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also imported 3,211 hundredweight of husks and shells of the cocoa- I have been permitted to see plates, and furnished with private bean, which are also used up for cheap cocoa. There are about extracts from the same, and I feel free to say that it will be a monten chocolate and cocoa manufacturers in Holland, whose yearly umental work in history of the study of Bryozoa. requirements of cocoa-beans may be estimated at 3,000 tons, in The practical test of the theory of development, which holds round numbers, principally of Guayaquil, Caracas, and Domingo good everywhere else in animated nature, is also satisfactory here. kinds. They mostly manufacture cocoa preparations, known by Instead of artificial we have natural classification, and that also of the name of soluble cocoa, cocoatine, and cocoa-powder; viz., the a more definite and practical form. It remains to be seen whether roasted and powdered cocoa-beans deprived of most of their natural microscopic sections are sufficient to determine the species. A fat, or the cocoa-butter, which is used as a valuable ingredient by circumstance peculiar to Bryozoa makes this in almost all cases manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa sweetmeats, and also for possible. The form, size, and arrangement of cells may be readily pharmaceutical preparations. In the early part of last month no seen in tangential section; the presence of interstitial cells may less than twenty-five tons of this cocoa-butter was sold in Holland, also be thus discovered; whereas the little elevations or low spines and fifty tons in London. The oldest of the Dutch cocoa-works around the apertures of some cells may be seen in the sections as was founded on a small scale more than a century ago, and most spiniform tubuli. Elevated patches of cells may usually be recogof the other works have existed from forty to sixty years; but all nized by the local increased size of cells in the sections, and macuof them remained insignificant until the before-mentioned powdered læ will be shown by judicious longitudinal sections. preparations found their way to foreign countries, especially Eng- It remains to be seen what characters of specific importance canland and Germany, where certain Dutch brands of powdered cocoa not be shown in microscopic sections. One of these is the size of have been very well received and enjoy a large sale. There are the specimen ; another, its method of branching; a third, its genpeople who suppose that the superiority of the Dutch cocoa-powder eral contour. These may all be expressed by a simple drawing, is to be attributed to a peculiar mode of manufacture, different from

taking no cognizance of individual cells. Besides the details above the methods followed in other countries. The idea to extract the referred to, microscopic slides will of course furnish numerous others fat from the roasted cocoa-beans, and to sell the powder, is said to referring to internal structure alone. The fact, however, is, that not have originated in the brain of a Dutch chocolate-maker about

only do microscopic slides reveal the characteristic features of the 1830. It is now generally practised in France and England. The

surface, but they often reveal them in a much better way than the average consumption in the United Kingdom last year, per head of

specimens at hand; for these may be abraded, perhaps ever so litthe population, was, of cocoa, 0.41 pounds; coffee, 0.86; tea, 4.87. tle, but just enough to rub away the little spines, or to remove the Tea brings into the revenue £4,500; coffee, only £200,000; and walls of interstitial cells, and, by thus exposing the diaphragms of coffee mixtures and chiccory, £5,273. The latter seem to be de- the same, lead to the conclusion that they do not exist. Any one clining

who has ever looked over a quart-measure of specimens without

finding one suitable for description will know what this means. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

As regards the publication of Mr. Foord, “Contributions to the ** The attention of scientific men is called to the advantages of the correspondence Micro-Paleontology of the Cambro-Silurian Rocks of Canada,' it is columns of Science for placing promptly on record brief preliminary notices of their investigations. Twenty copies of the number containing his communication

an excellent exemplification of the methods (for this is what Prowill be furnished free to any correspondent on request.

fessor James criticises) of the advanced school of students of the The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character of Bryozoa, and is a practical recognition of the inerits of a work done the journal.

by an American paleontologist. All of the species figured are acCorrespondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name is in all cases required as proof of good faith.

companied by magnified sections of the same, and all except

Monticulipora Westoni have also figures of the specimen's natural Recent Methods in the Study of Bryozoa.

size; and perhaps the shape of that species, “ Zoarium irregularly IN Science for Oct. 7, Prof. Joseph F. James refers to certain hemispherical,” would not be difficult to grasp by the working new methods in the study of Bryozoa, and doubts their efficacy in paleontologist. The fact that Prof. H. A. Nicholson, immediately classification; he also refers to a forthcoming publication which after the separation of Mr. Foord from the Geological Survey of shall make this clear. Pending the publication of this paper by Canada, was pleased to publish papers conjointly with that gentlemy esteemed friend, I cannot help expressing my decided approval man, serves to show what that eminent authority's opinion as to of the methods he calls in question. Theoretically, development the merits of Mr. Foord's specific work was. has proceeded in two lines, — one internal, to accommodate itself These remarks I hope represent fairly the claims of the new to the needs of internal function; and one external, to accommo- school as to the advantages of their methods of study. One obdate itself to environment, to the world with which the being servation alone remains to be made. I suppose that Professor comes in contact. Variations of function are far less frequent James was not in earnest when he objected to the new method on than those of environment: hence internal structure may still be account of the difficulty of making slides, no more than the physivery similar when external features have already extensively varied. cist who should object to the advance made in his science simply on Hence internal structure usually furnishes the reliable characters, account of some of the refined mechanisms now used in his departwhich distinguish genera and higher groups; external features are ment, no more than the student of Entomostraca who should obused for specific determination.

ject to the classification reached in his science from the difficulty in Very few who have practically attempted the classification of finding a specimen which is willing to be quiet enough to let itself paleozoic Bryozoa into genera as defined according to the old be accurately drawn. He simply expresses the difficulty he finds in method have failed to see that such genera contained heterogeneous leaving his old methods of study and adapting himself to new ones, assemblages of forms, often ran into each other, and contained no and this accidentally escaped into print, not in the form in which he distinct positive characters which were useful when great numbers would be willing to have it remain at second thought. But the of Bryozoa were to be classified. The new method has furnished truth is, that microscopic slides are not difficult to make. Messrs. solidity to this structure. The species fall into easily recognized W. F. and John Barnes of Rockford, III., manufacture an instrugroups, as distinct as those of other organisms on the same scale of ment which I know from experience to be both cheap and useful. development; all this simply because of the abandonment of external The specimen to be cut is ground with emery until a plane is characteristics in the distinguishing of genera, for those of an inter- formed having the same direction as the intended section. Then nal nature, made easily accessible by the slide and the microscope. successively finer grades of emery are used until a fine polish is ob

In this department of study, Prof. H. A. Nicholson took the first tained, which can be made very fine indeed by using polishingdecided stand, and is still contributing at short intervals valuable powder sprinkled over a piece of plate glass. Then the specimen papers on this interesting group of fossils; but I believe that to is carefully washed, dried, and glued with Canada balsam to the one of our fellow-countrymen, Mr. E. O. Ulrich, belongs the credit slide which is to retain the specimen. Then the specimen is ground of the perfection of this system. His work, which expresses his away until only a thin sheet remains fastened in the Canada balmatured views on this subject, is now in the press, forming a part sam, after which it is again smoothed, washed, and protected by of Vol. VIII. of the forthcoming 'Illinois Report.' By his kindness a thin cover-glass. Forty to sixty slides can be made in a day. Some of my first slides I find useful to this day, and every day adds and brilliancy of agate. Quartz and agate are placed at 7 in the experience, or a word from some friend working in the same field. Mohs scale, whereas coral has only the hardness of about 3, the The difficulıy of making sections is a myth.

same as that of marble (calcite), and can be scratched by fluorite. Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 31.

AUG. F. FOERSTE. It is impossible to see how this opaque substance can be said to

“ shine like a garnet, with the tint of the ruby.” Search for Gems and Precious Stones.

A word, in closing, about the hardness of agate and rock crystal. In reference to the interesting article of Prof. P. L. Simmonds on the Mineralogically these are classed together at 7; but in reality the search for gems and precious stones, read before the Society of Arts crystalline varieties should be 7, and the crypto-crystalline varieties of England recently, reprinted in your issue of Oct. 14, allow me to 7.3, since they will readily scratch quartz, and quartz will not suggest a few corrections. Professor Simmonds estimates the yield scratch them.

GEORGE F. KUNZ. of the Brazilian diamond-mines at £800,000 annually, while a little

New York, Oct. 31. later on he says that the yield has dwindled to 24,000 carats, which

Living Lights.
at the outside will not yield more than £2 to £3 a carat, and that of We have noticed in your journal (Science, x. No. 246) a review
India, Borneo, and Australia at £200,000, when these latter figures of the book on phosphorescence called “Living Lights.' The
would probably cover the annual product of Brazil as well as that writer, it seems, must have made a very hasty perusal to have
of the other three countries named. Australia produces so very failed to see that the statements therein are not conjectural, but in
little as scarcely to be a factor in the computation. Even before each case are from individuals we are accustomed to honor as
the opening of the African mines, in 1867, the estimated value of credible witnesses.
the product of Brazil from 1861 10 1867 was only £1,888,000, or The fact of this review being in the columns of a science journal
something over £300,000 per annum, at a time when Brazilian is, of course, the only reason for our interest in it. The most chari-
diamonds commanded a higher price than at present, and now they table construction which we can put on this surprising exhibition
produce much less. His statement that the opal is out of fashion of lack of knowledge is that the reviewer did not notice the array
would have been true several years ago, but is not to-day, when of great names which support the statements of the book, for we
more of these stones are sold, and at better prices, than ever before. cannot think that any one would knowingly dispute the words of

The carat is given as 3.174 grains ; whereas, since there are 151.5 such men — and naturalists.
English diamond carats in an English Troy ounce of 480 grains, an The reviewer starts off by throwing discredit and ridicule on the
English carat would be 3.1683168 Troy grains, or, less exact, 3.168. entire world of luminosity, seemingly denying that attribute to all
A diamond carat is always divided into four diamond grains equals living objects. He says, “ Not only do fire-fies fly, glow-worms
ling .792074 of a Troy grain. If 31.103 grams equal an English glow, zoophytes twinkle in the sea, but sea-anemones, alcyonarians,
Troy ounce, a carat would be .205304 of a gram.

gorgonias, star-fishes, earth-worms, crabs, shell-fish, lizards, frogs, An international syndicate composed of London, Paris, and toads, fishes, birds, monkeys, and men must be added," etc. Amsterdam jewellers, wishing to establish a uniform carat, in 1877 We confess to embarrassment in approaching the task of replying confirmed .205, however, as the true value of a carat, in which case to such, for one is impressed with the notion that some occult jest we have 151.76 carats in an ounce Troy.

is intended; but again we are reminded of the character of the These may seem trifling differences, but yet they are enough to journal, and a feeling of surprise follows at the incomprehensible affect a $10,000 lot of diamonds, worth $100 a carat, to the amount lack of knowledge displayed regarding the subject in hand. of $4.83 between the 3.174 carat and the 3.168 carat, and $19.80 The reviewer continues, There is no excuse for conjectural between the former and the syndicate carat.

illustrations, and ideal views of possible appearances." Shall we It would perhaps have been better to make the reference to inform him that twelve of the plates in • Living Lights are process imperial jade, which he mentions several times, under the head copies taken from lately published bulletins of M. Filhol, M. Dubois, of the jade-quarries of Burma, as this (Feitsui) imperial jade is and from sketches of the deep-water dredged objects obtained by the jadeite, not jade, and is generally only emerald green in spots or gentlemen of the Challenger,' • Travaileur,’ • Porcupine,' · Majenta,' streaks, the mass being a dead white, lending a vividness to the and others, several of whom kindly furnished the author with adgreen which occasionally almost rivals the emerald, and has the vanced papers for use in his work ? hardness of 7.

Thus for twelve of the illustrations : for the remaining ones, it Of the articles of jade shown by the New Zealand Court all the were absurd indeed to defend them. The former, as being matter *colonial exhibition, England, Professor Simmonds says, “ Evidencing not yet widely extant, some of it not published outside of society the skill of the Maoris in working this hard material, the second bulletins, may well be regarded as unfamiliar. The quotation which in this respect to the diamond, although much more fragile,” etc. the reviewer takes from the book is treated so as to mislead. The This would lead one to infer that the material possesses great author evidently meant to convey that it is difficult to represent the hardness, when, in fact, the hardness of jade is only 6.5, less even phenomenon of luminosity in marine animals, as their integrity is than that of rock crystal, and it can be worked with sand, by which injured on exposure to air, though no question is entertained of laborious means, undoubtedly, all of the aboriginal ornaments of their luminosity. A kindly review of this portion would rather the Maori were made. So far as its fragility is concerned, it is praise the caution exhibited by the author in stating that the the toughest of all known minerals, and this is the reason why it is pictures may possibly not exactly portray the real appearance as it so difficult to work. It would require less time to polish twenty exists in the sea. The statements of the reviewer are so sweeping surfaces of agate, which is harder than jade, than it would to polish and (possibly) damaging among those not informed, it would seem one of jade on the same wheel. Krantz, the mineral-dealer of advisable to state facts, though it is a humiliating thought that the Bonn, having a fifty-pound piece of jade which he wished broken brilliant work of so many eminent men should in such quarters be into small hand specimens, a friend kindly offered him the use of a unknown. large half-ton trip hammer to break it with. At the first blow the It is but justice to do this, as the author of Living Lights' is at hammer was demolished, and the jade was only fractured by being present beyond reach, at a distance from home, and of course unheated and thrown into cold water.

able to reply seasonably. We frequently hear minerals or gems loosely spoken of as The statement, “zoophytes twinkling in the sea " might well second or third in hardness to the diamond. On the Mohs scale of have covered the ground for one group, without enumerating “seahardness, the diamond is represented by 10, the sapphire by 9, topaz anemones, alcyonarians, gorgonias,” etc., also ; but this enumera8, and quartz 7; but, although the difference on the scale is only 1, tion will serve to suggest what objects concern us, as those arraigned there is room for several substances between the diamond and the for false attributes. We presume that few will deny the luminous sapphire; and, as we have no such known substance in nature, we gift to fire-flies, glow-worms, etc., which are mentioned in this place diamond on to. In reality, so great is the difference between connection. Let us, then, pass to the sea-anemone record. Colothese two substances, that, if the hardness of the sapphire is 9, that nel Pike of Brooklyn, an American naturalist not to be quesof the diamond would be fully 100, relatively to the rest of the tioned, has given at length his testimony, and we know that the scale. Professor Simmonds also says that coral has the hardness author himself has an experience as to their luminosity, which,

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coupled with that of Van Benedin and numerous other European highly colored, and admitted on very slender evidence," then we zoologists, we assume is weight enough to give respectability. have no remedy.

The luminosity of gorgonias, sea-worms, star-tishes, etc., is a well- In a few words, the considerable fresh material in • Living Lights' known fact to us from long residence on the Florida reefs; but, should have received favorable notice; for, added to the large should it be desirable to fortify such evidence, we would refer to testi- amount of facts in marine zoology familiar to the author mony of Sir Wyville Thompson, and several other successful dredgers. through actual personal contact with marine life on all parts of our

It would have saved somewhat of the task of this exposé, had the coast, on the extreme northern and on the Florida shores, and on reviewer read the history of the Brisinga, the luminous star-fish, the two oceans, here is presented noticeable examples of luminosity which ‘Living Lights' gives amply, and illustrates by process in every grand division of zoology, and in the vegetable and minpicture from the original, through courtesy of M. Filhol and M. eral worlds, all furnished by the eminent zoologists, with accomDubois, the latter having had some of the dredgings of the 'Talis- panying figures, which the reviewer has chosen to ignore or ridiman' for examination. The work of Charles Abjordsen of Nor- cule. way, on the luminosity of this creature, is also extant, who pleas- The amount of information and data obtained by the author antly named it Gloria maris. M. Quatrefages may also be called through the United States Fishery Commission is very great, and to testify, if need be, whose valuable work on the luminosity of the it is due to the memory of the late lamented commissioner to say star-fishes is well known. P. Martin Duncan and some others are that the work of the • Albatross' and · Fish Hawk'exceeds all remembered in this connection.

others in the contributions to science derived from the deep-sea The crustaceans are next summoned to show cause. Must we dredgings. The history of luminous marine animals, judged by arraign our own Verrill and Smith ? Shall the ancient Viviani be those acquainted with marine zoology, is by no means exhausted. questioned ? May we lightly dispute the words of Nordenskiöld,

A. Giglioli, Sir Joseph Banks, MM. Eydoux and Souleyet, Norman, New York, Oct. 26. Vaughn, Thompson, Murray, V. Willemoes Suhm, and a host of others whose descriptions of the luminosity of crustaceans are not

Sorghum-Sugar. in sober earnest to be called “ displays of pyrotechnical natural his- In an article under the above caption published in Science about tory"? The attractive picture of Colossendeis, copied from M. a year ago (viii. p. 361), I ventured to make the following prediction Filhol's delightful work, is one with others which the reviewer

with reference to the experiments which were being carried on in chooses to designate as “conjectural illustrations " and “ideal view Kansas under the direction of the United States Department of for which there is no excuse.

Agriculture: Regarding fishes, Dr. Gunther's views and statements are con- “The indications from the present results are most hopeful, sidered good science. His kindly correspondence with the author that, with the expenditure of a small fraction of the money and pleasantly confirms all that he has written on phosphorescence of brains that have been required to develop the sugar of the beet, the fishes.

sorghum-sugar industry will take a leading place among American M. Carlo Emery, of the Italian Zoological Schools, kindly com- industries, and enable Uncle Sam to accomplish a long-cherished municated his experiments to the author, with drawings, on the hope, viz., of making his own sweets." luminosity of the insect Lucciola italica. It were better due The results of this season's work, while it is not yet fully comthis eminent naturalist in the pages of an American science journal pleted, would seem to show that this prediction is in a fair way to to acknowledge his original investigations in the spirit of science, be fully confirmed within a very few years, for a great advance has rather than pronounce them examples of “ pyrotechnical natural already been made towards the solution of the problem of the history," etc.

profitable production of sugar from sorghum. It certainly cannot be necessary to go further ; but as the picture The final outcome of last year's work was extremely discouraging of a heron was particularly mentioned as “ distinctly misleading,” to many friends of the industry, and it was only by strenuous efforts etc., it may be well to direct attention to the facts in the case. At- on the part of the few who still retained their faith, that the necestention to the text will show that the author carefully and at much sary appropriation for the continuation of the experiments could be trouble set about gaining, if possible, any additional knowledge obtained from Congress. Many thought that the question would concerning the alleged luminosity of the breast of the night-heron. be definitely settled by the experiments last year, and, as the results. It has long been a widely known belief among hunters that the achieved were chiefly of a negative character, they considered that powder-down patches on the heron's breast are at times luminous. it was proved a failure. Perhaps too much was expected to be We have learned from very many ornithologists that the belief was accomplished in so short a time. It has often been the case with familiar to themselves, and in general there is an inclination to con- great undertakings, and in the accomplishment of scientific probsider it true. The editor of Living Lights' received some re- lems, that their prospect looked darkest just before the dawn of markable confirmations of the long-existing say.so, and in his book their success. Such has been the case with sorghum-sugar. Negaplainly exhibits several of the most convincing, no less than pos- tive results frequently contribute greatly toward ultimate success, itive statements in answer to categorical inquiries by the author. and the lessons taught by some of last year's failures have been

It chanced that we were able to ask the opinion of the eminent turned to very valuable account in this year's work. English naturalist, Mr. Alfred Russell Wallace, to whom this sub- The two difficulties mentioned in the article referred to as enject was familiar. He expressed readiness to believe the existence of countered in last season's work — viz., the cleaning of the chips, and luminosity in such birds, notwithstanding the literature on the sub- the treatment of the juice — have been successfully grappled with. ject is so meagre, and quoted the well-known case of the lantern- The former is accomplished by ingenious yet simple mechanical fly. Mr. Wallace was an explorer in South America, as is well devices. The cane is fed, leaves and all, to an ordinary ensilageknown, and in answer to our question he said, “I did not observe cutter, which cuts it all into pieces about one and a half or two the phenomenon of luminosity in the lantern-fly, but Madam inches in length. These are carried to a height by an elevator, and Merian, the distinguished entomologist, and the Marquis Spinola, thence dropped through a series of separating-fans, where the refdid; the former giving detailed accounts of several which emitted use, consisting of the blades and sheaths, is blown out ; its separasuch powerful luminosity, on opening the box in which they were tion from the sections of cane being quite complete on account of confined, that she was alarmed. I am therefore not entitled to the much greater weight of the latter. The cleaned pieces of cane deny the statements.”

are then carried to a small cylindrical cutter, whose operation is very Regarding the higher animals and man, as in relation to the similar to that of a planing-machine, and which cuts the cane into phenomenon of luminosity, the long-recorded example of the bril- quite small chips, or shreds. Thus the diffusion is effected upon liant eyes of the South American monkey should be regarded; and well-cleaned cane, - a fact which doubtless contributes greatly to if the statements concerning man, as published by Dr. Phipson in the purity of the juices obtained. The inversion of the juice in the his nearly unique treatise on this subject, as quoted by the author, cell, which is very apt to occur with sorghum on account of its are not entitled to respect, and protection from the assertion that large content of various vegetable acids, is controlled by the use of such“ statements are distinctly misleading and wrong ... and precipitated carbonate of lime, which is added to the contents of each cell. By this a considerable proportion of these acids is have been the repinings as the years went on and no practical outneutralized. In the treatment of the juice the solution of the prob- come was obtained. In case they are crowned with ultimate suclem seems to have rested rather in the simplification of the method cess, these objectors will be most fitly answered; for the money to be used than in its further complication. In fact, it is really a spent would be but as a molecule of water to the Mississippi River return to first principles, as it were ; for the method which was in comparison with the stream of wealth which would flow from finally adopted, and which has given such excellent results, is the establishment of a national sugar-industry. Let us hope the the old method of liming the juice to a slightly alkaline re-action, lesson will have its effect upon the people in the adoption of a still and boiling and skimming in an open pan. No filtration is used more liberal policy in aiding scientific research in the future. The whatever, the scums being simply returned to the cells, where they experiments in the application of the diffusion_to Louisiana cane are again extracted, so that no loss of sugar is sustained. Treated will be commenced some time in October. From the favorable in this way, the diffusion juice shows a higher coefficient of purity results which were obtained last fall at Fort Scott in operating upon than juice obtained from the same cane by pressure, also an in- a few carloads of cane after the close of the sorghum season, it creased ratio of sucrose to glucose.

may reasonably be expected that the yield obtained will be very Single experimental runs have given a yield as high as one hun- satisfactory, although the problem is somewhat more difficult than dred and thirteen pounds of first sugar’ to the ton of cleaned in the case of sorghum, as the results obtained by mill-extraction cane, with seventeen and a half pounds of 'second sugar,' or a total from the Southern cane are much superior to those obtained from of one hundred and thirty pounds to the ton. This is at least twice sorghum.

C. A. CRAMPTON. as large a yield as has ever been obtained by pressure extraction,

Fort Scott, Kan., Oct. 23. even under the most favorable conditions. The results on the season's work have not yet been ascertained.

The Purslane-Worm. The people of Kansas are highly pleased over the results of the

It may be of interest to note that the 'purslane-caterpillar,' dework so far, and, with characteristic Western energy, are preparing

scribed in a recent number of Science (x. No. 246), has made its to rush into the sugar-business immediately, and make Kansas, in

appearance at this point; at least, a new species of caterpillar, new the language of the local newspapers, ‘rival Louisiana’ as a sugar

to all observers, and feeding on purslane, has made itself very conproducing State. A few words of caution to these would be sugar

spicuous for a few months past. In this vicinity the early summer growers might not come amiss. No industry requires more careful

was very dry, and the purslane, which is not yet so common a weed management, or a greater amount of scientific knowledge and skill,

with us as farther east, was not very plentiful. But late in August, to make it a success, than the production of sugar. In order to

after a series of heavy showers, it sprang up, more suo, abundantly, compete with other sugar-producing countries and plants, the most

and with it came this stranger in such numbers as to attract the careful system of cultivation should be combined with the most

notice of one quite unlearned in such matters. Both the plant and skilful and economical methods of manufacture. The beet-sugar

its boarder fourished along the line of a railroad leading south-east industry of Europe may well serve as a model in this respect, in

into Kansas, from which State it is in all probability an emigrant; that the proper cultivation of the beet-roots is regarded as of prime

but, if so, one would think that it must have advanced farther last importance, and in the manufacture of the sugar every pound of

season than your Kansas correspondent noted. waste or by-product is utilized, and every ton of fuel is made to

GEO, M. WHICHER. yield its maximum equivalent of power. The most careful and Hastings, Neb., Oct. 25. thorough scientific supervision is exercised over the entire process of manufacture. At the present prices for sorghum-seed, which is

Queries. in great demand for planting for forage purposes and for the sirup,

16. PENNSYLVANIA POT-HOLES. -Can you tell me where I a yield of any thing in the neighborhood of one hundred pounds of

can find an account of the glacial pot-hole noticed in your · Notes' sugar to the ton of cane would afford a very wide margin on the

in No. 246? I presume it may be in some volume of the Second cost of production, since the cane can be grown for one dollar and

Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, but I do not know which one. fifty cents per ton; but the success of the industry would necessa

Perhaps some of your readers can say, if you cannot. rily involve the reduction of the prices for these important by-prod

JOSEPH F. JAMES. ucts to a much lower figure, and cut off a very considerable pro- Oxford, O., Oct. 23. portion of the present profits in the production. On the other

17. Does BITUMINOUS COAL CONTAIN ANY BITUMEN ? hand, much is to be hoped from the apparently great adaptability of

Many text-books and dictionaries define bituminous coal as conthe plant to the soil and climate of a large area of this country, and

taining bitumen, and mislead the student into the belief that its from scientifically conducted experiments for the increase of its sac

name is due to this fact. In Vol. VI., 'Encyclopædia Britannica,' charine content. Judging from analogy, it is reasonable to expect

ninth edition, Mr. H. Baurerman, F.G.S., Royal School of Mines, that the latter can be greatly increased by the well-known methods of selection and cultivation. Sorghum-cane has been grown on the

says on p. 46, under the subject coal, “ The most important class

of coals is that generally known as bituminous, from their propgrounds of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, which

erty of softening, or undergoing an apparent fusion, when heated contained as high as eighteen per cent of sucrose in the juice, or

to a temperature far below that at which actual combustion takes sixteen per cent of the cane. If a field of sorghum could be raised

place. This term is founded on a misapprehension of the nature of which would average fifteen per cent of sucrose without too great

the occurrence, since, although the softening takes place at a low an expenditure for cultivation, the question of the profitable pro

temperature, still it marks the point at which destructive distilladuction of sugar from the plant would be solved at once.

tion commences, and hydrocarbons both of solid and gaseous This much, at least, can be said of the experiments that have

character are formed. That nothing analogous to bitumen exbeen carried on by the Department of Agriculture : they have

ists in coals, is proved by the fact that the ordinary solvents for shown that good marketable sugar can be made from sorghum

bituminous substances, such as bisulphide of carbon, and benzole, cane in sufficient quantities to pay at the present prices for the prod

have no effect upon them, as would be the case if they contained ucts and by-products of the manufacture. The question as to

bitumen soluble in these re-agents. The term is, however, a conwhether we are to have a national sugar-industry in the United

venient one, and one whose use is almost a necessity from its havStates will probably work out its own solution before many years.

ing an almost universal currency among coal-miners." Impressed These experiments in the manufacture of sugar should have a

with the above statement, and recognizing its importance to particular interest for scientific men, for their success means not

teachers of science especially, I call attention to it, under the head only a triumph of science, but also a complete vindication of the

of 'Queries,' that hereafter truth shall be taught, and not error. I policy of giving governmental aid to scientific investigations. The

sometimes entertain a suspicion that many errors continue to be development of the sorghum-sugar industry so far has been carried on entirely by the Department of Agriculture, with appropriations

accepted as facts, because writers simply copy from their prede

cessors, instead of actually testing or proving them to be facts. made by Congress for that purpose. Numerous objections have

GEORGE GLENN Wood, M.D. been raised against these appropriations, and both loud and deep Muncy, Penn., Oct, 28.

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CROSBY'S VITALIZED PHOSPHITES Composed of the Nerve-giving Principles of the Ox Brain and the Embryo of the Wheat and Oat. Is a standard remedy with physicians who treat nervous or mental disorders. The formula is on every label. As it is identical in its composition with brain matter it is rapidly absorbed and relieves the depression from mental efforts, loss of memory, fatigue or mental irritability.

Sleeplessness, irritation, nervous exhaustion, inability to work or study is but Brain HUNGER, in urgent cases Brain STARVATION. It aids in the bodily and wonderfully in the mental development of children. It is a vital phosphite, not a laboratory phosphate or soda water absurdity.

56 W. 25th St., N. Y. For sale by Druggists, or by Mail, $1.

QUEEN&Co.924 PHILADA.

THE

CHEAPEST AND BEST

PHOTO ENGRAVING

ENGRAVING FOR ALL ILLUSTRATIVE AND

• ADVERTISING PURPOSES

TILESTON & HOLLINGSWORTH,

– The disbursements of the Mutual Re-, that the preparation of this number has ne

! serve Fund Lise Association of New York in cessitated, of course, a greatly increased cost, death benefits to its members, have now ap- the price will remain as usual, twenty-five proximated $4,000,000. By the assessment cents.

OPERA, MARINE & methods employed by this association, there

SPY GLASSES is every reason to hope that such an associaCalendar of Societies.

TRANSITS,LEVELS

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS tion may be as permanent as other life-in

Philosophical Society, Washington. surance companies, and may furnish to all

Nov. 2. — W. Harkness, on the Constant P protection at a much reduced cost. These in Observations of Terrestrial Magnetism ; R.

RA companies are certainly largely used by pru- S. Woodward, On the Conditioned Cooling of a dent men. The present management of the Homogeneous Sphere. Mutual Reserve Fund Life Association has

Engineers' Club, Philadelphia. been in charge since September, 1881, under

Oct. 15. - A. Marichal, Description of the the guidance of its president, Mr. Edward B. Gileppe Dam, Belgium : A. Saunders Morris, Harper.

Notes upon Connections for Secondary Batter.
ies ; ' W. H. Nauman, Description of tests for

riveted joints, made at Watertown Arsenal, Mas-
BOOK-NOTES.
sachusetts, for the Bureau of Steam Engineering,

67 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK – November ends the Wide Awake year

September, 1886; Henry Roeske, Water-Fil

tration. with a thanksgiving number in all but the

Natural Science Association, Staten Island. technical sense. Besides the long stories that come to an end. - there are none be- Exhibition of specimens of the material from an Oct. 8. – A. L. Carroll and Arthur Hollick,

THE CELEBRATED ginning : next month is the time to begin,

artesian well at Bachmann's brewery, Clifton ; FRANK B.CONVERSE there is rich and varied fare.

Mr. Hollick, Exhibition of drawings of lemon-Seidel's Industrial Instruction, trans- lemon; L. W. Freeman, Exhibition of a skinpits, which had germinated while inside the

BANJO. lated by Miss Margaret K. Smith of the Os- scraper and several arrow-heads; James Ray- Manufactured by John F. Stratton, wego (N.Y.) Normal School, is to be published mond, Fish-hawks; E. M. Eadie, A Walking,

49 Maiden Lane, NEW YORK. by D. C. Heath & Co. in a few days. This Stick Insect (Diapheromera femorata) at Old

Place. book presents a philosophical exposition of the principles underlying the claims of hand

Boston Society of Natural History. labor to a place on the school programme.

Nov. 2.

William M. Davis, The Physical
History of the Somerville Slates ; W. G. Far-

64 Federal Street, Boston. – D. C. Heath & Co. will issue immedi-low, The Conception of Species in Cryptogamic

Manufacturers of Fine Book Papers for let. ately two new numbers in their popular series Botany ; J. Walter Fewkes, A New Mode of

ter press and cut printing. The attention of of. Monographs on Education. Prof. F. C. Life among Medusa.

publishers and printers is called to our Ivory Woodward of Wofford College, Spartanburg,

Finish (no gloss) paper. A boon to studious S.C., writes on English in the schools ; Mr. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR

men, reflecting no dazzling glare injurious to the

eyes. Approved and used by the best educaErnest W. Huffcut of Cornell University writes of English in the preparatory schools | PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. tional publyshers in the country. - E. & F. N. Spon announce as just pubThe Research work of the Society is at present divided

Theatres of New York. between five Committees : lished, American Methods of Copper Smelt- 1. The Committee on Thought-Transference is ening,' by Dr. E. D. Peters.

gaged in ascertaining whether a vivid, impression of a DALY'S THEATRE, Broadway and 30th St,

to

management of Mr. AUGUSTIN without the intervening help of the recognized organs of

DALY. - Messrs. Lee & Shepard are about to sensation.

Orchestra, $1.50. Dress Circle, $1. Second Balcony, 5oco issue, with additions covering his completed Houses, wishes to collect accounts. from trustworthy

2. The Committee on Apparitions and Haunted EVERY EVENING at 8:15. MATINEES begin at 2.

EVERY NIGHT at 8:15, production of an entirely career, a new edition of Our Standard Bear-sources, of apparitions of absent or deceased persons, of new comedy, Railroad of Love,' by AUGUSTIŃ er; or, The Life of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, as waking state, of disturbances in houses described as berg).

premonitions, whether these occur in dreams or in the DALY (from the German of Schoenthau and Kadel. seen and related by Capt. Bernard Galligas"haunted," and of any cognate phenomena,

MATINEES WEDNESDAYS and SATURDAYS.

3. The Committee on Hypnotism is engaged in the ken, Cosmopolitan, and written out by Oliver study of the mesmeric or hypnotic trance, with the object Optic.' The work is illustrated by the well-es ascertaining its causes and of elucidating its psychi- LYCEUM THEATRE. cal physiological

DANIEL FROHMAN...

Manager. known artist, Thomas Nast. 4. The committee on Mediumistic Phenomena is

Cor. 4th Avenue and 23d St. chiefly concerned with the experimental investigation of - Scribner's Magasine will signalize the the phenomena commonly described as “ Spiritualistic,". THE WIFE,

and is particularly desirous of obtaining opportunities for completion of its first year by the publication investigation with private and unpaid mediums," or of a superb Christmas number. Its contents other persons in whose presence - mediumistic "'phe- A New Play by D. Belasco and H. C. De Mille.

Preceded by..... Editha's Burglar. will be chiefly poetry and fiction, and litera- 5. The Committee on Experimental Psychology is

Evenings, 8:15, Saturday Matinees 2. ture appropriate to the season. The number sociology in its psychological aspects. It seeks to ascer

making investigations in folk-thought or the study of of illustrations will be greatly increased, and tain the psychical characteristics which many individuals may possess in conimon in virtue of their being members BUNNELL'S

728-32 Broadway. Admission, 25c. will represent the best and most original of particular races or communities. work of American artists and engravers. The Communications are carnestly requested from all per

Children, 100. sons interested in any branch of the work of the Society.

Sacred Hairy Family Continuous cover is to be enriched by a special border Further information can be obtained from the Secre- LONDON

Dog Circus Wonders. Entertainment. lary,

RICITARD HODGSON, printed in gold; but notwithstanding the fact

5 Boylston Place, Boston, Mass. MUSEUM The Greatest Show. Noon till 11 P.M

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nomena occur.

OLD

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