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was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples. 2 And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place :
for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. 3 b Judas then, having received da band of men, and b Acts i. 10. officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons. 4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that e should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye? 5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. f And Judas also, which betrayed him, 8 stood with them. 6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I
C render, because.
d render, the. e render, were coming.
I better, Now. & better, was standing. text, of the cedars, seems to furnish an foreknowledge of all that was to happen to instance of the common practice of changing Him, sée Matt. xxvi. 45. went forth) foreign, or unmeaning names, into other probably, from the shade of the trees into words bearing sense in the new language: the moonlight; hardly, as De Wette and the Hebrew word Ceor Ke-dron signity Lücke suggest, from some building in the ing“ of cedars" in Greek. The ravine garden. Whom seek ye?] spoken,-in the bottom of which flows the Kidron, is as was the question to Judas in Matt. xxvi. to the East of Jerusalem, between the city 50, “ Friend, wherefore art thou come ?"-and the Mount of Olives. a garden] to carry reproof to the conscience of those Lücke suggests that the owner of this addressed: and also to obtain for so garden may have been friendly to (or a solemn an act as the delivering Himself disciple of ?) Jesus. It was called Gethse- up to them, the formal declaration of mane,- Matthew, Mark. Traditions as their intention to take Him. “When to its site are, as usual, various. A square men sought Him to make Him a king, plot of ground in the depth of the ravine He fled: now that they seek Him to put is now usually pointed out, and seems to Him to death, He goes forth to meet have been fixed on at the time when the them.” Stier. 5.) Some among them empress Helena visited Jerusalem, A.D. knew Him (Matt. xxvi. 55), others pro326. Eusebius says Gethsemane was at bably not. This answer may have been the Mount of Olives : Jerome, at the foot given by some one in authority among the of the mount. The language of Luke xxi. Roman soldiers, who had it in command 37 leads to a belief that it may have been to apprehend Jesus of Nazareth. higher up the mount. 2.) ofttimes, Judas .... was standing with them] I see Luke xxi. 37 [ch. viii. 1]. These accu- believe these words to be the description rate notices of our Evangelist are especially of an eye-witness ;-St. John detected found in this last portion of his Gospel: Judas standing among them, and notices cf. vv. 13, 24, 28; ch. xix. 14, 20, 41, &c. the detail, as is his constant habit, by way
3.See, on this band of men, the of enhancing the tragic character of the note on Matthew ver. 47. Lanterns and history. The narrative common to the torches were part of the utensils of mili. three Gospels related the kiss which tary on a night march. The latter of presently took place; but this self-tradition these appear to be strictly torches,--some of our Lord was not related in it. St. blazing substance held in the hand;—and John therefore adds this touch of exactthe former, lights, fed with oil. The ness, to shew that the answer, Jesus of weapons were swords and staves,-Mat Nazareth, was not given because they were thew, Mark. The fact of its being full ignorant of His Person, so as not to be able moon did not make the lights unnecessary, to say “Thee;'- but because they feared as, in searching for a prisoner, they might to say it. 6.] The question on the have to enter dark places. 4-11.7 miraculous nature of this incident is not Matt. xxvi. 48–56. “Mark xiv. 44–52. whether it was a miracle at all (for it is Luke xxii. 48–53. 4.] On our Lord's evident that it must be regarded as one), VOL. I.
am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground. 7 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth. 8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go
their way : 9 that the saying might be fulfilled, which he c ch. xvii. 12. spake, · Of them which thou gavest me [h have] I lost
none. 10 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear.
The servant's name was Malchus. 11 Then said Jesus a Matt. 11. 22. unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath : d the cup
which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?
but whether it were an act specially in have been laying hands on the Apostles. tended by our Lord, or a result of the This saying was sufficient to shew Peter superhuman dignity of His person, and the and the rest what was the appointed majestic calmness of His reply. I believe course for them ;-the command to let the latter alternative to be the right one. them go addressed to the band, is a comCommentators cite various instances of the mand for them to go, when interpreted confusion of the enemies of innocent men by the Apostles. 9.] See ch. xvii. before the calmness and dignity of their 12. An unquestionable proof, if any were victims : how much more was this likely to wanted, that the words of ch. xvii. are be the case when He in whom was no sin, no mere description of the mind of our and who spake as never man spake, came Lord at the time, nor free arrangement of forth to meet His implacable foes as the His words, but His very words themselves. self-sacrificing Lamb of God. So that I
On the application of the saying, regard it rather as a miracle consequent we may remark that the words unques. upon that which Christ said and did, and tionably had a much deeper meaning than the state of mind in which His enemies any belonging to this occasion ; but that were,—than as one, in the strict sense, the remarks so often made in this commenwrought by Him : bearing however always tary on the fulfilment of prophecies must in mind, that to Him nothing was unex- be borne in mind ;-that to “ fulfil” a pected, or a mere result, but every thing prophecy is not to exhaust its capability of foreknown. With this view what follows being again and again fulfilled :- that the is also consistent, rather than with the words of the Lord have many stages of other. The distinction is an impor. unfolding ;-and that the temporal delivertant one, as the view which we take of ance of the Apostles now, doubtless was our Lord's mind towards His captors must but a part in the great spiritual safe-keepenter, as an element, into our understand. ing which the Lord asserted by anticipation ing of the whole of this scene, and indeed in these words. 10.] At this time of the solemn occurrences which follow. took place the kiss of Judas, in accordance Such incidents as this are not related by with the agreement entered into, and to the Evangelists, and least of all by St. John, assure the captors that the person thus as mere astounding facts, but as grounds offering himself was indeed Jesus of Nazaon which we are to enquire, and determine reth, and no substitute for him : see note for ourselves, as to the “glory, full of grace on Matt. ver. 49. The other view, that and truth,” which was in Him, whom, not the kiss took place first, before the incidents having seen, we love. 8.] Bengel of our verses 4-9, is to me me quite instrikingly says of this reply of our Lord, conceivable. On Peter's act, see Matt. “He will say it once again hereafter." ver. 51. The names of Peter and Malchus And Augustine, “What will He do when are only found here :-the fact that it was He cometh to judge, who did this when the right ear, only here and in Luke. He was to be judged ? What will be The (external) ear, though severed, was apHis power when about to reign, who parently still hanging on the cheek ;- for could do this when about to die?” our Lord is said in Luke xxii. 51, to have
let these go their way] The band of touched his ear in performing the healing. soldiers, in their ignorance, appear to
11.] the sheath here is “his (its
12 i Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him, 13 and e led him away e see Matt. to 'Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, Luke iii. 2. which was [ii the] high priest that same year. 14 6 Now 8 ch. xi. 30. Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people. 15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did k another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. 16 But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out k that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter 17 Then saith the damsel that kept the door i render, So.
render, the other. place” in Matt., where see notes.
no questions are asked of Jesus about His the cup] A striking allusion to the prayer disciples or doctrine (ver. 19): there, wit. in Gethsemane; for the image does not else- nesses are produced, and the whole prowhere occur in our Evangelist. See Matt. ceedings are after a legal form. That xx. 22, and the parallel places. shall hearing was in a public court of justice, I not drink it ?] literally, Am I not to before the assembled Sanhedrim ; this was drink it ? for this, as Bengel remarks, was a private and informal questioning. That the tendency of Peter's struggle against Annas should be so often called the High what was about to happen.
Priest,' is no objection to this view : see 12—24.] Peculiar to John. Jesus be on Luke as above : see also note on ver. fore the Jewish High Priests :-see be- 24. The two hearings are maintained to low. 12.] The officers of the be one and the same by many, among Jews were those sent by the Sanhedrim. whom are Grotius, Bengel, Tholuck, &c. : Luthardt remarks : “He before whose – the view here taken is maintained by aspect, and whose declaration, I am Chrysostom, Augustine, Olshausen, Neanhe, the whole band had been terri. der, and others. 14.] See ch. xi. 49– fied and cast to the ground, now suffers 52 and notes; also on the words, that year, himself to be taken, bound, and led away. ver. 13. 15.] the other disciple is This contrast the Evangelist has in mind here mentioned for the first time. There here. To apprehend and bind ONE, all is no reason to doubt the universal pergave their help: the cohort, the captain, suasion that by this name John intends and the Jewish officers. This the Evan. himself, and refers to the mention in ch. gelist brings prominently forward, to shew xiii. 23 of a disciple whom Jesus loved. how deep the impression of that previous The idea that it was Judas Iscariot, is incident still was : only by the help of all surely too absurd to need confutation. did they feel themselves secure. Aud thus The details mentioned concerning him, it was ordered, that the disciples might that he followed Jesus, that he was known escape with the more safety.”
to the High Priest (as a matter of indi. 13.7 On Annas, see note Luke iïi. 2. The vidual notice), and the whole character of influence of Annas appears to have been the incident, will prevent any real student very great, and Acts iv. 6, he is called the of St. John's style and manner from enterHigh Priest, in the year following this. taining such a supposition for a moment. The narrative evidently rests upon some How John was known to the High Priest, arrangement with regard to the High we have no means of forming a conjecture. Priesthood now unknown to us, but ac
The palace of the High Priest was countable enough by foreign influence and probably the dwelling of both Annas and the deterioration of the priestly class Caiaphas. 16. her that kept the door] through bribes and intrigues, to which It was not unexampled to have female Josephus and the Talmud sufficiently tes. porters among the Jews. See Acts xii. 13. tify. This hearing is entirely distinct
17.) See the whole subject of from that in the other Gospels. There, Peter's denials discussed in notes on Matt.
ch. vii. 14, 26, 28: viii.
1 Jer. XX. 9.
Acts xxiii. 2.
unto Peter, Art [l not] thou also one of this man's disciples? He saith, I am not. 18 m And the servants and officers n stood there, ' who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold : and they P warmed themselves : and Peter 9 stood with them, and warmed himself. 19 The high priest
then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine. h Luke iv: 15.20 Jesus answered him, h I 99 spake r openly to the world ; I
ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither 8 the Jews always resort ; and in secret t have I said nothing. 21 Why askest thou me? ask them which a heard me, what I > have said unto them : behold, y they know what I
said. 22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers 1 Jer, 11.3, which stood by i struck Jesus with the palm of his hand,
saying, Answerest thou the high priest so ? 23 Jesus
answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the 1 omit. m render, Now. n better, were standing. o render, having made.
P render, were warming. I render, also was with them, standing and warming himself. 99 read, have spoken.
r render, plainly. 8 read, all the Jews.
t render, spake I. a render, have heard.
X render, spake.
y render, these. vv. 69–75. This first denial was to bear. the world here is equivalent to all appearance rashly and almost inad- “all the Jews," or perhaps rather, "all vertently made, from a mere feeling of who were there to hear.” in secret shame. Lücke suggests that Peter may spake I nothing Stier thinks there was have set himself among the servants of the an allusion in these words to Isa. xlv. 19; High Priest to bear out his denial. The xlviii. 16,-in the last of which places the question, “ Art thou also one of this Messiah is speaking. 21.] See ch. v. man's disciples ?” (ver. 25,) as Luthardt 31, which appears to have been a legal remarks, implies that the other disciple maxim. behold, THESE know Our had already been recognized as a follower Lord appeals to persons there present in of Jesus, and had escaped annoyance. court, pointing at or otherwise designating 19.] This preliminary enquiry seems to them. The word “they " in the A.V., have had for its object to induce the makes it appear as if He meant “ those prisoner to criminate himself, and furnish which heard Me." Bengel. The “officers” matter of accusation before the Sanhedrim. mentioned in ch. vii. 46 may have been
of his disciples His party, or ad present : see next verse. 22.) See herents, as the High Priest would under- Acts xxiii. 2. one of the officers stand His disciples to be; how many, and which stood by] This was probably who they were, and with what object one of the band who took Jesus, and gathered together ;-and what His cus. had brought Him hither. It is not tomary teaching of them had been. Of quite certain whether the word here these, Jesus says nothing: compare vv. 8, 9. used implies a blow with the hand, But He substitutes for them the world,” or with a staff. They had staves, and to which He had spoken plainly.
perhaps thus used them: see note on 20.] I, emphatic: as if it had been said, Matt. xxvi. 67. This blow was a signal I am one, who ... plainly (refer. for the indignities which followed ring to the character of the things 23.] bear witness in a legal way. but said): not openly (referring to the out if well] This latter supposition has the ward circumstances under which they force of an assertion, that it was well. were said), which the word will not It has been often and well observed, that bb omit.
evil : but if well, why smitest thou me? 24 z Now Annas [a had] sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.
25 And Simon Peter b stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art [bb not] thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not. 26 One of the servants of the high priest, being chis kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him? 27 Peter then denied again : and k imme- k ch. xil. 88. diately the cock crew.
28 1 Then d led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto e the hall of 1 Acts ifi. 15. judgment: and it was early; m and they themselves went m Acts z. 28 : not into the f judgment hall, 8 lest they should be defiled; but z render, So.
& omit : not according to the original : see note. b render, was standing and warming.
better, a kinsman of him. d render, they lead. • render, the palace of the governor. f render, palace.
& render, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover. our Lord here gives us the best interpre- xxii. 58–61 :--see note on Matt. xxvi. tation of Matt. v. 39-that it does not 69. Peter was in the court-yard of exclude the remonstrating against unjust the house. 26.] This was about an oppression, provided it be done calmly hour after the former,--Luke, ver. 59. and patiently. 24.] From what has The “I” is emphatic in the original: as we been above said, it will be seen that I say, Did I not see thee with my own eyes ? cannot acquiesce in the pluperfect render- 28-CHAP. XIX. 16.] Jesus before the ing of this word sent, to bring about which Gentile Governor. Matt. xxvii. 2, 11-30. the opening particle, So, has apparently Mark xv. 1-19. Luke xxiii. 1—25. Bebeen omitted by the copyists. I believe fore this comes in the section of Luke, the verse simply to describe what followed ch. xxii. 66–71, containing the close on the preceding-so Annas (or Annas of the examination before the Sanhedrim, therefore) sent Him bound to Caiaphas which did not happen till the morning. the High Priest. “Then,” says Chrysos. This undesigned agreement between St. tom, “not being able even thus to make Luke and St. John further confirms the progress in their decision, they send Him justice of the view respecting the two bound to Caiaphas.” There is no real hearings maintained above: see note on difficulty in this rendering, if Annas and Luke, as above. 28–40.] Pilate's Caiaphas lived in one palace, or at all first attempt to deliver Him. 28. events transacted public affairs in one and they themselves went not into the palace the same. They would naturally have (literally, the Prætorium)] I have already different apartments, and thus the sending discussed the difficulties attending the from one to the other would be very possi. subject of our Lord's last Passover, in the ble ; as also would the incident related by note on Matt. xxvi. 17-19. I will add Luke xxii. 61:-see the extract from here some remarks of Friedlieb's. “The Robinson, Matt. xxvi. 69, note. “The Jews would not enter the Prætorium Evangelist had no need to relate the hear that they might not be defiled, but that ing before Caiaphas, for he has related ch. they might eat the Passover. For the xi. 47 ff. : and we have ere this been entrance of a Jew into the house of a familiarized with the habit of our Evan- Gentile made him unclean till the evening. gelist not to narrate any further the out. It is surprising, that according to this deward process, where he has already by claration of the Holy Evangelists, the Jews anticipation substantially given us its re- had yet to eat the Passover, whereas Jesus sult.” Luthardt.
25–27.] Matt. and His disciples had already eaten it in xxvi, 71-74. Mark xiv. 69-72. Luke the previous night. And it is no less sur