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commerce from its port, nor are all the charges contained in the about Tula and the legends as told by the best authorities, and report to be met by the statement that the governor of the State of finds that Tula was nothing else than one of the stations the Aztecs New York is responsible, by reason of having vetoed appropriations. occupied in their migrations. To explain the wide celebrity of the The report is a serious reflection upon public officials in whom the place, which extended to Guatemala and Yucatan, Brinton recurs public and sanitarians have placed implicit reliance, and should be to its etymology. As the meaning of the name, which is not of met in the same official way that it has been issued. Unless it is rare occurrence in Mexico, he gives the place of the sun,' and this, so met, the quarantine authorities must not expect public confidence; he thinks, brought it into connection with many a myth of light and and, whether they do or not, we fear they will not receive it. We of solar divinities. This process is one often occurring in the deshall be only too glad to open the columns of Science to them, and velopment of folk-lore. There can be no doubt that Brinton's present their statements as fully as we have those of the committee opinion, that no immediate truth underlies the myth which makes of Philadelphia physicians
Tula the birthplace and abode of gods, and its inhabitants the civ
ilizers of Central America, is correct. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION. — The American Association for the Advance
ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE AMERICAN AND British ASSOCIAment of Physical Education will hold its third annual meeting at
TIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. — It is of interest the Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, on Nov. 25. The following programme has been announced : paper by the retiring president,
to compare the papers read in the Section of Anthropology of these
two associations. While the section of the British Association deProf. Edward Hitchcock, A.M., M.D., Amherst College; Physical Training in Elementary Schools in the United States' (ex
voted much of its time to considering theoretical questions, such as tract from report of New Hampshire Board of Health for 1887),
the probable existence of an Archaian white race, the origin of
totemism, etc., such questions were hardly touched upon at the E. H. Fallows, Adelphi Academy; motion by C. G. Rathman,
meeting of the American Association, which devoted most of its N. A. T. B., relative to physical training in elementary schools in the United States : discussion ; report of work done by the N. A. T.B.
time to listening to the reports of results obtained by explorers in
the ethnological and archæological field. This may in part be due the past year, H. M. Starkloff, M.D., president N. A. T. B; ‘Phys
to the fact that the field of researches in America is so vast. The ical Measurements, their Use to the Individual,' Edward Hitch
amount of unknown material is so large, that every year brings cock, jun., M.D., Cornell University; discussion opened by W. L. Savage, A.M.,M.D., director Berkely Lyceum, New York City; gen
some new and unexpected discoveries. But there is another char
acteristic feature of the American Association. What little discuseral discussion; ‘Military Training as an Exercise,' J. W. Seaver,
sion of theories there was, referred principally to the discussion of M.D., Yale University ; discussion opened by Gen. E. L. Moli
classifications, - a subject which seems to have been entirely neux, Brooklyn, N.Y., and John White, Ph.D., head master Berkely School, New York City.
wanting among the papers of the British Association. If we con
sider that classifications are only a help, not an aim, of science, anu REMOVAL OF NEEDLES FROM THE BODY. - Dr. Littlewood that the great goal of ethnology and anthropology is to putline the describes in the Lancet a method which he has used successfully early history of mankind and to work out the psychology of nations, in seven cases for the removal of needles from the body. The we must concede that the work of the British Association is supart supposed to contain the needle is thoroughly rubbed over with perior to ours. We do not mean to say that there are no vague an electro-magnet, so as to magnetize the metal, is present. A theories held by British scientists, or that no eminent work is done delicately balanced magnetic needle is held over the part. If the by Americans ; but the favorite studies of ethnologists as a whole, needle is present, its position can be ascertained by the attraction and as expressed in the subjects of papers presented to the English or repulsion of the poles of the magnetic needle. Having ascer- Association, seem to be of a more general and of a higher scientained the presence of the needle, and rendered the part bloodless tific character than they are here. We mention a few of the papers and painless, an incision is made over the needle; the electro- read at the Manchester meeting of the British Association accordmagnet is then inserted in the wound, and the needle felt for and ing to the reports published in Nature. Mr. I. Taylor discussed withdrawn. If the needle is firmly embedded, the positive pole of the probable origin of the Aryans. He dwelled on the recent lina galvanic battery is placed on the surface of the body of the guistic researches, which show that the primitive Aryans must have patient, and the negative pole in contact with the needle, which be- inhabited a forest-clad country in the neighborhood of the sea, covcomes loosened by electrolysis, and can then be easily removed by ered during a prolonged winter with snow; the vegetation consistthe electro-magnet.
ing largely of the fir, the beech, the oak, and similar trees, while the fauna comprised the bear, the fox, the hare, the deer, and the
salmon. These conditions restrict it to a region north of the Alps ETHNOLOGY.
and west of the Black Sea. The author attempted to show, both Were the Toltecs an Historic Nationality ?
from the anthropological and the linguistic point of view, that the
Aryans have evolved from a Finnic people. J. S. Stuart maintained Dr. Brinton has for a long time maintained that the Toltecs the existence of an Archaian white stock, from which he is inclined were no historic nationality, but an entirely legendary people. In to derive so widely different phenomena as the American and a lecture delivered before the American Philosophical Society on Chinese civilizations, as well as the origin of Hittites, Iberians, and Sept. 2, he takes up the question, and ably defends his standpoint Picts. C. Staniland Wake treated the problem of totemism from which he first expressed in 1868 in his · Myths of the New World.' the point of view that the totem is the re-incarnated form of the The present paper was written to criticise the statements of Char- legendary ancestor of the gens or family group allied to the totem, nay and others who maintain the historical character of this people. a view which is undoubtedly correct in many cases. S. J. HickThe enthusiastic Frenchman Désirée Charnay considers the Toltec son gave a few remarks on certain degenerations of design in civilization the basis of all Central American culture, and traces Papuan art. It would have been more proper to speak about contheir migrations from the northern boundary of Mexico to Copan ; ventionalism in Papuan art, a field that offers many interesting but the reasons which he brings forth to support his theory, and problems, and to which Dr. O. Uhle of Dresden recently made a which are entirely founded on the character of Central American valuable contribution in the publications of the Ethnological arts, are not at all conclusive. The Mexican and Central American Museum of Dresden. Miss A. W. Buckland spoke about the cusstyles are not sufficiently studied to draw any conclusions as to tom of tattooing, which, although almost universally practised, what is original in each tribe, and what is borrowed from the other ; varies so much in the mode of performing the operation ; the and Charnay's assertion of a connection between East Asian and various methods seeming to have such definite limits as to make Central American arts warns us from accepting his arguments them anthropologically valuable as showing either racial connecwithout a thorough criticism. Brinton's opinion is that the emi- tion or some intercourse formerly existing between races long isogration of the Toltecs from the north, the foundation of Tula in lated. This paper belongs to a class of inquiries which have of late the sixth century, and the dispersion of the Toltecs all over Central been carried on by a number of ethnologists, and which yield valuAmerica, are entirely fabulous. He compares the facts known able results. We call to mind Prof. E. S. Morse's researches on the
release of arrows, which lead the distinguished scientist to so re- their utensils; the Peruvians decorate their woven fabrics ; the markable conclusions. The well-established fact that the non-ex- Australians draw on blackened bark; the Africans carve in ivory. istence of certain color-names does not prove color-blindness, was The universal imitative bent, of which the desks and walls of a shown by Mr. W. E. A. Axon to hold true among the English school-room often show striking evidence, appears in many gypsies. Besides these papers, rep on new explorations were curious savage.art-galleries.' On the island of Depuch, off the not wanting. Papers on psychophysics, which we consider an im- north-west coast of Australia, are found scratched on the smooth portant branch of anthropology, were not included in the list of rock a crowd of men, birds, fish, crabs, bugs, etc., and colored papers read before the Section of Anthropology of the British Asso- black, white, red, yellow, and (seldom) blue. This seems to have ciation.
been a pastime of these fishermen for generations.
While the drawing talent is thus quite a general one, the possi
bility of a large development of it is limited. It usually stagnates MENTAL SCIENCE.
in conventionalism, and seldem reaches the stage, as it does in the
Eskimo, of being utilized as a pictographic language.
In conclusion, Dr. Andree calls attention to the fact that almost The application of the inductive method to the study of mental everywhere the men alone are the artists. In one case this rather facts —and that, too, from its first appearance in Locke or Her- anomalous phenomenon leads to curious results. Among the bart — inevitably brought into prominence the observation of minds Papuans of New Guinea, vessels and implements of wood are quite different from our own, and in particular of peoples less advanced generally decorated, while the pots made by the women are devoid than ourselves in the march of civilization. The seed thus sown
of all ornamentation. has borne good fruit; and in the works of Lubbock and Tylor, of
RE-ACTION AND INHIBITION TIME. Bastian, of Steinthal and Lazarus, and many others, we have an
- If it is arranged that a excellent foundation for an anthropological psychology. The object
certain action is to take place at a given signal, it will be found that of this movement is not only to record as far as possible the prob
a quite constant time elapses between the signal and the re-action. able history of our early attempts at culture and the long succes
Besides executing a motion, we can exert our will towards restrainsion of gradually outgrown customs and beliefs, but also to co-or
ing an act; and this not always by the contraction of an antagonisdinate the various works of mental evolution, to arrange them in
tic muscle, but by a direct inhibitory action of the nervous centres. some serial order, - - as Romanes does with animal evolution, — and
Dr. Gad of Berlin has measured the time necessary to thus inhibit thus help to furnish the categories for a general psychology, which
the action of the muscles used in mastication, and announces the will be none the less scientific because it needs to be enlivened by important result that this time is the same as is necessary for an the tact of a humane observer.
ordinary re-action. This is true not only under ordinary conditions, Among the characteristics that contribute most to this end are,
but the variations in the time by practice, by fatigue, under the in
fluence of narcotics, etc., for the two acts, is about the same, as is what have always been and still remain the two great kinds of human expression, language and handiwork, and especially art.
shown in the following table : The permanence of the latter mode of expression makes it of crucial value to the anthropologist. Dr. Richard Andree, in reviewing
Re-actionthe art-productions of savage tribes as shown by their drawings, emphasizes the great development which this talent can attain in conjunction with a low state of psychical development. Travellers
Before practice often mention the power of savages to rapidly sketch characteristic After practice figures, and among the oldest relics of the cave-dwellers we find distinct tracings of animal forms. As in so many other respects,
With strong stimulus an analogy is present between the drawings of primitive men and of children. Figure sketching (in outline) and ornamentation are
After fatigue the prominent characteristics of both; while the power of land- 8 minutes after taking alcohol scape-sketching, as well as a sense for natural beauty, is a much
30 minutes after taking alcohol later acquisition. Among the forms drawn, plants are seldom found : what is full of motion and life — the horse, etc. — first attracts the attention, and is transferred to bone, clay, or stone. In short, the mechanism of inhibition works as accurately and as At times ornamental and figure work go together, but much oftener
delicately as that of re-action. a development of the one or other alone is possible. The Maoris and the Fiji-Islanders confine themselves to ornaments, and seldom A REMARKABLE CASE OF AMNESIA. The many strange phedraw a figure. Among the Australians the development of orna- nomena of amnesia have been enriched by the experience of one of mentation has stopped at a certain stage, — with recurrent stereo- the ablest living psychologists, Professor Bain. Some months ago typed forms of wedges, crosses, and herring-bone' patterns, Professor Bain fell from his horse, and was unconscious for about while scenes from their doings are recorded with much fidelity, and three hours afterwards. During this time his shoulder, which had color is often used to lend reality to the design. The Bushmen excel been sprained by the accident, was set without his knowledge. in painting (though without perspective), and trace with great ac- Upon regaining consciousness, it was found that he had lost all curacy the scenes of daily life, of hunting, warring, etc. As figure- remembrance of what had occurred an hour before the accident, as painting allows of very various development, we find different styles well as of the three hours following. He was found on a different of conventionalism the art of ancient Peru is a notable example — road from that which he can remember having intended to take, in different tribes. Other peoples — and here the Arctic tribes and so must have changed his mind. Of this he has lost all recolstand in the first rank — aim at a faithful representation here: lection ; otherwise there were no mental effects. The editor of ornamentation finds no place, and such subjects as fishing, sleigh- lind, who tells the story, adds another case in which a gentleing, etc., are the usual ones. The attempts at human forms are man, after falling from a carriage, remained unconscious for nearly often failures; but the drawings of their most common animals, as four months. Upon re-awakening, not only was this interval a the reindeer, are sufficiently exact to serve as a means of zoological total blank him, but the events of the week preceding the acciidentification.
dent were equally lost. Important transactions which he had Even the humerous is found on the primitive canvas,' and es- made during that week were forgotten. This suggests that there pecially among the fun-loving negro tribes. Exaggeration of small may be some relation between the duration of unconsciousness peculiarities (as in children) is the marked trait. The natives of after the accident and the memory-blank before. At all events. the Loango coast carve in a spiral on elephant's tusks a whole the phenomena, mysterious as they are, deserve to be recorded. carnival of ridiculous figures, - sailors, officers, savants, etc. The authenticity and careful analysis of the above cases add to
The material of the artist is very various. Many cut and daub their value.
With weak stimulus
EXPLORATION AND TRAVEL.
lowest temperature of last winter was — 46° F. The snowfall was
very scanty, the ice being hardly covered with any snow. As, in Notes from the Arctic.
addition to this, the ice was very smooth, travelling in winter was MR. William Düvel, who returned a few days ago from Cum- easy. In February, however, the much-dreaded dog-disease made berland Sound on board the New London schooner · Eira,' gives its appearance, and swept away the dogs of the natives. In Black us some interesting information on the events in Cumberland Sound Lead, among a party of thirty-three natives, only nine dogs reduring the last years. The whalers, who had been unsuccessful for mained. In the spring of 1886 the same disease made its first a great number of years, have been more fortunate since 1885, appearance in the settlements of Davis Strait, where it was unknown while the catch of the Davis Strait fishery shows a sudden falling- up to that time. off. In 1884, when ten vessels were fishing in Lancaster Sound, Last summer the ice of Cumberland Sound broke up on the 6th the catch aggregated some eighty whales, but in the following years of July. As the whaling in the Sound has become more profitable,
not more than ten or twelve were caught by the whole fleet. In a greater number of vessels frequent the Sound, and several per1884, the pack-ice was remarkably loose, and the first ship entered manent stations are established. There is a Scottish station in Cumberland Sound as early as the middle of July. The Aloe, how- Kekerten, while American whalers have stations on Black Lead, in ever, which was attached to the land, lasted until the 5th of August, Nugumiut, and in Hudson Strait. The sanitary condition of the a date unprecedented in Cumberland Sound. This corresponds to natives was very good. In Cumberland Sound five deaths occurred the character of the land-ice in Davis Strait, which, as was formerly during the last year, while three children were born in a single setreported by Captain Spicer, did not break up in three subsequent tlement. In the fall all natives belonging to the tribe inhabiting summers, from 1884 to 1886. In 1885 the land-floe in Cumberland the west coast of Cumberland Sound gathered in Black Lead, and Sound extended very far south, as may be seen on the accompany- celebrated the great annual festival which is known to all the ing sketch-map. In 1886 its position was a little farther north, while tribes of northern Labrador and Baffin Land, and in which masked last winter it extended again to the entrance of the Gulf. This factmen, who represent certain spirits, make their appearance. Early is very remarkable, as in many former years the head of the open in spring south-westerly winds carried the heavy pack-ice of Davis water reached up to Kekerten, and even as far as Haystack. The Strait into the Sound, and kept it there for a number of weeks. While in 1883 and 1884 a great number of fat icebergs, most of authoritative beliefs so as to minimize the antagonism between which were the scattered remains of one enormous berg, filled the them and the doctrines of evolution; but in every direction, and Sound and the neighboring parts of Davis Strait, this form was not without regard to the final outcome, evolution has introduced into observed during the last years; all bergs, with one single exception, ethical discussion a healthy ferment, the fruits of which the next being very high and pointed.
generation will appreciate even more than the ‘liberals' of this. The ice-chart of Cumberland Sound, which accompanies these The variability of moral codes and their close interdependence with notes, has been compiled from observations made by F. Boas in the environment and thought-habits of different peoples have been the winter of 1883–84, and from reports of American and Scot- emphasized; and the too dogmatically asserted connection between tish whalers. The edge of the floe as indicated on the map shows moral actions and religious rites and beliefs has been broken the greatest extent of the ice in each year, which is attained about through. That among the products of this violent fermentation the end of February. Besides this, the water-holes, which are kept should be found much that is analogous to waste-matter is not open throughout the winter by swift-running tides, are indicated on striking. Truth-loving disciples of science do not hesitate to admit the map, and so are the places where the ice is worn through by that some of their over-ardent brethren have overstepped the lines the currents in March and April.
of strict validity in claiming for evolution the solution of many of BRITISH COLUMBIA. Dr. G. M. Dawson has kindly sent us a
the vexed world-problems of mankind. The very fact that this more detailed account of his work in British Columbia. Leaving
aggressive kind of writing has been taken up by the lower ranks of Victoria early in May, the expedition reached Fort Wrangel, from
evolutionists, while its leaders have rather acted upon a policy of which point they proceeded up the Stikine River to Cassian. The
reserve and awaited developments, makes it easy to admit that one expedition consisted of two branches, Dr. Dawson leading the geo
does not always open a book treating the moral aspects of evolution
with an anticipation of pleasure or instruction. Mr. Powell's book logical department, while Mr. W. Ogilvie made an instrumental
is both deeply interesting and scientifically valuable. survey of the country, on behalf of the Dominion Land Office. His
Our Heredity from God’is a poor title; not only because the surveys extend from the seacoast by way of the Lewis River, up the
author uses the term “God' in an unusual sense, but because the Yukon to the 141st meridian, which constitutes the eastern bound
book is really a study of evolution with special reference to its ary of Alaska, and his measurements will serve as a basis for
moral and religious bearings. Mr. Powell avows himself a disbefurther work in the district. The object of Dr. Dawson's researches
liever in any personal deity, and is among that ever-increasing body was a thorough exploration of the tributaries of the upper Yukon.
of thinkers who draw their enthusiasm and inspiration from a conMessrs. R. G. McConnell and James McEvoy were his special as
templation of the vastly suggestive generalizations of science, and sistants. His party proceeded up the Stikine River as far as Dease
the deep significance of a natural morality. The author has not Lake, where they built three boats. As soon as the ice broke up
inherited this position, but has worked his way to it through a and left the lake, which was on the 18th of June, later than it ever
period of traditional sectarianism; and this leaves its mark in the has been known, they went down the Dease River and into the
many references to the biblical cosmogony. It may well be quesforks of the Dease and Liard Rivers. Here Mr. McConnell sepa
tioned whether it is still worth while antagonizing this biblical acrated from the rest of the party for the purpose of descending and
count of genesis as though it posed as a scientific explanation surveying the Liard and the Mackenzie Rivers. Dawson went up the Liard and Frances Rivers to Francis Lake, which drains
(which its truest admirers never claimed). With this exception,
Mr. Powell is content to let the facts speak for themselves, simply into the Liard, and not into the Pelly River, as shown in most maps of that country. From Francis Lake, the party crossed a
placing them in such a light that their ethical import may be re
flected, and adding to the exposition a depth of natural feeling that difficult portage of about fifty miles to the Pelly River. From here
leads to an admiration of the man. Science is certainly not as cold Dawson sent back the five Indians who had accompanied him from the coast, and then proceeded down the Pelly River, accompanied
as she is often pictured to be. It is impossible to give even in out
line a sketch of the long and accumulative argument by which by Mr. McEvoy and Messrs. Lewis and Johnston of Victoria, in a
the moral beauty and religious satisfaction of the evolutionary small canvas boat which they had built on reaching Pelly River.
aspect of nature is unfolded in Mr. Powell's mind. All that can be At the confluence of the Pelly and Lewis Rivers, Mr. Ogilvie and
done is to cite a few sentences which shall at the same time illushis party were met. After whipsawing the lumber and building another boat for the purpose, the Dawson party ascended the
trate the attractive style and happy suggestiveness that make the Lewis River, which Mr. Ogilvie had already surveyed instrumen
pages readable. What Mr. Powell means by the title of his book tally. A geological survey of the country along the Lewis River was
may perhaps be gathered from these words: “The hypothesis of made. Then the party crossed the Chilcat portage to the head of
evolution opens our eyes to the magnificent panorama of an eternal Lynn Canal, and came by canoe to Juneau, where, after waiting
unfolding of relations of life, full of purposive love, which rising
from the vast unfathomableness of the sentient universe, at last for a few days, the steamer · Ancon' was taken for Victoria.
Mr. Ogilvie, in separating from the rest of the party, continued down the
lifts us as conscious beings near to the heart of the Supreme All in Yukon River, prosecuting his survey. He intends wintering on
All; and with Him, and in Him, and by Him, bid us consciously to that river, and resuming his work in the spring, continuing it over
live, and move, and have our being. This I call our heredity from to the Mackenzie River. He will return next fall to Winnipeg by
God. To trace our descent from animal progenitors is but a fracway of that stream and the Hudson Bay Company's route to
tion of the problem: the longer sweep of vision beholds an ancesCarlton on the Saskatchewan. Mr. McConnell will probably win
try that embraces all life and all purposive being." ter at Fort Simpson, on the Mackenzie River, and continue his ex
The author holds that the widest gap is not between man and plorations from that point next summer.
the animals, but between savage and civilized man: he adores civ
ilization as man's handiwork, and regards as most immoral all BOOK-REVIEWS.
that hinders its progress. Many of the notions associated with
religious doctrines are thus condemned and fearlessly denounced. Our Heredity from God, consisting of Lectures on Evolution. By
The view, however, is broad enough to see in many such beliefs E. P. POWELL. New York, Appleton. 12o.
stages of ethical development. They are denounced, not because We have not yet recovered from the re-adjustment of the views they never formed an advance step in moral evolution, but because of life brought about by the new knowledge which the movement they cease to do so any longer. Contrasting, thus, man's present of which Darwin is the centre has accumulated. From the very with his past history, — still epitomized in the early stages of each first, the notion of evolution was most strongly opposed, because it one of us, – Mr. Powell sees a glorious future, when the developwas antagonistic to certain widely spread but in no way verified be- ment of ethical notions, now barely dreamt of, will be wide-spread, liefs. As the facts in favor of a derivative theory became more com- in accordance with the sound ethical nature of the universe. plete and the theory more invincible, a shifting of the theologist's' Among the sentences worth repeating for their own sake are the position took place. Some held that evolution simply described a following:“Suspension of judgment is another faculty that is steadimethod, but in no way removed the necessity of an anterior cause ; ly becoming the common property of mankind. It is a growing others attempted a twisted and allegorical interpretation of the power, under civilization, to hold the mind in hand, to restrain it by
ascertained laws." “ All religions, all philosophies, all parties, have relief features; and, finally, the map is to be engraved in sheets, of sought to establish an eternal camp at some mile-stone of progress, which the unit is to be the square degree, i.e., one degree of latitude but all have failed. It is difficult to grasp the full force of this idea and one of longitude. An area of 57,508 square miles was surveyed
- the individual. . . . Men of lower races are much of one pattern. in the year 1884-85, at an average cost of about three dollars per Civilization is an individualizing process; so in turn men intense
square mile. character have done most of the propelling that has constituted The organization of the survey is more fully explained here than civilization.” “ The first need of a plant is precisely the first need in any of the previous reports. Besides the large topographic corps of an animal ; and that of man is the same. This common need under Mr. Henry Gannett, it includes the following divisions, each of all life is to find out facts, - facts about what is not itself, - and chief or head of division being provided with a strong corps of asthen to adapt itself to what it finds out." “ Nowhere in nature has sistants : 1. Glacial geology, in charge of Prof. T. C. Chamberlin; there been as much parasitic life as among human beings. It takes 2. Volcanic geology, in charge of Capt. Clarence E. Dutton ; 3. a large degree of wit to live idly, and off your neighbor's industry. Archæan geology of the Appalachian region, including all the But some vegetables learned to do this before man did it; and metamorphic or crystalline strata, of whatever age, extending from many animals have done the same. The result has been degenera- northern New England to Georgia, in charge of Prof. Raphael tion, loss of structure, loss of faculty, and, as a rule, final helplessness Pumpelly; 4. Archæan geology of the Lake Superior region, in and degeneration of the whole being.” “But it is not simply at charge of Prof. Roland D. Irving (it is not proposed at present to the height of national existence that this impulse for self-preserva- undertake the study of the crystalline schists of the Rocky Mountion responds to the mimicry of lower life. You will observe its tain region); 5. Areal, structural, and historical geology of the Apoperation in our social customs and common propensities; for it is palachian region, in charge of Mr. G. K. Gilbert; 6. A thorough a fact that not any thing is more dreaded or shunned by average topographic and geologic survey of the Yellowstone National Park human beings than originality, — that is, unlikeness to others. It is in the charge of Mr. Arnold Hague. When the survey is comhas always been dangerous. It is even yet likely to secure for its pleted, Mr. Hague's field will be extended so as to include a large possessor a great deal of annoyance." Strange views break out part of the Rocky Mountain region. The general geologic work all over the globe by apparent spontaneity. . . . Darwin, and Wal- relating to the great areas of fossiliferous formations is very imlace, and Haeckel, without intercommunication, propounded simul- perfectly and incompletely organized, and this must continue to be taneously the hypothesis of evolution. It is as when three moun- the case until the topographic survey approaches completion. tain-tops of equal height catch the morning sunbeam at the same The paleontological work of the survey is carried on in five labmoment."
oratories, as follows: vertebrate fossils, in charge of Prof. O. C.
Marsh; invertebrate fossils of quaternary age, in charge of Mr. Sixth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey
William H. Dall; invertebrate fossils of cenozoic and mesozoic age, (1884-85). J. W. Powell, director. Washington, Govern
in charge of Dr. C. A. White ; invertebrate fossils of paleozoic age, ment. 4o.
in charge of Mr. C. D. Walcott; and vegetable fossils, in charge of ALTHOUGH on account of the tardy appearance of this volume, Mr. Lester F. Ward. for which the management of the survey does not appear to be re- The chemical laboratory, with a large corps of chemists, is in sponsible, the administrative portions have lost some of their fresh- charge of Prof. F. W. Clarke. There is a physical laboratory in the ness and interest, the work as a whole fully sustains the splendid survey, with a small corps of men engaged in physical researches reputation of its predecessors. These annual reports are admirably of prime importance in geology. A large corps of lithologists is designed, when promptly issued, to place the Geological Survey en engaged in the microscopic study of rocks. Besides the division of rapport with the general public : for they consist of, first, the re- mining statistics, economic geology is represented by two parties, port of the director, which is devoted to the organization, new fea- in charge of Mr. George F. Becker and Mr. S. F. Emmons, engaged tures, and general operations of the survey ; second, the short ad- in studying various mining districts in the West. ministrative reports of the chiefs of divisions, showing in greater The survey also comprises a division, in charge of Mr. W. H. detail the progress made in every department of the survey during Holmes, organized for the purpose of preparing illustrations for the year; and third, and most important of all, the scientific papers paleontologic and geologic reports. Illustrations will not hereafter or monographs completed during the year. The monographs are be used for embellishment, and, so far as possible, will be prepared also published separately, and appear in the annual report in extenso by relief methods, and held permanently for the use of the public at or in abstract form, as convenience or their general interest may large in scientific periodicals, text-books, etc. The large geologic demand. The bulletins of the survey are shorter but more technical library and the bibliographic work of the survey are in charge of papers, which are not represented in the annual report; the object Mr. C. C. Darwin. being to include in this volume only the results of most general The remaining topics discussed by the director are the publicainterest, with the view of making it a somewhat popular account tions, appointments, and finances of the survey, and the relations of of the doings of the survey, that it may be widely read by the in
the Government and State surveys. telligent people of the country. The report is accompanied by the following monographs : · Mount
Elementary Text-Book of Physics. By Profs. W. A. ANTHONY Taylor and the Zuni Plateau,' by Capt. C. E. Dutton; “Driftless
and C. F. BRACKETT. 3d ed. New York, Wiley. 8°. Area of the Upper Mississippi Valley,' by T. C. Chamberlin and R. This is the first appearance, in a complete form, of a long-exD. Salisbury; •The Quantitative Determination of Silver by Means pected text-book from two well-known American physicists. It is of the Microscope,' by J. S. Curtis; 'Seacoast Swamps of the East- designed to furnish what is necessary and sufficient for that part of ern United States,' by Prof. N. S. Shaler ; 'Synopsis of the Flora of a well-adjusted college course which is devoted to the study of the Laramie Group,' by Prof L. F. Ward.
physics, and it is the only college text-book of that science which The last-named paper has already been noticed in the pages of has appeared in this country for several years, aside from revisions Science, and several of the others are of such great importance and and new editions of old works. general interest as to demand fuller comment than it is possible to Many institutions have hitherto made use of English books, or of accord them in this preliminary notice.
translations from the French which have come to us through The force of the survey is now, and must be for several years to English hands. This volume is offered as a substitute for such come, largely devoted to the construction of a topographic map of works, and it is little enough to say that it will be found in general the United States; and the director's report begins with the plan to be a very acceptable one. In some respects the book is almost and progress of this work, and illustrations of the lettering and con- unique. When compared with those largely in use at the present ventional signs to be used on the map. The scale of the map is time, it illustrates in a very striking manner the great progress in approximately one mile, two, or four miles to the inch, according to college instruction in physics during the past decade. the character and prospective needs of the country; the map is con- In its plan there is a distinct recognition of the competent instructed in contours, with vertical intervals of 10, 20, 50, 100, and structor with a well-stocked cabinet at his command. Pictorial 200 feet, varying with the scale of the map and the magnitude of representations of apparatus are entirely wanting, and the illustra