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preserving fire; on which account it is 6 carried into their cities, where there is a "s great sale for them.

« Wolves very commonly lurk among these “ trees, which has given rise to a common saying among the Arabs, when they would « prevent their camels eating the leaves of these trees, the wolf is near the gadha '.”

This doth not determine, whether this tree is a species of the juniper, or not, but it should seem to be meant in the Scriptures by that word which our version renders juniper. It grows in the deserts; it's coals long retain fire; and it grows to a size capable of lading a person from the heat, since it is called à


The other properties that are mentioned : it's affording food to camels, of which they are very fond; but which is apt to gripe them; and the frequent concealment of wolves among trees of this species; may make it still more easy, for those that travel with camels through the Eastern deserts, to determine whether the tree that answers this description of d'Herbelot, and that of the Scriptures, is the juniper, or not. And I would hope, it may not be long before some curious traveller may ascertain this matter.

I take no notice, here, of another supposed property of this tree, according to our verfion of Job xxx. 4, in which leveral other

P. 356.


translations concur, and that is, that it's roots are capable of being made use of for food. For I much question whether the roots of the juniper, or of any other tree in those deserts, can afford nourishment to the human body, on the one hand ; and on the other, I would observe, that the interlineary translation of

Arias Montanus supposes, that the meaning of the passage is, that they used the roots of the tree in question for fewel., And certainly the same Hebrew letters may as well signify the one as the other that they used those roots for warming themselves, as for bread.

The reason, I presume, that has inclined so many to understand the word as our translators have done, has been, in part, a not knowing how far the roots of this tree of the deserts might be used for food, by these miserable outcasts from society; and, on the other hand, that they could not want fire in those sultry deserts, for the purpose of warming themselves. But as Irwin complains not unfrequently of the cold of the night, and sometimes of the day, in the deserts on the West side of the Red-Sea ; so, in an appendix to the History of the Revolt of Aly Bey, very lately published, we find the Arabs that attended the author of that journal, through the deserts that lay between Aleppo and Bagdat, were considerably incommoded with the cold. But if it were so with the poor wretches


Job mentions, why, it may be asked, are the roots of the juniper mentioned ? Do we not find in the Travels of Rauwolf, published by Mr. Ray, that in the wilderness, on the eastern side of the Tigris, they went out of doors and gathered dry boughs, and stalks of herbs, to dress some food with, without mention of roots of any kind of trees ? and doth not Thevenot mention the gathering broom for boiling their coffee, and warming themselves, in the wilderness going from Cairo to Mount Sinai ? Why then any mention of juniper as used for fewel? I would answer, that much slighter fewel would do for travellers that were well clothed, and wanted only to stay a little while to take some refreshment, than would do for poor starving and almost-naked creatures, whose continued abode was in the deserts. At the same time, it should seem, in the most destitute state, without proper tools to cut down trees there, so that the most substantial, lasting and comfortable fewel they could procure, might well be the roots, and refuse part of those gadha trees (whatever that word in d'Herbelot means) which were cut down to be made into charcoal, for the use of those towns that laid on the borders of that desert into which the outcasts mentioned by Job retired. To depend on the chips, and cast-away wood that others cut, to warm themselves in their naked state, must be great wretchedness.



I have, in a preceding volume, taken notice of the Eastern way of churning, which is done by putting the cream into a goat's skin turned inside out, which the Arabs sufpend in their tents, and then pressing it to and fro, in one uniform direction, quickly occasion a separation of the unctuous from the wheyey part ': . But there is another way, it seems, of churning in the Levant, which is by a man's treading upon the skin, which anfwers the same purpose : this Dr. Chandler took notice of in his way from Athens to Corinth.

Grapes, it is well known, are wont to be trodden with the feet, when they want to make wine. Dr. Chandler saw it practised near Smyrna, just as he left Asia. Black grapes were spread on the ground in beds, and exposed to the sun, to dry for raisns; while, in another part, the juice was expressed for wine, a man, with feet and legs bare, treading the fruit in a kind of cistern, with an hole or vent near the bottom, and a vessel beneath it to receive the liquor ?.

* The Scriptures which mention the treading grapes * for wine, inform us that olives also were trodden, to get the oil contained in them'. Whether any previous preparation was made use of in those ancient times, we are not told; but it seems certain mills are now used for pressing and grinding the olives, (according to Dr. Chandler,) which grow in the neighbourhood of Athens. These mills are in the town, and not on the spot in which the olives grow; and seem to be used, in consequence of it's being found, that the mere weight of the human body is insuffi-. cient for an effectual extraction of the oil.

! Shaw, p. 168. D’Arvieux gives a similar account, * Travels in Greece, p. 217. 3 P. 2. 4 Neh. 13. 15. II. 63. 2. Judges g. 27, &c.


The treading of grapes then, and olives, are well known facts, but Dr. Chandler is the first, so far as I have observed, that has given us an account of the way of treading on skins of cream, by men, in order to separate the butter from it's more watery part : and deserves attention, not only on account of the novelty of the observation; but as it may, possibly, throw some light over a passage of Job, which I never saw well accounted for : “ When I washed my steps with butter, and the " rock poured me out rivers of oil ?."

Commentators have observed, what every sensible reader must have perceived without their help, that great plenty of butter and oil, in his possession, is what is meant in this passage ; but none, that I know of, have given any tolerable account of the ground of his representing this exuberance of butter, produced by his kine, after this manner. * Mic. 6. 15. Deut. 33. 24. • Ch. 29. 6.


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