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Before CHRIST about 1000.

Solomon exhorteth to chastity.

CHAP. V, VI. Against suretiship and idleness, Before CHRIST

instruction, and my heart despised the wicked himself, and he shall be about 1000, reproof;

holden with the cords of his sins. 13 And have not obeyed the voice 23 He shall die without instruc

+ Heb. sin. of my teachers, nor inclined mine ear tion; and in the greatness of his folly to them that instructed me!

he shall go astray.
14 I was almost in all evil in the

midst of the congregation and assem- 1 Against suretiship, 6 idleness, 12 and mis-

chievousness. 16 Seven things hateful to
15 | Drink waters out of thine own God. 20 The blessings of obedience. 25
cistern, and running waters out of The mischiefs of whoredom.
thine own well.

Y son,

ng met they fountains be dispersed M Friena

, if thou hast setia ken they

!! Or, so shalt thou prevail

abroad, and rivers of waters in the hand with a stranger,

2 Thou art snared with the words
17 Let them be only thine own, of thy mouth, thou art taken with the
and not strangers' with thee.

words of thy mouth.
18 Let thy fountain be blessed: 3 Do this now, my son, and deliver
and rejoice with the wife of thy youth. thyself, when thou art come into the

19 Let her be as the loving hind hand of thy friend; go, humble thy* Heb. water and pleasant roe; let her breasts + sa- self, || and make sure thy friend.

tisfy thee at all times; and + be thou 4 Give not sleep to thine eyes, nor with thy then plays ravished always with her love. slumber to thine eyelids.

20 And why wilt thou, my son, be 5 Deliver thyself as a roe from the ravished with a strange woman, and hand of the hunter, and as a bird from embrace the bosom of a stranger ? the hand of the fowler.

21 For the ways of man are be- 6 Go to the ant, thou sluggard; fore the eyes of the Lord, and he consider her ways, and be wise : pondereth all his goings.

7 Which having no guide, over22 1 His own iniquities shall take seer, or ruler,

t Heb, err


c Job 31. 4.
&1. 21.
ch. 15. 3.
Jer. 16. 17.
& 32. 19.

how I hated the timely cautions and just reproofs which tracted the habit, he will not have the power to quit it. were given me. Bp. Patrick.

Calmet. 14. I was almost in all evil &c.] Better, perhaps, " I 23. He shall die without instruction ;] He shall die was in almost all evil.” I have plunged myself into all for want of instruction. Dr. Waterland. sort of evil, in the midst of my people, being too well known for my vices, and obtaining no compassion. Chap. VI. ver. 1.- if thou be surety for thy friend,] Calmet.

My son, be advised by me not to pass thy word rashly 15. Drink waters &c.] The wise man, having thus for the money which thy neighbour or friend borroweth represented the dangers and wasting miseries of incon- of another, much less stand bound to a stranger, of whose tinence, gives the seasonable and necessary advice, that honesty or ability thou art not assured; for if thou hast Every man should strictly abstain from wandering lusts, been so incautious as to be drawn into such engagements, and remain in the society of his own wife. Dr. Ham- “thou art snared with the words of thy mouth,” look mond.

upon thyself no longer as a free man, but hampered and 16. Let thy fountains be dispersed &c.] Besides many enslaved by dangerous obligations. Bp. Patrick. other blessings, thou wilt hence derive the comforts of if thou hast stricken thy hand &c.] To strike a numerous flourishing offspring, which, as streams or hands with another person was a general emblem of rivers from a fountain, will How from a chaste conjugal agreement, bargaining, or suretiship. Thus the ancient bed. Dr. Hammond.

poets often represent it. Burder. Solomon frequently 17. Let them be only thine own,] Thou wilt thus have exhorts to the avoiding of suretiship, as a most dangerthe assurance, that the children thou ownest are truly ous indiscretion ; by which he seems to mean, that we thine. Dr. Hammond.

should never be bound in behalf of another for more 19.- as the loving hind and pleasant roe;] Rather, than we can afford to lose, without any considerable de“as the beloved hind and the favourite roe.” The com- triment to our fortunes or farnilies. Dr. Jortin. parison is here very appropriate, for it is well known that 3. — go, humble thyself, &c.] These words may rather all the males of the deer-kind are remarkably fond of the be rendered, “Go, stir up thyself

, and prevail with thy females which they have selected for their partners; and, companion;" “give not sleep to thine eyes,” ver. 4'; although timid animals in general, will, on their account, that is, without the least delay take this course to disenencounter any danger to the hazard of their lives. Dr. tangle thyself. Dr. Hammond. Derell.

6. Go to the ant, thou sluggard ; &c.] As in the mat22. -- he shall be holden with the cords of his sins.] ter just mentioned, the least delay is pernicious, so, in The wicked man engages in these shameful and illicit all things else, sluggishness or negligence of those things pursuits, without foreseeing their mournfulconsequences; which concern us most nearly, should ever be avoided he thinks he will be able to disengage himself from them and if we need any instructor on this head, we may go whenever he pleases, but he is forging chains for himself to one of the least and meanest of creatures. Dr. Hamwhich he will not be able to break ; when he has con- 1 mond.

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& 20. 4.


+ Heb.

castelh forth. † soweth discord.

man, or, a

+ Heb.

Seven things hateful to God.


The mischiefs of whoredom. 8 Provideth her meat in the sum- 20 4 My son, keep thy father's

CHRIST about 1000, mer, and gathereth her food in the commandment, and forsake not the about 1000. harvest. law of thy mother:

d Chap. 1. 8. a Chap. 24.

9 a How long wilt thou sleep, O 21 Bind them continually upon
sluggard? when wilt thou arise out thine heart, and tie them about thy
of thy sleep?

10 Yet a little sleep, a little slum- 22 When thou goest, it shall lead
ber, a little folding of the hands to thee; when thou sleepest, it shall
sleep :

keep thee; and when thou awakest, it b Chap. 13. 4.

11 • So shall thy poverty come as shall talk with thee. one that travelleth, and thy want as 23 . For the commandment is a e Ps. 19. 8. an armed man.

|| lamp; and the law is light; and re- 11 Or, candie. 12 A naughty person, a wicked proofs of instruction are the way of man, walketh with a froward mouth. life:

13 He winketh with his eyes, he 24 € To keep thee from the evil f Chap. 2, 16. speaketh with his feet, he teacheth woman, from the flattery || of the 10r, of the with his fingers; tongue of a strange woman.

tongue. 14 Frowardness is in his heart, 25 & Lust not after her beauty in & Matt. 5. 28. he deviseth mischief continually; he thine heart; neither let her take thee

with her eyelids. 15 Therefore shall his calamity 26 For by means of a whorish come suddenly; suddenly shall he be woman a man is brought to a piece broken without remedy. of bread: and 4the adulteress will + Heb. the

tooman of a 16 | These six things doth the hunt for the precious life.

Lord hate: yea, seven are an abomi- 27 Can a man take fire in his bo- man's wife. + Heb. of his nation † unto him:

som, and his clothes not be burned ? 17 +A proud look, a lying tongue, 28 Can one go upon hot coals, and Haughty eyes. and hands that shed innocent blood, his feet not be burned?

18 An heart that deviseth wicked 29 So he that goeth into his neighc Rom. 3. 15. imaginations, feet that be swift in bour's wife; whosoever toucheth lier running to mischief,

shall not be innocent.
19 Å false witness that speaketh 30 Men do not despise a thief, if
lies, and he that soweth discord among he steal to satisfy his soul when he is

hungry; 8. Provideth her meat in the summer, The industry disadvantage, and so persuade others, without saying any of the ant has been frequently noticed by the ancient particular thing to his charge. Dr. Hammond. Such a poets. It has been generally believed that these animals person composes all his parts to deceit ; every gesture lay up stores of corn for their winter's provision, and of his tends to fraud ; the very motion of his eyes, of that they gnaw off the buds of the grains so as to pre- his feet, of his fingers, is significant, and expresses some vent their growing in the earth. This fact is asserted by secret intimation of guile. Bp. Hall. Pliny ; Bochart produces many writers asserting the 15. Therefore shall his calamity come suddenly ;] Such same. La Pluche says, “ A prevailing passion in these a person shall be brought to utter ruin, when he fancies little animals is to amass stores of grain ; and, lest the hu- he has carried his matters so cunningly, that no one midity of the cells should make the corn shoot up, we are discerns his villany.

Bp. Patrick. “He shall be told for a certainty that they gnaw off the buds which broken without remedy ;" alluding, it appears, to an grow at the point of the grain. Parkhurst.

earthen vessel which, when broken into pieces, cannot 10. Yet a little sleep, a little slumber,] By the re- be made whole again. Dr. Wells. petition of the words here seems to be implied, sleep and 16. These six things &c.] These six things, which are slumber often repeated at different intervals. The change commonly found in such profligate persons,

“ doth the of the person speaking, from the preceptor to the slug- Lord hate :” yea, there is one more, and so in all there gard, in this verse, is extremely beautiful.

are seven things commonly found in such persons, which 1.-d

as one that travelleth, - as an armed man.] “As are an abomination to Him. Dr. Wells. The seven one that travelleth,” that is, by surprise : “as an armed things are these : pride or haughtiness ; lying or man,” with irresistible violence. Bp. Patrick, Calmet. fraudulence; guilt of blood; malice or projecting of

12. A naughty person] In the Hebrew, “a man of evil; a pleasure in doing mischief ; false witness or caBelial;” denoting probably an idle foolish wicked man, lumny; a causing of discord or ill-will among those who who cares not for God's directions of his tongue or life. live friendly together. Dr. Hammond. “ With a froward mouth ;" in the Hebrew, “ with per- 22. it shall talk with thee.] Shall suggest good verseness of mouth,” in the sense of detracting from the thoughts to thce. Dr. Wells. actions of other men, and so perverting all to the worst 25. with her eyelids.] See note at 2 Kings ix. 30. sense that is possible. Dr. Hammond.

26. will hunt for the precious life.] Will bring the 13. He winketh with his eyes, &c.] Such a person adulterer to his grave. See Ezek. xiii. is. Dr. Isham. when he has nothing of weight to say against a man, will, 30. Men do not despise a thief, &c.] The general by significant gestures of all sorts, intimate matters to his I meaning of this verse and the following is, However

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Solomon persuadeth to wisdom. CHAP. VI, VII. An harlot's behaviour described.

31 But if he be found, he shall 4 Say unto wisdom, Thou art my cukiest about 1000. restore sevenfold; he shall give all sister; and call understanding thy about 1000, the substance of his house.

32 But whoso committeth adul- 5 b That they may keep thee from b Chap. 5. 3.
+ Hebo heart. tery with a woman lacketh + under the strange woman, from the stran-

standing: he that doeth it destroyeth ger which flattereth with her words.
his own soul.

6 9 For at the window of my house
33 A wound and dishonour shall I looked through my casement,
he get; and his reproach shall not be 7 And beheld among the simple
wiped away:

ones, I discerned among f the youths, + Heb. the
34 For jealousy is the rage of a a young man void of understanding,
man: therefore he will not spare in 8 Passing throngh the street near
the day of vengeance.

her corner; and he went the way to + Heb. He

35 † He will not regard any ran- her house. cope the face som; neither will he rest content, 9 In the twilight, fin the evening, lebo in the though thou givest many gifts.

evening in the black and dark night:

10 And, behold, there met him a

woman with the attire of an harlot,
1 Solomon persuadeth to a sincere and kind and subtil of heart.
familiarity with wisdom. 6 In an example

11 °(She is loud and stubborn; c Chap. 9. 13
of his own experience, he sheweth 10 the
cunning of an whore, 22 and the desperate her feet abide not in her house :
simplicity of a young wanton. 24 He de- 12 Now is she without, now in the
horleth from such wickedness.

streets, and lieth in wait at every Y son, keep my words, and lay corner.)

up my commandments with 13 So she caught him, and kissed thee.

him, and † with an impudent face + Hleb, she 2 Keep my commandments, and said unto him, live; and my law as the apple of thine 14 † I have peace offerings with maid. eye.

me; this day have I payed my vows. 3 - Bind them upon thy fingers,

15 Therefore came I forth to meet me. write them upon the table of thine thee, diligently to seek thy face, and heart.

I have found thee.


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strengthened her face, and

+ Heb.
Peace offer-
ings are upon

a Deut. 6. 8.
&11. 18.
ch. $. 3.

odious is the sin of theft, yet if the thief be compared with 3. Bind them upon thy fingers, &c.] It is sufficiently the adulterer, we shall find much difference made in the evident that Solomon could not mean this precept to be heinousness of the offence. Men are not wont to be in- understood literally, any more than the next expression, exorably cruel against him who steals out of pure neces- which frequently occurs, “Write them on the table of sity; but if he be detected, however dearly he may pay for thine heart;" yet it was on such texts as these (see his fault by way of satisfaction, the sum is yet accepted Exod. xiii. 16; Deut. vi. 8 ; xi. 18.) that the Pharisees of the injured party ; but he who committeth adultery, founded the practice of binding on their foreheads destroyeth his own soul. Bp. Hall.

phylacteries, or slips with particular precepts of the law 31.- he shall restore serenfold ;] The law of Moses inscribed upon them. Dr. Durell. See note at Exod. does not enjoin a restitution of sevenfold, but in a xiii. 9. smaller proportion, Exod. xxii. 1, 4, Bp. Patrick. Se- 4. Say unto wisdom, Thou art my sister ;] Be as faven seems only put here for a number of perfection: the miliar with wisdom, as if she were thy own natural meaning is, he shall make perfect and full restitution sister. Bp. Hall. The name of “sister" occurs often as according to the law, so far as his substance or estate the name of friendship, and is employed to express the will reach. Abp. Tillotson.

affection of the husband to his bride, Cant. iv. 9; v. 1,
32. But whoso committeth adullery &c.] The adulterer &c. It here marks the chaste love which we ought to
robs a man of his wife, without any such necessity, and bear to wisdom. Calmet.
therefore is destitute of all excuse, and must be looked 9. In the twilight, &c.] He seems to enumerate the
upon as void of all understanding ; and when he is dis- several periods of the night, intending to imply that he
covered, he will be punished, not merely in his estate, had frequently observed the scene which he describes,
but with the loss of his life, Lev. xx. 10. Bp. Patrick. although he professes to be describing only one parti-

34. For jealousy is the rage of a man :] No transla- cular instance. Schultens.
tion can fully express the force of the original here. 11. (She is loud and stubborn ;] Translators have
"The inflammation of jealousy is the setting a man on differed in rendering these words ; they seem rather to
fire :” as much as to say, 'The jealousy with which a mean, “ She is prating, petulant, and wandering, run-
man is inflamed, so heats him and rages within him, ning about from house to house.” Dr. Hammond.
that he can never be appeased, but is borne with irresis- 14. I have peace offerings with me; &c.] “ I have
tible violence to the revenge of his defiled bed. Schul- peace offerings with me,” that is, “ I have an entertain-

ment or feast at my house;" for in sacrifices of this

sort, the person that offered reserved a part of the vicChap. VII. ver. 2. - as the apple of thine eye.] Ra- tim for convivial purposes. Dr. Durell." This narrative ther, “ as the pupil of thine eye.” Dr. Durell.

is strongly expressive of the woman's character; of her




Before CHRIST about 1000.

: D


+ Heb.

An harlot's behaviour described. PROVERBS. The fame and evidency of wisdom. 16 I have decked my bed with

CHAP. VIII. about 1000, coverings of tapestry, with carved

i The fame, 6 and evidency of wisdom. 10 works, with fine linen of Egypt.

The excellency, 12 the nature, 15 the power, 17 I have perfumed my bed with 18 the riches, 22 and the eternity of wisdom. myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon.

32 Wisdom is to be desired for the blessed-
18 Come, let us take our fill of ness it bringeth.
love until the morning: let us solace OTH not a wisdom cry? and a Chap. 1. 20.
ourselves with loves.

understanding put forth her
19 For the goodman is not at voice ?
home, he is gone a long journey : 2 She standeth in the top of high

20 He hath taken a bag of money places, by the way in the places of
+ Heb. in his t with him, and will come home at the paths.
11 Or, the new || the day appointed.

3 She crieth at the gates, at the
21 With her much fair speech she entry of the city, at the coming in at
caused him to yield, with the flatter- the doors.
ing of her lips she forced him. 4 Unto you, O men, I call; and

22 He goeth after her + straight- my voice is to the sons of man. suddenly.

way, as an ox goeth to the slaughter, 5 Oye simple, understand wisdom:
or as a fool to the correction of the and, ye fools, be ye of an understand-

ing heart.
23 Till a dart strike through his 6 Hear; for I will speak of excel-
liver; as a bird basteth to the snare, lent things; and the opening of my
and knoweth not that it is for his lips shall be riglit things.

7 For my mouth shall speak truth;
24 q Hearken unto me now there- and wickedness is † an abomination + leb. the
fore, Oye children, and attend to the to my lips.
words of


8 All the words of

mouth are
25 Let not thine heart decline in righteousness; there is nothing
to her ways, go not astray in her + froward or perverse in them.

9 They are all plain to him that
26 For she bath cast down many understandeth, and right to them that
wounded: yea, many strong men have find knowledge.
been slain by her.

10 Receive my instruction, and
27 Her house is the way to hell, not silver; and knowledge rather than
going down to the chambers of death. choice gold.

abomination of my lips.


+ Heb. torcathed.

d Chap. 2. 18. & 5. 5.

levity in making the payment of vows a prelude to sin, forts of life, and in truth have utterly perished by her ; and of her shameless falsehood, ver. 15.

innumerable are the mighty men, both for valour and 16. — with carved works,] Meaning probably figured wisdom, whom she has brought to ruin. Solomon tapestry or carpeting, from its resemblance to carved himself, as well as Samson, became an example of the work. Parkhurst.

"mighty men ” here mentioned, who were ruined by 17. aloes,] See note at Cant. iv. 14.

bad women. Bp. Patrick. cinnamon.] It is remarkable that the name of 27. the chambers of death.] The Jewish sepulchres this tree in Hebrew is the same as in English. Park- consisted of large vaults and caves, in the sides of which hurst.

were cut out distinct niches for receiving each a dead 19. the goodman] Literally in Hebrew “the man,” body. Parkhurst. meaning her husband. In the earlier English writers,

goodman was a common appellation for the master Chap. VIII. ver. 1. Doth not wisdom cry? &c.] We of a family.

may consider this chapter as connected with the pre20.-- at the day appointed.] Some interpreters prefer ceding, and forming with it a continued discourse. The the reading of our margin, " at the new moon,” or, "at wise man had before been representing the dangerous the day of assembly,” which the time of the new moon seductions of false pleasure. He now describes to us was amongst the Jews. The Greek translators render wisdom, who invites us to love her by a noble, grand, it, “after many days.” Dr. Hammond.

elevated discourse, and by magnificent promises of sub23. Til a dart strike through his liver ; &c.] Thus he stantial good. Calmet. yields to his lust, until the revenging husband, actuated A sublime allegory is here introduced, of wisdom by jealousy, give a deadly stroke to the adulterer, or standing in the most conspicuous and frequented places till the just judgment of God seize upon body and soul, of the city, and proclaiming aloud to men those great being thus heedlessly drawn in as a bird is into the precepts of truth, religion, and virtue, by which they snare, not considering that its life is brought into dan- may rise from the vanities of the world to life and ima ger. Bp. Hall.

mortality. Schultens. 26. For she hath cast down &c.] For many have been 10. Receive my instruction, and not silver ;] That is, the examples of no mean persons, who have fallen in receive it in preference to silver. Calmet. Make no their reputation, their estates, their healths, and com- 1 comparison of my instruction with silver and gold, for



b Job 29. 15.
Ps. 19. 10.
ch. 3. 15.
& 16. 16.

The excellency, nature, power, riches, CHAP. VIII.

and eternity of wisdom. 11 b For wisdom is better than 22 The LORD possessed me in the about 1000, rubies; and all the things that may beginning of his way, before his about 1000,

be desired are not to be compared works of old.
to it.

23 I was set up from everlasting,
12 I wisdom dwell with || prudence, from the beginning, or ever the earth
| Or, subtilly, and find out knowledge of witty in- was.

24 When there were no depths, I
13 The fear of the Lord is to hate was brought forth; when there were
evil : pride, and arrogancy, and the no fountains abounding with water.
evil way, and the froward' mouth, do 25 Before the mountains were set-
I hate.

tled, before the hills was I brought
14 Counsel is mine, and sound forth :
wisdom: I am understanding; I have 26 While as yet he had not made

the earth, nor the || fields, nor || the | Or, open 15 By me kings reign, and princes highest part of the dust of the world. Or, the chief decree justice.

27 When he prepared the heavens, 16 By me princes rule, and nobles, I was there : when he set || a compass || Or, a circle. even all the judges of the earth. upon the face of the depth":

17 I love them that love me; and 28 When he established the clouds those that seek me early shall find above: when he strengthened the

fountains of the deep: 18 Riches and honour are with

th, 29 e When he gave to the sea his (Gen. 1. 9. me; yea, durable riches and righ- decree, that the waters should not Job 38. 10, teousness.

pass his commandment: when he
19 a My fruit is better than gold, appointed the foundations of the
yea, than fine gold; and my revenue earth:
than choice silver.

30 Then I was by him, as one
20 I || lead in the way of righteous- brought up with him: and I was
ness, in the midst of the paths of daily his delight, rejoicing always be-

fore him;
21 That I may cause those that 31 Rejoicing in the habitable part
love me to inherit substance; and I of his earth ; and my delights were
will fill their treasures.

with the sons of men.



c Chap. 3. 16.

Ps. 104.9.

d Chap. 3. 14.

1 Or, walk,

these are base and corruptible metals, not worthy to be those who sincerely love and adhere to me a happy setmentioned together with those heavenly treasures, which tlement in a state of eternal peace and substantial satisare contained in, and conveyed by, my Divine counsels. faction. Bp. Patrick, Bp. Hall.

22. The Lord possessed me &c.] The passage which 12. I wisdom dwell with prudence,] I alone endow follows is expressed in such magnificent language, that men with real prudence, always giving the most safe the ancient Christians thought the application of the and least fallible advice, and directing men to more words was to the wisdomn revealed to us in the Gospel discreet resolutions in difficult cases than the most sub- by the Son of God, nay to the Son of God Himself, tile head in the world that consults not with me. Bp. the Eternal Word and Wisdom of the Father. Bp. PaPatrick,

trick. and find out knowledge of witty inventions.] Im- The wisdom, he says, which directs us to all this, is plying, that no advice or subtile contrivances can be but a ray of that Eternal Wisdom of the Father, the good, or can have a happy event, which are not agree- Word and Son of God, which, in the fulness of time, able to true piety. Dr. Wells.

was to be incarnate, but before all time was present with 14.- I have strength.] I inspire men with true and God, before any part of this world, earth, sea, fountains, rational courage to persist in good resolutions which are hills, mountains, or valleys, were created. Dr. Hamneither rashly taken up, nor wrongly pursued. Dr. mond. God has possessed the Son from all eternity, Wells.

since “the Word was with God,” from the beginning, 15, 16. By me kings reign, &c.] Meaning, that all John i. 1. Calmet. lawful authority, the power of all kings and magistrates, “ The Lord possessed me in the beginning of His are most surely founded in wisdom.

way;" rather, “ The Lord possessed me when He first 17.- those that seek me early shall find me.] This went forth,” that is, when He first exerted Himself in holds true in every useful acquisition : youth is the the work of creation. Dr. Durell. time when the foundation of knowledge, either secular 30. Then I was by him,] Then I was very near or religious, is to be laid; and they who begin any to Him, contriving all things; nor had He greater useful study or pursuit late in life, seldom become great delight in any thing than in me, who day by day, proficients. Dr. Jortin.

during the creation of the world, produced some 19.– and my revenue) Rather, “my produce,” which lovely work or other, in which He rejoiced, to see how answers better to “my fruit,” in the preceding clause. good and agreeable they were, Gen. i. 4, &c. Bp. Dr. Durell.

Patrick, 21. That I may cause &c.] That I may confer on all 31. - my delights were with the sons of men.] Be

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