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upon Mr. H. F. Allen, a fellow at the Johns Hopkins, made the phonetics, and has at least the advantage of simplicity: but
announcement that the Semitic seminary of the university pro- whether it will meet with the approbation of scholars remains to be
posed publishing at an early date a complete Assyrian glossary. seen.
The work would be issued under the superintendence of Professor Further papers were presented by Dr. Ward on some Baby-
Haupt, and, while not intending to supersede the great Assyrian lonian mythological symbols ; by Professor Bloomfield on “The
dictionary now in course of publication by Prof. Friedrich Delitzsch Fire-Ordeal Hymn in the Athavar-Veda,' by Dr. T. W. Jackson ;
of Leipzig, will aim to supply the need of students of Assyrian and finally one — which, however, was only read in abstract by
better than the latter work does. The principles which will guide Professor Lanman — from Mr. Rockhill, of the American legation
the compilers in their work were briefly set forth. Professor Haupt at Pekin, on the relations of Corea to China. Mr. Rockhill is en-
followed with a second announcement, also of great interest to gaged in important researches which promise to clear up many ob-
Semitic scholars, regarding a series of contributions to Semitic scure points in Chinese history. In a communication to Secretary
comparative philology, which he proposes editing in conjunction Lanman, he cites an instance to show how untrustworthy the or-
with the above-mentioned Professor Delitzsch ; and it must have dinary information concerning China is. It seems that in the re-
seemed to many as though an Assyriological 'craze' had broken cent census an entire province was overlooked, which contained
out when Dr. Cyrus Adler added a third announcement, which some sixty million inhabitants; so that the figures usually given
was no less gratifying than the preceding ones.

must be changed to three hundred and seventy-nine millions. A The National Museum at Washington has recently entered into number of new members, both corporate and corresponding, were an arrangement with the Johns Hopkins University with a view of elected, and the following honorary members : Sir Henry C. Rawobtaining as complete a collection as possible of facsimiles and linson, the well known Assyriologist, and editor of the great publicasts of seals coming from Mesopotamia, and to include eventually cation undertaken by the British Museum, 'The Cuneiform Inin the collection also important cylinders and tablets bearing cunei- scriptions of Western Asia ;' Prof. George F. Bühlan, a distinform inscriptions. The beginning will be made with the antiquities guished Sanscrit scholar of Germany, and editor of the latest volscattered throughout the museums and private collections in this ume of the Sacred Books of the East;' and Prof. Edward Sachan country. Besides the copy of each piece to be deposited in Wash- of the University of Berlin, who has been called to take charge of ington, another copy will be given to the Johns Hopkins, in consid- the Oriental institute which has just been established by the Gereration of which the latter institution will superintend the collection man Government for the training of diplomates and officials in the at the national capital. The project is one which promises to Eastern service. All the chief European capitals, with the exceparouse considerable interest; and the hope that it may yet lead to tion of London, now possess institutions of this nature, where the an exploring and excavating expedition from this country to the important Oriental languages are taught, and it has been said that mounds in Mesopotamia, which still harbor such untold treasures, the Emperor of Brazil contemplates the establishment of one at Rio may not be an utterly futile one.

Janeiro. The Berlin school has opened with the amazingly large President Gilman exhibited photographs of the famous Greek number of one hundred pupils. manuscript, 'The Teachings of the Apostles,' the discovery of The next meeting of the Oriental Association will be held in which some years ago created a veritable sensation. The original Boston during the month of May, 1888. manuscript is in an Eastern monastery, but the photographic reproductions are executed with an excellence that makes them fully

HEALTH MATTERS. as reliable for students as the original copy. Dr. Binion of Balti

Cholera Cases at Quarantine. more had some specimens of a magnificent illustrated work on the IN Science of Oct. 14 we noted the arrival at New York of the art of ancient Egypt, which he is about issuing. The cost of the steamship ‘Alesia' from Italy, with cholera on board. Since then work, which will contain all the important Egyptian monuments, another steamer, the 'Britannia,' from the same ports, has arrived. will be one hundred and fifty dollars a copy. Professor Frothing- This vessel was detained at quarantine, and during this detention ham closed the interesting programme with a description of a monas- one of the passengers, a child, was taken sick with what is now tery he recently saw in Italy, dating from the Byzantine period, and known to have been cholera. Two other cases of cholera have dewhich possesses a most remarkable twelve-sided tower, — the only veloped on this same vessel, the latter of them on Oct. 24. It is said instance of the kind in the world.

that the report of the surgeon of the vessel gave not the slightest Thursday morning again found the members in Hopkins Hall. indication of the existence of cholera on board, and it is more than Professor Lanman presented a brief paper from Professor Whitney. probable, that, had not the arrival of the · Alesia' with developed Dr. Peet had an interesting treatise on animal and sun worship cholera on board occurred prior to that of the ‘Britannia,' the cases among the American Indians, which brought forth some curious of cholera which occurred on the latter steamer would have first points of coincidence between the religious notions of the Indians been heard of in some hotel or boarding-house of New York. and other ancient peoples. Dr. Cyrus Adler of the Johns Hopkins So far as we have seen, no statement has yet been made of the presented two papers bearing on Assyriological research. One of health of the passengers and crew of the Britannia' during the these treated of the views of the Assyrians on life after death. They voyage from Italy to New York. It would be criminal on the part believed in a future life, but the notion of a future punishment does of the surgeon of that steamer to have concealed the fact if cases not seem to have arisen among them, nor do we find that any dis- of cholera occurred during the voyage; and, if they did not, it tinction is made by them between the abode of the good and of the would seem to be a warrantable inference that cholera may develop wicked. It is probable that they supposed all would share in the on a ship even after a voyage across the Atlantic, and that, as haplife to come.

pened in the case of the Britannia,' the health-officer is justified in Professor Hopkins of Bryn Mawr called attention to some prov- detaining in quarantine a vessel from ports in which cholera is erbs in the Mahabharata paralleling those found among other known to exist, even though she may not have had sickness on nations. Among these, there is the 'golden rule,' which, how- board during the voyage. It is stated that urgent demands were ever, is formulated negatively in the Sanscrit : “Do not unto others made on the health-officer to permit the ‘Britannia’ to come to the what thou wouldst not have others do unto you." A discussion city without detention, and that it was claimed that the sickness of followed in which several members participated. Professor Lan- the child passenger was simply cholera-infantum. man remarked that in Chinese the maxim also has the negative Dr. Smith is to be congratulated on having exercised the authorform, as is also the case in the Talmud, where the saying is put in ity which the State has conferred upon him, in having detained the the mouth of the famous rabbi Hillel.

• Britannia,' and he may be assured that the people of this great Mr. Allen had a suggestive paper on a proposed method of trans- country will uphold him in the exercise of the most arbitrary powliterating the letters of the Semitic languages. There is scarcelyers so long as the public health is in the imminent danger that it is any point in regard to which scholars differ so much as in the in at the present time. A lack of intelligent action now may result method of reproducing the Semitic sounds, and yet it is eminently in the introduction of cholera germs, which, though they may lie desirable that some uniform method be adopted. The system pro- dormant during the winter, may result in a plentiful harvest when posed by Mr. Allen endeavors to proceed upon the principles of next summer comes.

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AMERICAN CATTLE-PLAGUE. – Dr. Frank S. Billings, director sand feet into the plateau, which consists of laterite. The tribes of the patho-biological laboratory of the State University of Nebraska, inhabiting this district have had no intercourse with Europeans. claims to have discovered the germ of the American cattle-plague, They wear self-manufactured clothing, and their language differs commonly known as Texas-fever. This germ, he says, belongs to from those spoken near Stanley Pool. The country is thickly that class of septic germs represented by our swine-plague and rab- wooded, and caoutchouc is found in considerable quantities. Elebit septicæmia. It is a bacterium. It colors at its poles, and has a phants and buffaloes are numerous, but there are only few villages. clear or non-coloring middle piece to its body. It has a motility in The lower part of the river runs through a grassy plain, while near hanging drop-cultures, and also in the blood serum from the origi- Kindjungi the country becomes mountainous. As Major von nal blood of a diseased animal. Dr. Billings gives no experimental Mechow descended the Kuango to Kindjungi, and as Dr. Büttner evidence to support his claim, but states that this will follow in reached its middle course coming from the west, the position of course of time.

the whole river is now fairly laid down. HEALTH OF PRISONERS. — Dr. Watkins, inspector of the State TRAVELS IN AFRICA. — Captain van Gèle's attempt to reach Board of Health of Louisiana, has recently examined the prisoners the Welle, according to Le Mouvement Géographique, has unforin the parish prison of New Orleans. He found a number of the tunately been unsuccessful. When he arrived on the upper Itiminmates suffering from acute dropsy of the legs, arms, face, and biri, he unexpectedly found the country uninhabited and poor. As body, due to confinement and insufficient and unwholesome food. he was not prepared for this, and had no provisions to last him for Each prisoner is allowed a piece of bread and a pint of tea early in a journey through unknown territory, he had to return. He will the morning, and one meal consisting of soup, the beef cooked in probably resume his enterprise. According to the Proceedings of the soup, and bread. The beef is supplied by a contractor at five the Geographical Society of Berlin, Dr. H. Meyer has succeeded in cents and a half per pound, and has been repeatedly condemned by reaching the summit of the Kilima Njaro, while all former travellers the resident surgeon.

failed in their attempts. The summit is occupied by a crater. It TYPHOID-FEVER CONTAGION. We have repeatedly called the

is covered with snow, which sends forth a glacier that extends to attention of our readers to what we believe to be a dangerous error

a comparatively low level. The Germans are making vigorous in the management of typhoid-fever. The tendency to look upon

attempts to penetrate into the extensive unknown area of West drinking-water as the usual, if not indeed the only, channel by Africa. Two expeditions are being organized in Kamerun to exwhich the disease is propagated, is so prevalent among sanitarians

plore the interior, which forms the watershed between the Kongo and physicians, that other means are very liable to be overlooked,

and Benue systems. Lieutenants Kund and Tappenbeck, who and the necessary precautionary measures neglected. An instance

made important discoveries in the southern Kongo basin, will of the probable communication of this fever by other instrumen

push eastward, while Dr. Zindgraff will try to penetrate into the tality than water is reported by M. Bonamy of Nantes. Two

interior in a north-easterly direction. So far, the hostility and households used drinking-water from the same source. In one six

jealousy of those tribes who command the trade between the cases of typhoid-fever occurred, four of which were fatal: in the

interior and the coast have prevented all expeditions from entering

the unknown country. other no cases occurred. It is true that this is negative evidence. It is, however, notwithstanding, of some value ; not perhaps taken GREENLAND. The Danish expedition to the coast of northern alone, but in connection with other facts which have from time to Greenland, says Nature, has just returned to Copenhagen. It has time been recorded touching the methods by which typhoid is been absent since the spring of 1886, and was directed by Mr. C. propagated.

Ryder. During the two summers it was enabled to proceed from SCARLET-FEVER IN LONDON. — Scarlet-fever is very prevalent

latitude 72° to latitude 741°. It investigated the Upernivik glacier in London, there being in the hospitals alone nineteen hundred during the winter. Many meteorological, magnetic, and astronomicases under treatment.

cal observations were made, many anthropological measurements YELLOW-FEVER AT TAMPA. The disease which appeared in

were taken, and botanical and zoological collections have been Tampa, Fla., in the early part of October, has developed into un

brought back. The investigations of the western coast of Greendoubted yellow-fever. To Oct. 24 there had been 180 cases re

land are not likely to be continued for the present. It is to be re

gretted if the latter statement should be true. The Danish expeported, with 27 deaths. Under the auspices of the United States

ditions to Greenland have resulted in so numerous and valuable Marine Hospital Bureau, a hospital has been provided, and a corps

contributions to our knowledge of this immense island that their of experienced nurses has been obtained from Savannah to take care of the sick. The weather is very favorable for the spread of

continuation seems very desirable. The exploration of Melville the fever, and the extension of the disease to the suburbs of the

Bay is of the greatest importance, as here many questions regardtown is conceded.

ing the character of the ice of Davis Strait must be solved, and as its topography is utterly unknown; but so far the Danes have not

extended their researches beyond their most northern settlement, EXPLORATION AND TRAVEL.

Tassiussak, which lies at the southern extremity of Melville Bay. The Kuango.

BRITISH COLUMBIA. – Dr. George M. Dawson, chief of the MR. Mense, who accompanied the energetic missionary Gren- party sent by the Canadian Government to explore the country adfell on his exploration of the lowes Kuango, has described the inter- jacent to the Alaska boundary, has returned to Victoria. Two of esting journey in a lecture delivered before the Geographical Society his party, Messrs. Ogilvie and McConnell, will winter in the district, of Berlin. He describes the exploring of the tributaries of the making astronomical observations, which will give data for the esKongo as not connected with great difficulties, which only begin tablishment of the international boundary. The expedition so far when an overland journey is attempted. In the trip up the Kuango has secured a great deal of geological, geographical, and general a lady even participated. The principal difficulty was the obtaining information of the country. The point from which the doctor of fuel for the boiler of the steamboat. Food was plentiful, as the turned back was at the junction of the Lewis and Pelly Rivers. It river swarmed with hippopotamuses. In many places their meat

is one thousand miles north of Victoria. There the flora was found could be bartered for fuel. When arriving near Kindjungi, a reef to differ but little from that on the banks of the Fraser. A great running right across the river, the hippopotamuses got scarce, but deal of open, grassy country exists along the streams tributary to in their stead an abundance of shell-fish was found. The inter- the Yukon. No areas of tundra or frozen swamps, such as are to course with the natives was generally peaceable; but, as those be met with in the interior of Alaska, were discovered by the expeditribes who had hostile intentions had no fire-arms, their attacks tion. The doctor's conclusion is that the whole country from Caswere not dangerous. Grenfell had provided his steamer with a net sian to the vicinity of Forty Mile Creek, on the Yukon River, yields of steel, which protects the crew and the passengers from the more or less gold in placer deposits. This would constitute a gold

The reef Kindjungi stopped the progress of the expedi- bearing region fully five hundred miles in length by an indefinite tion. The river forms a fall three feet in height, and has dangerous width, and which so far, in comparison to the area, has been very whirlpools. It rushes through a narrow gorge cut about a thou- little prospected.

arrows.

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BOOK-REVIEWS.

while constantly utilizing the facts that physiologists have disPsychologie im Umrissen auf Grundlage der Erfahrung. Von

covered. For the non-technical student this is perhaps the better Dr. HARALD HÖFFDING. Tr. from the Danish by F. Ben

plan: it retains for psychology that general broadening interest DIXEN. Leipzig.

which its pursuit as a technical specialty may for a time weaken. Essai de Psychologie Generale. Par CHARLES Richet. Paris,

The plan of the work is somewhat different from those of our textBibliotheque de Philosophie Contemporaine.

books of psychology, and is an rovement upon them. After

defining his point of view, he considers the relations between body Few philosophical reformations have a more instructive history and mind as well from the physiological as the philosophical than that which introduced experimental methods and scientific

point of view, and passes to the study of the conscious and the unconceptions into the study of mental phenomena. The cleft be

conscious, treating the phenomena of instinct, unconscious ceretween the student of matter and the student of mind had no ex

bration, etc. Here, as elsewhere, his acceptance of the evolutionistence in the harmonious mental culture of Greek philosophers.

ary theory, and his use of the analogy between the growth of the The nature that is the common storehouse of the physicist, the individual and that of the race, give life to his pages. He next acphysiologist, and the physician, was also the mine from which the

cepts the trifold division of the intellect, the feelings, and the will, philosopher drew his lore. The great modern revival that sepa

though accenting the fact that each depends upon the other, and the rates the sciences, and forces a medical congress to separate into

development of all three follow the same path. His chapters upon nineteen sections to insure that he who reads will be understood,

the mutual relations of intellect, emotions, and will, are full of sound has left the philosopher in the high altitudes of the mountain-top,

educational material. He devotes an unusual space to the emowhile the busy scientists throng down into the mine. Not until our tions, while rather slighting the will. To single out any points for day has the philosopher taken much interest in the carloads of rich

special treatment would hardly be serviceable : the important asore dug out by the miners, and come to seriously consider the

pect of the volume is its modern appreciation of the intimate conannouncement that this patient digging had discovered many rich

nection between fact and theory. Dr. Höffding has made a disveins of thought suggesting those unifying generalizations for which tinct advance in the problem of adopting new psychological results he was searching in the clouds. The good effects of this change into the body of accepted truth, which serves to educate the next of method and re-arranging of interest are easily discerned. The

generation. • know thyself' has been interpreted as including the whole man,

The main purpose of M. Richet's work is to give a useful sumbody and mind, past and present, as modified by all kinds of

mary of those general propositions regarding the functions of the natural and artificial agencies. But the most distinctly new con

nervous system that have a direct psychological bearing. In this tribution that this revival of nature-philosophy has brought about he has succeeded very well, and his success makes us realize the is the origination of a scientific psychology, borrowing its methods

progress made in recent years. It is a book of this nature that imas well as many of its facts and conceptions from other sciences,

presses one with the rapidity with which mental science is taking and so re-uniting what should belong together, — while maintaining

on that long-desired scientific aspect. It is no longer meaningless its distinct character by the use to which it puts this material, and

to speak of psychological laws. the point of view from which it regards it.

What M. Richet means by ‘general psychology' can be best The two volumes before us are both typical results of the new

gathered from the titles of his chapters. These treat of irritability, psychology. The one comes from the professor of philosophy in the

the nervous system, reflex action, instinct, consciousness, sensation, University of Copenhagen; the other, from a professional physiolo

memory, ideation, will. Under each heading the treatment is gengist of Paris.' Their purpose is to set forth in plain language the eral, stating in brief the conclusions accepted by modern psyconclusions which experimental research and observation have al

chology. Within two hundred pages one has here a convenient lowed us to draw regarding the nature and function of psychical handbook of the main principles on which an elementary course in phenomena, and to delineate the general conceptions to which

psychology should be based. these facts give warrant. As text-books, both will be eminently

There is one point in the volume which M. Richet has singled useful, and an English version of either would be a welcome con

out for separate treatment elsewhere, and which should be noticed tribution to our literature. The point at which the works divide

here. Between an ordinary reflex action and a conscious act, the is that the one is written especially for those in whose minds the

author introduces a ‘psychic reflex,' and by this he means all those philosophical interest is uppermost, while the other appeals more

involuntary acts which have become so by interposition of condirectly to the physiologist.

scious, inferential elements. The dog that trembles when his Professor Höffding, while seeing in objective research the central master shakes a stick at him ; the man who feels nausea while method of psychology, fully recognizes in self-consciousness a most

reading of a disaster; the vertigo experienced when looking down important supplementary means of study. Not only that we can

from a height; many kinds of laughter, as of tears, fear, pain, and only make our own what we assimilate to our past selves, the

pleasure, — are likewise psychic reflexes. These actions all take deposit of a host of conscious acts, – but also that the higher men

place involuntarily, but they would not happen if a psychic element tal processes are amenable to no other mode of study. On the other

did not intervene. Disgust would not occur if the tale were writhand, he recognizes in consciousness a somewhat subordinate con

ten in an unknown tongue. A psychic reflex is a response to a comitant of certain psychical acts, and regards with equal interest peripheral irritation insignificant in itself, but so transformed by such acts as have not this accessory; moreover, he holds that the

an act of the mind as to put in operation the reflex centres of the latter can alone determine what is the naturally correct mode of

spinal cord. This distinction is a convenient one, and the term will viewing the former. The author thus sees growing around the doubtless be adopted. central .natural' view of man several psychologies, - a physiological psychology, a psychophysics, a comparative psychology, a

Ancient Nahuatl Poetry. By DANIEL G. BRINTON. Philadelsociological psychology. He does not attempt a strict definition of phia, The Author. 8°. his science, and is more anxious that it should receive the benefit

The recent volume of the author's valuable Library of Aboriginal of a number of lights reflected from several quarters than that it

American Literature, the seventh of this series, contains a numshould stand out as a distinct, self-made, smoothly finished speci

ber of ancient Mexican poems with translation, notes, a brief men.

vocabulary, and an introduction. The poems are from a manu* The experimental basis’ on which this psychology rests, in

script volume in the library of the University of Mexico, entitled cludes quite as much such every-day facts as are made interesting "Cantares de los Mexicanos y otros opusculos,' and printed from a by the tact of a humane observer, as rows of formidable tables

copy made by Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg. It is unfortunate that fresh from the laboratory. The criticism passed upon Wundt's

the author has not been able to have the texts collated with the • Physiological Psychology,' that it is simply a physiology with a

original, but his efforts in this direction were unsuccessful : therepsychology attached, would not be applicable here. Professor Hoff

fore it is probable that some corrections will have to be made in ding makes the physiology distinctly subordinate to the psychology, the texts. But scientists will nevertheless be thankful to Dr. 1 M. Richet is also editor of the Revue Scientifique.

Brinton for the publication of the interesting collection of poems

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which are here for the first time made accessible to the student, and The Principles of Elocution. By ALEXANDER MELVILLE BELL. it is to be hoped that all that is extant of ancient Nahuatl literature 5th ed., revised and enlarged. Washington, John C. Parker. will be printed ere long.

12° The texts are preceded by a brief introduction, in which the

VERY many intelligent readers of the great orators, ancient and character of Mexican poetry is discussed. The importance of modern, must have experienced a feeling of keen regret that they poetry, music, and dance among the Mexicans is set forth, and themselves were unable even to approximate the directness, force, their method of delivering the songs is described. of particular and fluency of those masters of the art of expression. It would interest are the remarks of the author on prosody; and these are almost seem that the power to rouse multitudes to action, to stir the more weighty, as he has studied this subject among many North the deepest and most masterful emotions, to control and direct American tribes. It is very difficult to decide whether accent or action, by the use of language, is so dangerous a one that it has quantity is the ruling element of poetry, and the author does not

been granted to but few. As a matter of fact, however, oratory attempt to decide which is more important. It seems to us that or eloquence is nothing more than highly developed and cultivated this question can only be solved by studying music and poetry power of expression. It implies the possession of something to jointly.

express. The full head and the sympathetic heart are essentials. Dr. Brinton finds another wide-spread peculiarity of Indian poetry But without aiming at the ambitious height of eloquence, there is occurring in Mexican poetry. It is the inordinate lengthening of a power of forceful and adequate expression by the use of language vowels and reduplicating of syllables for the purpose of emphasis that belongs to us as human beings, but which is almost wholly or of metre, and the insertion of meaningless interjections for the overlooked in the training of the young. Not only is this undesirsame purpose. It is an interesting question whether the accent in

able in itself, but the conditions of our modern lile render it more Mexican poetry is always on the vowel, or whether certain combi

so. In politics, in religion, in practical lise, and in social activity, nations of consonants can form a syllable, as is the case in some

men are endeavoring to communicate their own thoughts and conAmerican languages. The instrumental accompaniment of the

victions to others; and very many are the embarrassments that songs is described, and the connection of the rhythm of the drums result from the lack of ability to properly express these thoughts with the prosody is emphasized. In the present collection, as well

and convictions. There is, therefore, a practical as well as a sentias in those of other nations, we find a peculiar poetical language

mental reason why our natural gist of expression should be cultiwhich makes their translation very difficult. Dr. Brinton describes

vated. this poetic dialect as abounding in metaphors. Birds, flowers, pre

All of this is very familiar to Mr. Bell, and, in addition, he has cious stones, and brilliant objects are constantly introduced in a fig

given so much time and study to the working-out of the practical urative sense, often to the point of obscuring the meaning of the

applications of the thing, that he is to-day easily our first authority sentence. The grammatical structure is more complicated and

on the subject. In this last edition, the fifth, of his · Principles of elaborate than in ordinary prose writing, and rare words occur fre

Elocution,' he has given us the ripest fruits of his thoughts and quently. The rhetorical figure known as aposiopesis, when a sen

study. tence is left unfinished and in an interjectional condition, in conse

Mr. Bell deprecates in his introduction the neglect of elocution, quence of some emotion of mind, is not rare, and adds to the

and ascribes it to two causes, — first, it is neglected because it is obscurity of the wording. The last peculiarity is characteristic of

misunderstood and therefore undervalued; and, second, it is misthe popular songs of all nations, while the occurrence of rare words

understood because it has been confounded with recitation, and may be due to the fact that many of them are sacred songs. The

otherwise misrepresented by many writers on the subject. Mr. richness of metaphor, and the complicated grammatical structure, Bell defines (p. 6) elocution as “the effective expression of thought are also wide-spread qualities of poetry.

and sentiment by speech, intonation, and gesture.” Inasmuch as Dr. Brinton considers some of the songs as belonging to a time it involves the exercise of language, elocution must embrace the anterior to the Conquest, and gives in the brief notes which accom

physiology of speech. It must study carefully the instrument of pany each of the twenty-seven songs his reasons for this opinion. speech, so that the elocutionist may have all its parts under his Undoubtedly most of them belong to the time of about 1500.

complete control. The author therefore takes the pupil back to Others are evidently ancient songs, composed before the Spaniards respiration as the first step toward making him an expressive and influenced the native customs and ideas, and this makes the present agreeable speaker. Suggestions in respiration lead naturally to collection the more interesting. It is welcome material for the the principles of vocalization, and these to those of vowel formastudent of the Mexican aborigines.

tion. From this point on, the book is made up largely of practical

exercises on the successive steps in the elocutionary process. These Guatemala, the Land of the Quetzal. By WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM.

exercises and illustrations are a peculiarly valuable feature of the New York, Scribner. 80.

book; for they are not roughly thrown together, but carefully The author terms his book very properly “a sketch.' It is the arranged on scientific principles. tale of his journeys in Guatemala, adorned with some remarks on We know of no higher praise of Mr. Bell's book than to say that the geography and history of the country. The author does not it is pre-eminently fitted to be recognized in our high schools and claim to give any new information, but it is pleasant to follow him colleges as the authoritative exponent of that branch of training on his ride through a semi-civilized country. The book is profusely which has too long been left out of their curriculum. illustrated, and the illustrations have the merit of being new, char

Bau und Verrichtungen des Gehirns. Von Dr. JOSEF VICTOR acteristic, and trustworthy, most of them being reproductions of

BOHON. Heidelberg. photographs. The scientific contents are selected somewhat at random, but will serve the purpose which the author has principally

Uebersichtliche Zusammenstellung der Augenbewegungen, etc. - in view, — “ to awaken among Americans greater interest in the

By Dr. E. LANDOLT. Tr. by Dr. H. MAGNUS. Breslau. much-neglected regions between the Republic of Mexico and the THESE contributions to the anatomy and physiology of the nervous Isthmus of Darien." There are several maps in the volume, but system are evidences of the time and attention now devoted by the they are of no great value. The map of Guatemala, which is Germans to the preparation of aids to instruction whereby the claimed to have been compiled from various sources, is only a very student can readily obtain correct notions of his subject. Especially rough sketch of that country. By far the greatest portion of the in the nervous system, where recent research from a variety of book is taken up by the author's journeys; and this is the most sources has so essentially altered the accepted views, is such an interesting part, as it gives a fair idea of Central American life, and elementary reconstruction of the subject necessary. Dr. Rohon's valuable hints to future travellers. It is followed by a chapter on pamphlet contains a lecture delivered before the Anthropological the ancient inhabitants of Guatemala, a brief history of the Repub- Society of Munich, setting forth in clear language the main outlines lic, and a sketch of its volcanoes and produce. In an appendix, of current notions of the structure and functions of the brain. The which the author compares to the attic-room of a thrifty housewife, main interest in the pamphlet will centre in the colored chart, information about a variety of subjects and a partial bibliography which illustrates with great clearness the points referred to in the of Central America are given.

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Dr. Magnus presents a chart for the use of physicians and in- scientific point of view; and it is well known that a language structors, showing the main points with regard to the motion of the learned in this way, though its grammar may be well mastered, is eyes that one ought to retain. The main laws of motion of Donders, of no practical value to the student, particularly where the differHelmholtz, Listing, etc., are given; then a cut illustrating the origin ence between the written and spoken languages is great, and where of the motor nerves of the eye. This is followed by a table giving

the dialects are numerous. In the new school the languages are the origin, course, insertion, axis of rotation, etc., for each muscle taught as living languages, and this gives the institute its principal of the eye. The second part of the chart explains very clearly the importance. effect of paralysis of each of the muscles; how such paralysis limits motion of the eye ; what position the eye assumes; whether

- The semi-annual session of the National Academy of Sciences double images arise, and how they are placed ; and so on. The

will be held at Columbia College, Nov. 8, at noon, and continue for chart shows careful preparation, and will doubtless be widely

three or four days. used.

— The question of teaching physiology and hygiene to elemenThe Journal of Morphology. Ed. by C. O. WHITMAN, with the tary classes in the public schools is one that is far from a success

co-operation of EDWARD PHELPS ALLIS, Jun. Vol. I., No. 1. ful solution. With a criminal rashness, legislatures have been Sept., 1887. Boston, Ginn & Co. 8o.

induced to prescribe alcohol-teaching as a requirement, and the The new zoological periodical, the first number of which has

result has been to create noxious temperance-tracts with a smatterbeen so long expected, has at last made its appearance in the shape

ing of physiology attached, instead of scientific text-books. A very of a thick and handsome volume of more than two hundred pages,

great improvement in this direction is a recently issued primer of issued from the well-known press of Messrs. Ginn & Co. of Boston.

health lessons by Dr. Jerome Walker. Around the main facts of It has been delayed almost unpardonably long, and yet its make

physiology, the author has woven an attractive text, fully and well up and the character of its contents compel us to forget the delay,

illustrated, and has given the subject that kind of interest which and confess that it was well worth waiting for. The plates alone

healthy children appreciate. He has very much reduced the space would make the journal unique among American periodicals de

usually allotted to alcohol and narcotics, but it may be questioned

whether the reduction is sufficient. voted to the subject; for they are mostly from the hands of Wer

A few very objectionable ner and Winter, the Frankfort (Germany) lithographers, whose

passages (considering the age of the children to whom the book names alone are ample guaranty of excellence. In brief, the jour

is addressed) still remain. On the whole, Dr. Walker has set an nal appears to us admirable in almost every particular. The paper

example in the right direction, and the instruction to teachers is not is good; the press-work is well done; the minor details of arrange

the least valuable chapter in the book. ment of footnotes, titles, headings, etc., give evidence of care and One of the subjects discussed at the annual meeting of the forethought.

French Association for the Advancement of Science, which has just In this periodical we have a substantial token of the progress of been held at Toulouse, was the project for making a maritime canal two distinct undertakings of which all American scientists ought to between Bordeaux and Narbonne. The different phases of this be proud. The first is that of Dr. Whitman, the editor, whose hope project, which was first mooted twenty years ago, were passed in and struggle for many months have been to set going in the right review by M. Wickersheimer, deputy for one of the departments way a zoological periodical that shall worthily represent American through which the canal will pass. The latest project was premorphologists before the world, and be a suitable outlet for our pared this summer by a company which has been formed for the strong and increasing zoological literature. Professor Whitman

purpose of making the preliminary survey: and according to this has certainly succeeded in making a good start.

scheme, the canal, which would be about three hundred and thirty A word is due also to the publishers, Messrs. Ginn & Co., for miles in length from sea to sea, would start from the western side their courage in undertaking such a periodical, which can never be of Bordeaux, and follow the left bank of the Garonne for a disexpected to be a financial success, as the demand must always be tance of fifty miles, crossing that river at Castel-Sarrasin by a pontextremely limited. The difficulty of establishing such a journal canal (or aqueduct), and follow the right bank of the river as far as will be the better understood when we consider that the proceed- Toulouse, where a large port would be created. From Toulouse ings of societies, supported by large endowments, meet with practi- to the Mediterranean seaboard at Narbonne, the maritime canal cally no sale, but are distributed throughout the world by exchange, would be quite independent of the railway from Bordeaux to Cette, and furnish a very excellent means for the placing on record of such but it would twice cross the Canal du Midi. The curves of the papers as are given in this magazine.

canal would be of the same radius as those in the Suez Canal; that The other undertaking is that of Edward Phelps Allis, Jun., of is to say, not less than 6,000 feet, and there would be 38 locks, the Milwaukee, with whose co-operation the journal is edited by Dr. fall of which would range from 20 feet to 30 feet. The depth would Whitman. Mr. Allis first formed, and then put into active opera- be about 24 feet, but if the minister of marine should determine to tion, the idea of a private biological laboratory of research. For make use of it for the first-class ironclads of the French navy, conthis he was fortunate to secure Dr. Whitman as director, and to it trary to what was originally determined, the company will be prethe name of the · Lake Laboratory' has been given. Besides the pared to make it three feet deeper. It is estimated that the mean director, Mr. Allis has added to his laboratory Dr. William Patten speed of vessels passing through the canal will be seven miles an as assistant, and it is understood that Mr. Allis is himself at work hour, and they would be drawn by locomotives running along a upon important investigations.

line rails placed on the banks, a force of from 1,000 to 1,200

horse-power being required to produce this rate of speed. The NOTES AND NEWS.

canal is to be lighted by electricity, the electric light being generIn September a school of Oriental languages was opened at

ated upon the engines used for the traction of the vessels. The Berlin, the object of which is to give merchants and civil officers an

total cost is estimated at £130,000,000, or less than half of the estiopportunity to learn the languages of Asia and Africa. The staff

mate originally prepared. The distance saved for vessels coming of the school consists of two teachers of the Arabian language,

from the western ports of France into the Mediterranean would be while Persian, Chinese, Suaheli, and Herero have one teacher each.

680 miles. These have studied the languages they teach in the country where - It is noted in the Journal of the Society of Arts, London, that it is spoken, and they are assisted by natives. This school will un- while the consumption of the other dietetic articles used for beverdoubtedly prove of great value to the commerce of Germany with ages — tea, coffee, and chiccory — show a decline last year, cocoa the countries of Asia and Africa. The merchant or consular official is marked by a considerable increase. This is remarkable, since who understands and speaks the language of the country in which for about four years, from 1875 to 1879, it remained pretty stationhe lives and works will have a great advantage over competitors ary at about 10,000,000 pounds, but after 1880 it began to make who have to make use of the service of interpreters. Formerly steady progress, advancing from 10,500,000 pounds in that year to students had the opportunity of studying Oriental languages at over 15,000,000 pounds last year. Of powdered cocoa and chocoGerman universities, but there they were taught from an exclusively late England received 1,332,000 pounds, chiefly from Holland. She

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