in Harvard University, has attempted, and very successfully we think, to put into convenient form and small compass sufficient of the grammar of the Italian language to meet the requirements of the ordinary student. The book, though representing Italian as at present spoken and written, gives as many obsolete forms as may be necessary for a student of the Italian classics. It is prepared specially for use in colleges, but it will prove serviceable to any student familiar with English grammar.

ard Vines, and William Gilson Farlow, assisted by other botanists. The contents are, ' On Some Points in the Histology and Physiology of the Fruits and Seeds of Rhamnus,' by H. Marshall Ward; On the Structure of the Mucilage-secreting Cells of Blechnum occidentale, L., and Osmunda regalis, L.,' by W. Gardiner and Tokutaro Ito; •On Laticiferous Tissue in the Pith of Manihot Glaziovii, and on the Presence of Nuclei in this Tissue,' by Agnes Calvert and L. A. Boodle; ' Anomalous Thickening in the Roots of Cycas Seemanni, Al. Braun,' by W. H. Gregg; notes; review of Sachs's · Physiology of Plants;' and record of current literature.

- The fifth biennial report of the Kansas State Historical Society shows the work of the society for the two years ending Jan. 18, 1887. The society was then eleven years old. The primary object of the society is that of collecting, arranging, and cataloguing a library of the materials of Kansas history, including books, pamphlets, newspapers, maps, pictures, and, in short, every thing which contains information concerning and going to illustrate the history of Kansas. Incidentally, so interwoven has been the history of Kansas with that of the whole country, and so much has it enlisted a general interest, its library has come to be the recipient, largely by gift, of not only the materials of the history, but of every thing of a literary and scientific character relating to all parts of the country. The total of the library in January last was, of bound volumes, 8,352; unbound volumes, 21,103; bound newspaper files and volumes of periodicals, 5,986; making the total of the library, 35,441. Its yearly accession of the files of local newspapers is no doubt greater than that of any other library in the country. The regular issues of all the local newspapers, daily and weekly, published in every county in Kansas, are freely given the society by the publishers, and are bound, and placed on the shelves of the library. Thus is being preserved the best of all materials of the history of every town and neighborhood in the State. The report, among other lists and tables, contains a list of the newspapers at the present time published in Kansas; viz., 72 dailies, 12 semi-weeklies, 722 weeklies, 38 monthlies, I semi-monthly, i bi-monthly, 4 quarterlies, and 2 occasionals, numbering 852 in all. The library is the property of the State, and is kept in rooms in the State Capitol.

- Among the latest issues of the Clarendon Press (Macmillan & Co.) is a batch of classical books that are worthy of careful examination. The list includes the · Phormio' of Terence, Cicero's Catilinarian orations, The Knights' of Aristophanes, the 'Eclogues' of Vergil, the first book of Tacitus’ · Annals,' and, in the Elementary Classics Series, the seventh book of Cæsar's Commentaries.' They are all gotten up in that attractive and elegant way that characterizes the Macmillans' work. Particular attention is due, perhaps, to Dr. Merry's careful and accurate edition of the • Knights' of Aristophanes. Both introduction and notes are extremely well done.

A series of lectures (twenty to twenty-four in number) will be given at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, by Professor Whitney, on geographical methods and results. The course will begin on Wednesday, Nov. 9, at 3 P.M. Admission free; but tickets must be obtained of the lecturer, by application through the mail or in person; and in their distribution, since the accommodation is limited, preference will be given to teachers, for whom the course is specially intended.

– The frequently observed longevity of eminent English scientists is again shown in the high ages at which recently deceased fellows of the Royal Society have died. Of fourteen fellows, six lived to more than eighty years, and only one was under sixty at the time of his death. The average age at death of the fourteen is no less than seventy-five years.

Oscar Harger, for eighteen years the chief assistant of Prof. 0. C. Marsh, died in New Haven, Nov. 6. Mr. Harger was born at Oxford, Conn., and was graduated from Yale College in the class of '68. He was one of the high-stand members of his class, and was looked upon at graduation as a young man of exceeding great promise. When he graduated, his health had been considerably impaired in consequence of hard study and application to literary and other work, which he did in order to secure money to pay his expenses through college. In 1870 Mr. Harger became assistant

NOTES AND NEWS. A PARTY of forty engineers and their assistants, about a hundred and fifty in all, will leave this city about the end of this month for Nicaragua, to locate the exact route of the inter-oceanic canal, and to obtain data from which to make accurate estimates as to the cost of the work. The expedition will be in charge of Engineer Perry, and will be joined a few weeks later by Chief-Engineer Menocal.

– A recent public test of the consolidated railway telegraph system of train-telegraphy, made on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, gave very satisfactory results. On a train moving sixty miles an hour, messages were sent and received to and from other trains on the road, and communication was had with this city and with different stations on the line.

- We have received from the Clarendon Press the first number of Annals of Botany, edited by Isaac Bayley Balfour, Sydney How


instructor in geology at Yale, and rapidly became known among of leg inside, 324 inches; average height ranging from 5 feet 81 to literary men as a logical thinker and superior instructor. He ac- 5 feet 9 in New England, up to 5 feet 10 for the average at the quired a knowledge of local botany that was considerably more ex- South and West. A few deductions of weight are given from tensive than was possessed by any other scientist in the city or which one can infer that the average man weighs between 155 and state. Professor Marsh valued his assistant very highly, and the 160 pounds. two geological works of which Professor Marsh is the author were These measures cover the average of the assorted sizes of gargiven to the printers in Mr. Harger's handwriting, having been ments which are made up by the thousand. There are a few small very largely prepared by him under the immediate direction of the men who buy youths' sizes' so called, and a few larger men who professor. In 1878 Mr. Harger married Miss Jessie Craig, sister of buy.extra sizes.' The remarks made in some of these letters are James R. and Alexander Craig of New Haven. Mrs. Harger survives interesting. him, but he leaves no children.

My correspondent in Chicago states, “ that, so far as relates to Mr. P. W. M. Trap of Leyden is about to issue the first num

the assertion that the race in this country deteriorates, our experiber of the Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, which will be

ence teaches us that the contrary is the case. We are now, and edited by Dr. J. D. E. Schmelz, curator of the National Ethno- have for several years past been, obliged to adopt a larger scale of graphical Museum at Leyden. The principal object of the new

sizes, and many more extra sizes in width as well as length, than journal is the study of descriptive ethnology ;' i.e., of the ma- were required ten years ago. I find that occupation and residence terial, form, method of manufacture, and use of objects made by

have a great deal to do with the difference in sizes, the average of peoples still extant. It will be illustrated by color-plates, a mag

sizes required for the cities and large towns being much less than nificent sample of which accompanies the publisher's announce

that required for the country. Again, different sections vary very

much in those requirements. For instance, an experienced stockment.

clerk will pick out for South and South-western trade, coats and In Science of Nov. 4, p. 226, 23d line of Search for Gems and

vests, breast-measure 35 to 40, pants always one or two sizes Precious Stones.' '.792074 should read ::7920792.'

smaller around the belly than the length of leg inside ; for Western

and Northern trade, coats and vests, breast-measure 37 to 42, pants LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

33 to 40 around the belly, 30 to 34 length of leg inside."

My correspondent in Texas gives the average 38 inches chest, 33 .The attention of scientific men is called to the advantages of the correspondence columns of Science for placing promptly on record brief preliminary notices of

to 34 inches waist, 324 leg-measure, 5 feet 10 inches height, adding, their investigations. Twenty copies of the number containing his communication

“ We find that the waist-measure has increased from an average of will be furnished free to any correspondent on request.

32, to 33 inches during the past five years, and we think our people The editor will be glad to publisk any queries consonant with the character of the journal.

are becoming stouter built.” Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name is

My correspondent in Baltimore had previously made the same in all cases required as proof of good faith.

statement; to wit, “Since the late war we have noticed that the Cheyenne.

average-sized suits for our Southern trade has increased fully one

inch around the chest and waist, while there has been no apparent Your espousal of the true pronunciation of · Arkansaw' should give a shock to New England self-conceit, unaware that the New

change in the length of pants.”

I asked this firm if the change could be due to the fact that the England type of mind is essentially shallow. In regard to the name Cheyenne.' In youth I was able to speak

colored people had become buyers of ready-made clothing, but have enough Sioux to trade with the Indians. The French trappers told

for reply that the fact that the negroes are buying more ready-made me that the Sioux say that the first Cheyennes they ever saw had

clothing now than previous to the war, accounts in only a small their thighs painted red, and they (Sioux) remarked to them, Shah

degree for the increase of the size, but is due almost entirely to ce-aie-loo-hah, which means, 'You have painted yourselves red.'

the increased physical activity on the part of the whites. The exThey call the Cheyennes ‘Shy-aie-lah,' an abbreviation of the above

periences of this firm covers thirty-five years. sentence. Shah-shah means “red ;' and loo-yah, ‘ you have.' The

My correspondent in New York states that " for the last thirty

years our clothing, numbering at least 750,000 garments yearly, has change to . Cheyenne' might easily occur in the transfer from Indian to white, and the first attempt to spell it by Frenchmen

been exclusively sold in the Southern States. We find the average would of course be with ch instead of sh. The • squaw-men,' trap

man to measure 37 inches around the chest, 32 to 33 around the

waist, 33 to 34 inches length of leg inside, average height 5 feet 10 pers and hunters, do not believe it has any connection with the

inches. The Southerner measures more in the leg than around the French word chien, notwithstanding the name of the Cheyennes in

waist, the intertribal sign-language is 'wolf-ears made with forefingers

a peculiarity in direct contrast to the Western man, who and thumbs at sides of head.'


measures more around the waist than in the leg." Lexington, Mo.,

My correspondent in Canada gives the following details; experience covers twenty years, about 300,000 garments a year: Breast-measure...


38, The American Physique.

36, 3742,

Cut per 1.000 of above sizes.......80, LAST spring I received a letter from an English gentleman who Average weight for each size.....

160, is interested anthropology and biology, asking me if there were “ The information out the weight I got from a custom tailor of any facts to sustain the impression abroad that the white man is some years' experience, -and cannot, of course, vouch for its cordeteriorating in size, weight, and condition in the United States. I rectness.” had no positive information of my own to give, and I could only My correspondent in Detroit says, “We notice marked peculiarrefer my correspondent to the data of the measurement of soldiers, ities in regions where dwell people of one nationality. The Gerand to some other investigations of less importance.

mans need large waists and short legs; the French, small waists It occurred to me, however, that, since by far the greater part of and legs; the Yankees, small waists and long legs; the Jews, the men of this country are clad in ready-made clothing, the experi- medium waists and short legs. We have found a decided demand ence of the clothiers might be valuable, and that, from their figures of for larger sizes than we formerly used." the average sizes of the garments prepared by them for men's use, This subject is foreign to my customary work. I give these statevery clear deductions could be made as to the average size of the ments as a matter of general interest, and perhaps some of the American man.

students who are engaged in this branch of investigation may take I therefore sent a letter to two clothiers in Boston who have been a hint from this method and extend it still further. long in the business, one in Chicago, one in New York, one in Bal- Possibly the average size for a woman could be deduced from timore, one in Detroit, one in Texas, and one in Montreal. The the data of the manufacturers of knit goods. From what I know information received in return is to this effect.

of the business of the clothiers to whom I made application, I should In any given thousand garments the average of all the returns is infer that the figures which I have submitted above would cover as follows: chest-measure, 38 inches; waist, 334 inches ; length more than one hundred million garments; and I know of no better

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Nov, 5.







33, 160, 150,


35, 240, 168,

42, 39, 60, 200,

44. 42. 20. 225


бо, 180,




method of coming at a rough-and-ready conclusion regarding the size of men, than the one which I have adopted.

This subject has interested me from the standpoint of better nutrition. It will be observed that the American man is decidedly gaining in size and weight. If this has happened during twenty years of the American frying-pan, dyspeptic bread, pale pie, and cooking in general under the supervision of cooks who were sent from the wrong place where the meat did not come from, what may be expected when the American woman learns how to cook ? Cannot some one obtain data for comparison with these sizes from the statistics of military recruits and conscripts in Europe, or from the contractors for army clothing ?

EDWARD ATKINSON. Boston, Nov, 3.

nation, so that the pupil can discern quickly and accurately the different odors that are presented. Third, the growth in discriminative power should be accompanied pari passu with language. Each distinct odor should be named, and the closest association should be created between the idea and the word, so that the one shall recall the other. The pupil should be exercised in analyzing complex odors, so as to be able to detect the presence of different substances in the same compound. He should be instructed in noxious smells, which indicate the presence of harmful substances, and should have some knowledge of the disagreeable odors, their origin, and the method of their removal.

Boys might receive a little special training as a preparation for laboratory or scientific work, and girls be instructed in view of their possible duties as cooks or housekeepers. A few very simple principles suffice for suggesting a plan of carrying this scheme into effect. The work should be begun in the primary grades. This is a period of sense-activity, when the child is being aroused to mental life through sense-perception, acquainting itself with the sensequalities of the universe, and storing up ideas for future use.

If the senses are neglected at this period, the opportunity for training them may never return. At first the work should be simple, making very light demands upon the sense. A few common fruits, Aowers, and spices or gums may be used, with a view of forming a sharp discrimination, quick recognition, and accurate naming. The drill exercises should be very brief, aiming at thoroughness rather than multiplicity, and may be alternated with lessons in form, color, place, number, etc. The lessons should be graded so as to increase in difficulty, and should be so systematized as to secure the fourfold end of varied activity, knowledge, health, and pleasure. Each step forward in sense-discrimination should be accompanied with drill in oral and written language. For ordinary purposes it will be sufficient to make the child well acquainted with perhaps one hundred distinct odors, separate and in combination; and these for the most part should be of those things a knowledge of which will be of most service in daily life.

When the sense has been properly trained in childhood, and a habit of wise use established, the pupil will be able to call it into exercise on all needful occasions, and, on the basis of this general culture, can, if need be, secure a highly specialized development of the sense, meeting all the requirements of extraordinary occasions.

THOMAS J. MORGAN. Providence, R.I., Nov. 3.

The Seose of Smell. It is quite customary, when treating of the senses, to speak slightingly of smell and taste, as if they were of little importance in the economy of life. When the subject of training the senses is under consideration, little is ever said of training the nose, while much space is devoted to educating the eye, the ear, and the hand. It is certainly true that smell does not rank with sight and hearing, and demands less care, perhaps, for its cultivation ; and yet it plays an important róle, and should receive its due share of attention in any scheme of education.

The function of smell is fourfold. Like the higher senses, it belongs to the intellectual endowments. It is a part of the mind. Through it the mind is reached, roused, and quickened. The percepts and concepts gained through the sense of smell can be named, described, analyzed, compared, and classified. They may thus become the means of a good degree of intellectual life. Smell is a source of knowledge. Through it the mind discerns those qualities in things which we denominate odor. This knowledge it can obtain in no other way. A surprisingly large number of objects have their own peculiar odor. The onion, the carrot, the beet, and all other vegetables have characteristic odors; so have fruits, flowers, spices, and many gases, as well as animals, meats, etc. The knowledge of the kind, quality, and condition of things that can be obtained by the sense of smell, is very extensive. Not only the druggist, the chemist, the cook, but others likewise, make much practical use of the nose as a source of knowledge, having its own special scientific interest. But smell does a highly important work in enabling us to detect foul, hurtful odors. The nose is placed at the entrance to the mouth as a sentinel to guard it from receiving unwholesome food. It is the watch-dog of the stomach. A fourth, scarcely less important function of smell is that of giving pleasure. The nose is capable of ministering to our happiness even more, perhaps, than the touch or the taste. One with a cultivated nose has delights that another knows not.

There is even a greater need for some systematic training of the sense of smell than of the so-called higher senses. The ordinary experiences of life and the regular work of the school-room necessarily give to the eye, ear, and mind considerable exercise; while the smell is called into use much less frequently out of school, and scarcely at all in school. Besides, the words expressive of smell percepts and concepts are far less numerous and exact than corresponding words for sight and hearing ; so that the training incident to the use of language is likely to be far less extensive and accurate in the case of the nose than in that of the eye, ear, and hand. Add to this the low estimate generally placed upon the sense of smell, and the popular indifference to its training, as shown in the fact, that, while we have elaborate schemes for training the eye in knowledge of form and color, we have practically none for training the nose in the performance of its proper functions, and we may challenge for this useful member the sympathy and interest due to neglected merit and overlooked modesty.

In every primary school there should be some special attention paid to the education of this sense. This should aim to secure, first, the frequent exercise of the sense until it acquires strength proportionate to its duties. It should not be overworked, nor called into undue prominence, but should receive its proper share of attention till it acquires both strength and sensitiveness. Second, the training should be such as to develop a high power of discrimi

Answers. 15. IS THE TRUMPET-CREEPER POISONOUS ?- The belief is general in many parts of the South and South-west that both the trumpet-creeper and the Virginia creeper (Ampelopsis quinquefolia) are poisonous. I have always acted upon the opinion that this belief is as unfounded in the one case as in the other. A little experience of the poisonous Rhus will make an ignorant person afraid of every vine found growing in the woods.

JOHN C. BRANNER. Little Rock, Ark., Oct. 31.

15. IS THE TRUMPET-CREEPER POISONOUS? — No. This is Tecoma radicans, and climbs trees, posts, walls, etc., by means of thousands of rootlets. It is trained around many verandas and about door-yards for ornament. No one was ever poisoned by it. It has been often mistaken for Rhus radicans of Linnæus (the climbing variety of R. toxicodendron), which also climbs by means of thousands of rootlets. The stems of the two clinging to trees resemble each other very much. I have had many cases of Rhuspoisoning, but never heard of any thing being poisoned by the Te

Many times when persons have exclaimed in alarm, “ That is poison-vine, don't touch it!”, I have, to their consternation, seized the leaves of Tecoma, rubbed them over my face and hands, and even chewed them. With sixty years of daily intimacy with these plants, I feel justified in these statements. D. L. PHARES. Agricultural College P.O., Miss., Nov. 5.

16. The Archbald pot-holes were described by Dr. John C. Branner in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. xxiii., pp. 353-357 (read Feb. 19, 1887), and Mr. Charles A. Ashburner in the Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey for 1885,' pp. 615–626.

CHARLES S. PROSSER. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y., Nov. 7.


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