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Before CHRIST about 713,
!. Or, against ll with it.
The folly of trusting in Egypt,
and forsaking of God. shall be with tabrets and harps: and holpen shall fall down, and they all about 713. in battles of shaking will he fight shall fail together.
4 For thus hath the Lord spoken 33 For Tophet is ordained † of old; unto me, Like as the lion and the yea, for the king it is prepared; he young lion roaring on his prey, when hath made it deep and large: the pile a multitude of shepherds is called thereof is fire and much wood; the forth against him, he will not be afraid breath of the Lord, like a stream of of their voice, nor abase himself for brimstone, doth kindle it.
the || noise of them : so shall the || 0r,
Lord of hosts come down to fight
for mount Zion, and for the hill
trusting to Egypt, and forsaking of God. of hosts defend Jerusalem; defending
also he will deliver it ; and passing
Egypt for help; and stay on the children of Israel have deeply re-
hands have made unto you for a gold. 2 Yet he also is wise, and will sin. bring evil, and will not call back 8. Then shall the Assyrian fall his words: but will arise against the with the sword, not of a mighty man; | Or, for fear house of the evil doers, and against and the sword, not of a mean man, if the sword. the help of them that work iniquity. shall devour him : but he shall flee tributary,
3 Now the Egyptians are men, | from the sword, and his young men melting, or, and not God; and their horses flesh, shall be || + discomfited. and not spirit. When the LORD
9 And † he shall pass over to || his his rock shall shall stretch out his hand, both he strong hold for fear, and his princes for fear. that helpeth shall fall, and he that is shall be afraid of the ensign, saith the strengti.
+ Heb. remove.
tribute. + Heb.
battles of shaking) Shaking,” or stretching latter kings of Egypt, fixed at a place very near upon out, the hand of the Lord. See chap. xix. 16. Park- the sea, Alexandria. Bochart, Vitringa. hurst.
5. As birds flying &c.] Compare Deut. xxxii. 11. 33. Tophet is ordained of old ; &c.] See note at W. Lowth. 2 Kings xxiii. 10.
and passing over he will preserve it.] Most inThe sense of the verse may be given thus : For God terpreters observe in this place an allusion to the defrom the foundations of the world hath ordained a place liverance which God vouchsafed his people, when, and state of torment for His wicked and reprobate ene- going through the land of Egypt to smite the firstborn, mies ; yea, for the proud king of Assyria, and all those He passed over” the houses of the Israelites. The cruel tyrants which do here oppress His church, hath similitude designed in this verse seems to be, As the God prepared a woeful and inconceivably dreadful con- mother bird spreads her wings to cover her young, demnation in hell fire : which is poorly represented in throws herself before them, and opposes the rapacious that hideous valley of Ben-Hinnom, wherein with much bird that assaults them, so shall the Lord defend Jerushrieking and horrour the bodies of men are consumed salem, protecting and delivering, springing forward and in the fire; but, alas, what is that flame to this un- rescuing her. In the same manner may the act of quenchable one, which is kindled by the breath of the “passing over," Exod. xii. 23, be supposed to consist Lord as with streams of brimstone; and therefore never in the Lord's springing forward to arrest the hand of can go out, never can be abated! Bp. Hall.
the destroying angel. Bp. Lowth.
8. Then shall the Assyrian fall with the sword, not Chap. XXXI. ver. 1. - stay on horses, and trust in of a mighty man ;] Literally rendered, “ of no man.". chariots,] See note on chap. ii. 6, 7. Egypt is de- Bp. Lowth. See note on chap. x. 15. He shall not scribed here, and elsewhere in Scripture, as abounding fall by any mortal power, but by the hand of an angel, in horses; it has been remarked that profane writers chap. xxxvii. 36. If we follow the common opinion, have not much noticed this circumstance ; but it must that the Assyrian army was destroyed by a pestilential be remembered, that the period they chiefly treat of disease, the immediate stroke of Heaven, the expreswas subsequent to the cutting up of the country with sions here exactly agree with the description of the the multitude of canals, which would greatly alter its angel who smote the Jews with a pestilence, i Chron, face, and which alone is mentioned by Herodotus as xxi, who is there represented as standing with “a sword rendering it unfit for horses; we may add also the cir- drawn in his hand,” ver. 16. W. Lowth. See note on cumstance of the seat of government's being, under the chap. x, 16.
Before CHRIST about 713.
+ Or, be
abore a year.
fields of desire.
The blessings of Christ's kingdom. CHAP. XXXI, XXXII. Desolation is foreshewn.
LORD, whose fire is in Zion, and his things; and by liberal things shall CHRIST about 713. furnace in Jerusalem.
|| he stand. CHAP. XXXII.
9 | Rise up, ye women that are at 1 The blessings of Christ's kingdom. 9 De
; hear my voice, ye careless established. solation is foreshewn. 15 Restoration is daughters; give ear unto my speech. promised to succeed.
10 + Many days and years shall + Heb. Days BEHOLD, a king shall reign in ye be troubled, ye careless women:
righteousness, and princes shall for the vintage shall fail, the gathering
shall not come.
in a dry place, as the shadow of a gird sackcloth upon your loins. + Heb. keary. † great rock in a weary land.
12 They shall lament for the teats, 3 And the eyes of them that see for + the pleasant fields, for the fruit- + Heb. the shall not be dim, and the ears of them ful vine. that hear shall hearken.
13 Upon the land of my people 4 The heart also of the + rash shall come up thorns and briers; || yea, | Or, burning shall understand knowledge, and the upon all the houses of joy in the “pon, &c. tongue of the stammerers shall be joyous city: ready to speak || plainly.
14 Because the palaces shall be elegantly.
5 The vile person shall be no more forsaken; the multitude of the city called liberal, nor the churl said to be shall be left; the || forts and towers | Or, clifts bountiful.
shall be for dens for ever, a joy of towers. 6 For the vile person will speak wild asses, a pasture of flocks; villany, and his heart will work ini- 15 Until the spirit be poured upon quity, to practise hypocrisy, and to us from on high, and a the wilderness a Chap. 29. utter error against the Lord, to make be a fruitful field, and the fruitful empty the soul of the hungry, and he field be counted for a forest. will cause the drink of the thirsty to 16 Then judgment shall dwell in fail.
the wilderness, and righteousness 7 The instruments also of the churl remain in the fruitful field.
are evil: he deviseth wicked devices 17 And the work of righteousness by hen he to destroy the poor with lying words, shall be peace; and the effect of
even || when the needy speaketh right. righteousness quietness and assurjedgment.
8 But the liberal deviseth liberal ance for ever.
+ Heb. hasły.
against the poor in
9. - whose fire is in Zion,] Compare Obad. ver. 18; man, shall be a sure refuge to His elect in all their Zech. ii. 5; xii. 6. W. Lowth.
distresses and calamities; and shall be a gracious re
freshing to them, even as a clear river, &c. Bp. Hall. Chap. XXXII. ver. 1. Behold, a king shall reign in 4.
The inconsiderate. Dr. Waterland. righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.] Under the tongue of the stammerers &c.] The most the government and example of Hezekiah, inferiour rude and illiterate shall discourse clearly and intelligibly princes and magistrates shall execute their office with of God and of their duty. W. Lowth. integrity and faithfulness; and this prince, ver. 2, shall This will well apply likewise to the first followers of be a refuge to us when the storms of calamity over- Christ, who by the miraculo power of the Spirit, from take us. Accordingly, the wisdom and piety of Heze- plain, simple, illiterate men, became endued at once kiah was a support and comfort to his subjects; but with such wisdom and eloquence, as none of their adwhat follows, especially in ver. 3, 4, relates to happier versaries were able to gainsay or resist. Wogan. times than Hezekiah ever lived to enjoy ; his reign can 9. Rise up, ye women that are at ease; hear my voice, only be glanced at here, as an image and shadow of the ye careless daughters ;] The Prophet returns to the great improvements in grace and holiness, which belong calamities that should befall, addressing, as some think, to the Gospel times, under the government of Christ, the careless and delicate women of his time, (as chap. and the assistance of His Spirit. W. Lowth.
ii. 16;) as others say, the cities of Judea, under this 'The Messiah is “the righteous King” to come, by figurative name. Vitringa. whom (as ver. 3.) the curse shall be removed from 15. Until the spirit be poured upon us from on high,] them that heard but understood not, and saw but per- See note on chap. xxxv. 6, 7. ceived not. Bp. Chandler. See notes on chap. viii. 16; 17. — the work of righteousness shall be peace ; &c.] xxix. 11.
The "peace” which was promised at the coming of The first and second verses may be thus paraphrased : Christ, and of which He is styled Prince, is here ex1. Behold, the Messiah, the true King of His Church, plained to consist in assurance and confidence towards shall reign in righteousness; and those, who shall have God, which is the genuine result of that righteousness the administration thereof under Him, shall rule in due which is introduced by the new dispensation. Dr. equity and moderation: 2. And that man, God and | Berriman. VOL. II.
Before CHRIST about 713.
cily shall be ulterly abased.
God's judgments against
the enemies of his church, 18 And my people shall dwell in 4 And your spoil shall be gathered a peaceable habitation, and in sure like the gathering of the caterpiller : about 713. dwellings, and in quiet resting places; as the running to and fro of locusts
19 When it shall hail, coming down shall he run upon them.
dwelleth on high: he hath filled Zion
be the stability of thy times, and
strength of + salvation: the fear of + Heb. CHAP. XXXIII.
the Lord is his treasure.
7 Behold, their || valiant ones shall I or, 1 God's judgments against the enemies of the
cry without: the ambassadors of peace
shall weep bitterly.
thou wast not spoiled; and deal- faring man ceaseth: he hath broken
, thou shalt be 9 The earth mourneth and lan-
derness; and Bashan and Carmel
fire, shall devour you. 19. — the city shall be low] See note on chap. xxv. 2. addressed here ; and the Assyrians, ver. 4: it seems
20. Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters, &c.] This better to consider the Prophet, or God Himself, to be sowing in watery places exactly answers the manner of addressing Sennacherib, and threatening him, that notplanting rice; for they sow it upon the water ; and be- withstanding the terrour he had occasioned in the infore sowing, while the earth is covered with water, they vaded countries, (the people mentioned ver. 3,) yet he cause the ground to be trodden by oxen, horses, and should fall, and become an easy prey (ver. 4.) to him asses; and this is the way of preparing the ground for that people) whom he had intended to subdue. Bp. sowing. As they sow the rice on the water, they trans- Lowth. plant it in the water. Sir J. Chardin.
5, 6. The Lord is exalted ; &c.] A chorus of Jews The Prophet foresees and pronounces blessed the lot is introduced, acknowledging the mercy and power of of those that should go out in the Gospel times to sow God, who had undertaken to protect them; extolling it the word in all lands, when the desert of the Gentiles in opposition to the boasted power of their enemies; and should be changed into a fruitful field, and the parched celebrating the wisdom and piety of their king Hezekiah, ground become springs of water, chap. xxx. 25; xxxv. who had placed his confidence in the favour of God. Bp. 7. We may suppose him to contrast withal this happy Lowth. prospect with his own fruitless labours in preaching to 6. - shall be the stability of thy times, - the fear of the obstinate and impenitent Jews. Vitringa. the Lord is his treasure.] Such variation of persons, as
we have here, and above, ver. 2, is not uncommon. Chap. XXXIII. We may call this chapter a triumph-Vitringa, W. Lowth. See Bp. Lowth's note on Deut. ant ode upon the destruction of Sennacherib's army xxxii. 5. before Jerusalem. The Prophet sets forth the several 7-10. In these verses the Prophet describes the disscenes of that transaction with all the beauties of poeti- appointment of Hezekiah's ambassadours, who humbly cal description. At the beginning he addresses himself sued for peace, (which indeed had been bought, 2 Kings to Sennacherib, “Woe to thee that spoilest,” &c. ex- xviii. 14—16, though Sennacherib would not stand to pressing the injustice of his ambitious designs, and the agreement ;) the damp that struck upon the spithe sudden disappointment of them. W. Lowth, Bp. rits of the whole nation ; and, ver. 10, the immediate Lowth.
interposition of God when matters became desperate. Ver. 2. O Lord, be gracious unto us ; &c.] The Jews W. Lowth. are here introduced offering up their earnest supplica- 10. Now will I rise, saith the Lord :] God Himself is tions to God in their present distressful condition ; with again introduced, declaring that He will interpose in this expressions of their trust and confidence in His protec- critical situation of affairs, and disappoint the vain detion. Bp. Lowth.
signs of the enemies of His people, by discomfiting - be thou their arm] Several versions give it, them and utterly consuming them. Bp. Lowth. our arm or strength.” Bp. Lowth.
11, 12. Ye shall conceive chaff, &c.] Here follows, still 3. — at the lifting up of thyself the nations were scat- in the person of God, which, however, falls at last into tered.] It has been usual to consider God the person that of the Prophet, a description of the dreadful appre
|| Or, ridiculous.
a Ps. 15. 2. &
of the godly. Before
12 And the people shall be as the people, a people of deeper speech about 713. burnings of lime: as thorns cut up than thou canst perceive ; of a || stam- about 713.
shall they be burned in the fire. mering tongue, that thou canst not
13 | Hear, ye that are far off, understand.
21 But there the glorious LORD
that shaketh his hands from holding ship pass thereby. deceits. of bribes, that stoppeth his ears from 22 For the LORD is our judge, the
hearing of + blood, and shutteth his Lord is our + lawgiver, the Lord is Mch. eyes from seeing evil;
our king; he will save us.
17 Thine eyes shall see the king vided; the lame take the prey.
say, I am sick : the people that dwell 18 Thine heart shall meditate therein shall be forgiven their iniquity. b I Cor. 1. 20. terror. • Where is the scribe? where
Church. 11 The desolation of her enemies.
* Heb. heights, or,
1 Heb. the lasd of far disiances.
# Heb. weigher ?
hensions of the wicked in those times of distress Testament, the name of the Lord thrice repeated has and imminent danger, finely contrasted with the confi- been usually thought to refer to the mystery of the dence and security of the righteous, and their trust in blessed Trinity. Vitringa. This passage is parallel to the promises of God, that He will be their never-failing the form of blessing given Numb. vi. 24–26. Bp. Kidstrength and protector. Bp. Lowth. So will the second der. See notes on that place. coming of the Messiah to judge the world, which brings 23. Thy tacklings are loosed ; &c.] Having compared joy and gladness to such as look for His salvation, be the Assyrian army to a naval force, ver. 21, the Prophet dreadful and terrible to His opposers. Dr. Berriman. persists in that metaphor, and describes them as in a And the exclamations of the “ sinners in Zion,” ver. 14, shipwrecked condition, the spoil of the wreck to be may be well applied to the terrours of hell torments, divided among the citizens of Jerusalem, even the sick which, when the consciences of sinners begin to be and diseased of them throwing aside their infirmities, and awakened, fill them with just apprehension of the Divine recovering strength enough to hasten to the general wrath. W. Lowth. The Chaldee Paraphrast renders plunder. W. Lowth, Bp. Lowth. "everlasting burnings," "the gehenna of everlasting 24. the inhabitant shall not say, I am sick : the people fire.” Bp. Lowth. See notes on chap. xxx. 33; lxvi. that dwell therein shall be forgiven their iniquity.] The 24.
last sentence is parallel to the former, and expresses the 17.
they shall behold the land that is very far off.] same sense in other words : sickness being considered Or, “ they shall see thine own land far extended." Bp. | as a visitation from God, and punishment for sin, the Louth.
forgiveness of sin is equivalent to the removal of a 18. Thine heart shall meditate terror, &c.] Shall re- disease. We find them thus coupled, Ps. ciii. 3; and our flect on the past terrour, and every one shall be ready blessed Saviour reasons with the Jews on the same printo exclaim in a triumphant manner, Where is the scribe ciple, Mark ii. 9. Bp. Lowth. or muster-master? where is the collector of the taxes ? The fulfilment of this prophecy appears from the hiswhere the commander of the enemy, to survey the forti- tory of the great event given by the Prophet : it is plain fications of the city, and take an account of the height, that Hezekiah, by his treaty with Sennacherib, had strength, and situation of the walls and towers ? °w. stripped himself of his whole treasure, 2 Kings xviii. 15, Lowth, Bp. Lowth.
16: his “exceeding much riches," afterwards, 2 Chron. 19. - 4 people of deeper speech than thou canst per- xxxii. 27, cannot be otherwise accounted for, than by ceite ;] The Hebrew expresses a foreign language by a the prodigious spoil that was taken on the destruction
deep lip" or speech ;” our translators render it, a of the Assyrian army. Bp. Lowth. strange speech," Ezek. ïïi. 5, 6. W. Lowth.
22. For the Lord is our judge, &c.] We must observe Chap. XXXIV. This chapter and the next make one that in this verse, as in many other places of the Old distinct prophecy; an entire, regular, and beautiful
Before CHRIST about 713.
+ Heb. the fulness thereof.
The judgments wherewith
God revengeth his church. COM
ME near, ye nations, to hear; with blood, it is made fat with fatness,
and hearken, ye people: let the and with the blood of lambs and about 713. earth hear, and all that is therein ; goats, with the fat of the kidneys of the world, and all things that come rams: for the Lord hath a sacrifice forth of it.
in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in 2 For the indignation of the LORD the land of Idumea. is upon all nations, and his fury upon 7 And the || unicorns shall come ,,Or, all their armies : he hath utterly de- down with them, and the bullocks stroyed them, he hath delivered them with the bulls; and their land shall to the slaughter.
be || soaked with blood, and their for,
pences for the controversy of Zion.
be dissolved, and the heavens shall be turned into pitch, and the dust therea Rev. 6. 14. a rolled together as a scroll: and all of into brimstone, and the land thereof
their host shall fall down, as the leaf shall become burning pitch.
falleth off from the vine, and as a 10 It shall not be quenched night b Rev. 6. 13. b falling fig from the fig tree. nor day; d the smoke thereof shall
11 q Bat the || cormorant and the Zeph: 2, 14. 6 The sword of the Lord is filled bittern shall possess it; the owl also ji Or, pelican.
d Rev. 18. 18. & 19, S.
poem, consisting of two parts: the first, containing a sent, as it were, the dissolution of all things : presently, denunciation of Divine vengeance against the enemies (ver. 5—7,) a vast and splendid sacrifice is introduced, of the people or church of God; the second, describing of such animals as best represent the pride, cruelty, inthe flourishing state of the church consequent upon the solence of tyrants, leaders of the nations hostile to God; execution of those judgments. The event foretold is next is this complete destruction represented by allusion represented as of universal concern; all nations are to the overthrow of Sodom, (ver. 9, 10,) and the whole called upon to attend to the declaration of it; and the concludes (ver. 11, to the end) with a picture of the wrath of God is denounced against all the nations, that most gloomy solitude and frightful devastation.
Bp. is, against all those who had provoked to anger the de- Lowth. fender of the cause of Zion. Among those Edom is 5. — my sword shall be bathed] In the blood of these particularly specified. Accordingly, the Edomites were, people: the same word is rendered in Jer. xlvi. 10, with the neighbouring nations, ravaged and laid waste “shall be made drunk." This is said to be done “in by Nebuchadnezzar: (see Jer. xxv. 15—26; Mal. i. heaven,” because it was there decreed to be done. Poole, 3, 4 :) and this may be the event which the Prophet has Bp. Hall
. primarily in view in chap. xxxiv; but this event seems 6. The sword of the Lord is filled with blood, &c.] by no means to come up to the terms of the prophecy, God shall take full vengeance on His enemies,; His or to justify so high-wrought and so terrible a descrip- sword shall be, as it were, fed with the blood of His tion: also, that the thirty-fifth chapter has a view be great and noted adversaries : this slaughter of His shall yond any thing that could be the immediate consequence be like to that of an universal sacrifice, which shall be of this event, is plain from every part of it, and espe- killed on the altar of the land of Edom, and all the cially from ver. 5, 6. It seems therefore that (Edom regions of His proud opposites. Bp. Hall. and Bozrah being put by a common figure for God's a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the enemies in general) this prophecy has a farther view to land of Idumea.] Considering the original sense of these events still future, to some great revolutions to be words, they may fitly be applied to a place of slaughter: effected in later times, antecedent to that more perfect“ Edom” signifying red, as blood is; and “Bozrah,” a state of the kingdom of God upon earth, which the vintage; which in the prophetick idiom often denotes Holy Scriptures warrant us to expect, and serving to God's vengeance on the wicked. See particularly chap. introduce it. Bp. Lowth. The second and third verses Ixiii. 3, in which chapter these words are again joined may very fitly be applied to “the battle of that great day together. W. Lowth. Ezekiel has manifestiy imitated of God Almighty," mentioned Rev. xvi. 14, compared this passage of Isaiah, chap. xxxix. 17, 18. The subwith chap. xvii. 14; xix. 19; as do several parts of this lime author of the Revelation (chap. xix. 17, 18.) has chapter correspond with several verses of Revelation, taken this image from Ezekiel rather than Isaiah. Bp. chap. xvii, xviii. W. Lowth.
Lowth. The destruction of Edom is foretold in a strain Ver. 3. Their slain also shall be cast out, &c.] The not less hyperbolical than this of Isaiah by Jeremiah, prophet, in the description of this terrible judgment, chap. xlix. 7—22 ; by Ezekiel, chap. xxxv. and xxv. 12; begins with the common circumstances which attend and by Obadiah. Jos. Mede. the slaughter made by a victorious enemy; ver. 4, he 11. But the cormorant and the bittern shall
possess rises in tone, and, borrowing his images from original &c.] Beside the passages referred to in the margin, with chaos, (as is usual in describing the overthrow of king- this verse and with ver. 13—15, compare chap. xiii. 21; doms, see notes on chap. xiii. 10, 13,) goes on to repre- ' xiv. 23. W. Lowth.