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Before CHRIST about 168.
Apocrypha. and laws against the heathen, they tress kept the commandment, and about 168. will now quickly root us out of the was made lord of Egypt. earth.
54 a Phinees our father in being a Numb. 25. 41 At that time therefore they zealous and fervent obtained the 13. decreed, saying, Whosoever shall covenant of an everlasting priest- 23, 24. come to make battle with us on the hood. sabbath day, we will fight against 55 e Jesus for fulfilling the word e Josh. 1. 2. him; neither will we die all, as our was made a judge in Israel. brethren that were murdered in the 56 * Caleb for bearing witness be- f Numb. 14. secret places.
fore the congregation received the Josh. 14. 13. 42 Then came there unto him a heritage of the land. company of Assideans, who were
ere 57 % David for being merciful pos- 8 2 Sam. 2. t. mighty men of Israel, even all such sessed the throne of an everlasting as were voluntarily devoted unto the kingdom. law.
58 h Elias for being zealous and h 2 Kings 2. 43. Also all they that fled for per- fervent for the law was taken up into secution joined themselves unto them, heaven. and were a stay unto them.
59 i Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, i Dan. 3. 16, 44 So they joined their forces, and by believing were saved out of the 17, 18, 26. smote sinful men in their
45 Then Mattathias and his friends lions.
that none that
circumcised, those they circumcised sinful man: for his glory shall be | Or, by force. || valiantly.
dung and worms.
because he is returned into his 1 Ps. 146. 4. 48 So they recovered the law out dust, and his thought is come to no
of the hand of the Gentiles, and out thing.
that Mattathias should die, he said ye obtain glory.
a father unto you.
66 As for Judas Maccabeus, he zealous for the law, and give your hath been mighty and strong, even lives for the covenant of your fathers. from his youth up: let him be your
51 Call to remembrance what acts captain, and || fight the battle of the theory light ye our fathers did in their + time; so people.
the people. generations.
shall ye receive great honour and an 67 Take also unto you all those
that observe the law, and avenge ye
and take heed to the commandments
they the horn
b Gen. 22. 9,
c Gen. 41. 40.
41. At that time therefore they decreed, &c.] This lution : and we do not find that they ever came to a decree, being ratified by the unanimous consent of all decision for carrying on offensive operations on the the priests and elders among them, and being received sabbath day. Dean Prideaux, Stackhouse. with the like approbation by the other Jews, to whom 42. — a company of Assideans,] A kind of religious it was sent, became afterwards a general rule in all their society, whose chief and distinguishing character it wars. It amounted, however, only to a defensive reso- was to fight zealously for their religion, and to de
the utmost part of the earth, and he about 166. 70 And he died in the hundred + received unto him such as were 166. forty and sixth year, and his sons ready to perish.
gathered buried him in the sepulchres of his 10 Then Apollonius gathered the fathers at Modin, and all Israel made Gentiles together, and a great host great lamentation for him.
out of Samaria, to fight against Is
11 Which thing when Judas per-
cabeus, rose up in his stead. spoils, and Apollonius' sword also,
the army of Syria, heard say that
4 In his acts he was like a lion, will go fight with Judas and them
host of the ungodly to help him,
7 He grieved also many kings, went forth to meet him with a small
8 Moreover he went through the coming to meet them, said unto Ju-
titude and so strong, seeing we are
fend the honour of their temple. Dean Prideaux, Stack- rigid under persecution, and their zeal waxed hotter in house.
the furnace of adversity. Dr. Hales. 70. And he died in the hundred forty and sixth year,] rose up in his stead.] In the year before Christ “Of the kingdom of the Greeks,” chap. i. 10; that is, 167, the insurrection began to be embodied by the apof the era of the Seleucidæ: about 166 years before Christ. pointment of a chief, Judas Maccabeus, round whose Dean Prideaux.
standard the insurgents could rally ; but it was not
until the death of the high priest Menelaus, and the Chap. III. ver. 1. Then his son Judas, called Mac- appointment of Judas to be governour by Antiochus cabeus, rose up in his stead.] In the events that suc- Eupator, before Christ 163, that the Asmonean dynasty ceed, we shall see this valiant chieftain, with his noble began. Dr. Hales. See 2 Mac. xiii. 24, and the note brothers, maintaining a religious war for twenty- there. six years from the time of the insurrection of Modin, 10. — Apollonius] This was in all probability the with five successive kings of Syria; destroying above same, whom Antiochus sent at first to plunder Jerutwo hundred th
and of their best troops ; and finally salem, and afterwards to set up the statue of Jupiter establishing the independence of their own country, and Olympius, and to compel the Jews to relinquish their the aggrandizement of their family. Such a triumph of religion. Calmet, Stackhouse. a petty province over a great empire is scarcely to be 13. Seron, a prince of the army of Syria,] He was paralleled in the annals of history. But the Lord a deputy governour of some part of Cæle-Syria under fought for Israel while they were religious and vir- Ptolemy Macron, who was then chief governour of that tuous, and put their whole trust in Him: and the in. province, 2 Mac. vin. 8. Dean Prideaux, flexible spirit of the Jewish nation has ever grown more 16.- Bethhoron,] See Josh, x. 10.
+ Gr. that the
al Sam. 14. 6,
|| Or, for the taking away of the laws.
| Or, unto us. + Gr. in
and as them.
Apocrypha. Ceist ready to faint with fasting all this 29 Nevertheless, when he saw that about 166. day?
of his treasures failed, and about 166. 18 Unto whom Judas answered, † that the tributes in the country were
a It is no hard matter for many to be small, because of the dissension and collectors of 2 Chron. 14. shut up in the hands of a few; and plague, which he had brought upon country were
with the God of heaven it is all one, the land || in taking away the laws feor
30 He feared † that he should not 1 Gr. that he
had abounded above the kings that
us, and our wives and children, and plexed in his mind, he determined to
go into Persia, there to take the tri-
river Euphrates unto the borders of
34 Moreover he delivered unto 24 And they pursued them from him the half of his forces, and the going down.
the going down of Bethhoron unto elephants, and gave him charge of
35 To wit, that he should send an
take away their memorial from that
strangers in all their quarters, and
divide heard these things
, he was full of in-37 So the king took the half of the dignation : wherefore he sent and forces that remained, and departed gathered together all the forces of his from Antioch, this royal city, the Gr. a city of
his kingdom. realm, even a very strong army.
hundred forty and seventh year; and 28 He opened also his treasure, having passed the river Euphrates,
and gave his soldiers pay for a year, he went through the high countries. GI. at every commanding them to be ready t when- 38 Then Lysias chose Ptolemee soever he should need them.
the son of Dorynenes, and Nicanor,
+ Gr. in the
18.-- with the God of heaven it is all one, to deliver 37. — Antioch, his royal city,] There were several &c.] The same language of encouragement which had cities of this name, but Scripture mentions only that been used by Jonathan the son of Saul, 1 Sam. xiv. 6. which was the capital of Syria, and another Antioch in Dr. Hales.
Pisidia. The former, which is here intended, is men29. — in taking away the laws which had been of old tioned only in the books of the Maccabees and in the time ;] Out of a fond desire of bringing all to an uni- New Testament; it was built by Seleucus Nicanor, and formity with the Greeks, chap. i. 41, &c. Dean Pri- called Antioch in consideration of his father Antiochus, deaux.
before Christ 301. The kings of Syria, successors to 33. And to bring up his son Antiochus,] Who was then Alexander the Great, generally resided there. See Acts a minor, of seven years of age. Dean Prideaux. He xi. 26. Calmet. afterwards succeeded his father, with the additional he went through the high countries.] He passed name of Eupator. Grotius.
over mount Taurus into Armenia. Dean Prideaux.
1 Or, of strangers.
nede diligen Starck, that
Apocrypha. . and Gorgias, mighty men of the wilderness, there was none of her about 166. king's friends :
children that went in or out: the about 166. 39 And with them he sent forty sanctuary also was trodden down, and thousand footmen, and seven thou- aliens kept the strong hold; the heasand horsemen, to go into the land of then had their habitation in that Juda, and to destroy it, as the king place; and joy was taken from Jacob, commanded.
and the pipe with the harp ceased. 40 So they went forth with all 46 Wherefore the Israelites assemtheir power, and came and pitched by bled themselves together, and came Emmaus in the plain country. to || Maspha, over against Jerusalem; 1 07, Hit:ps.
41 And the merchants of the coun- for in Maspha was the place where
try, hearing the fame of them, took they prayed aforetime in Israel.
vants, and came into the camp to buy put on sackcloth, and cast ashes upon
to paint the likeness of their images. heathen kant
shall we do with these, and whither
are in heaviness, and brought low.
53 How shall we be able to stand 40. — Emmaus] A village between seven and eight by translators : thus Zabadeans, chap. xii. 31, apmiles northwest of Jerusalem. Calmet.
pears to be a corrupt reading for Nabatheans ; and so 41. And the merchants of the country, hearing the fame of other names noticed in the margin of our Bibles. Dr. of them, &c.] Compare 2 Mac. viii. 10, 11. Whence Wells. it appears, that Nicanor, proposing to raise a sum of 48. And laid open the book of the law, &c.] This they money to defray the arrears of tribute due from the did in the sight of God, to declare the reproachful and king to the Romans, and confident of victory over the injurious conduct of the heathens, in painting the likeJews, proclaimed a sale of the captives beforehand, at ness of their images in the sacred books, to the disthe rate of ninety for a talent, or about two pounds honour of the Jewish religion and law. Badwell
. sterling a head. This brought together a thousand The heathens polluted the book of the law by paintprincipal merchants to the Syrian camp, besides a great ing on the copies, which they had seized, the pictures of number of “servants” and assistants, to help them in their gods, that so they might be no more of use to an carrying off the slaves they should purchase. Dean true Israelite : for their pictures were forbidden by the Prideaux, Dr. Hales.
law of God as much as their images, Lev. xxvi
. 1; 44. – and ask mercy and compassion.] Namely, from Numb. xxxiii. 52; and to have either of them was God. Grotius.
equally esteemed an abomination among that people. 46. — and came to Maspha,] Or Mizpeh, the sacred Dean Prideaux. place of national congress in time of old. Dr. Hales. 49. They brought also the priests' garments, &c.] BeSee Judg. xx. 1; 1 Sam. vii. 5.
cause whilst the temple was standing they did not dare It is to be observed, that the books of the Maccabees to offer sacrifices out of the temple, they spread before being in the Greek language, hence several names, God the sacred vestments which they had preserved though somewhat varied according to the Greek form, from the temple. Grotius. yet denote the same place with the Hebrew names, - and the Nazarites they stirred up,] They caused from which they are thus varied. Thus Accaron
is the them to stand in a conspicuous part of the assembly. same as Ekron, Amathis as Hamath, Gazara as Gezer, Grotius. Bethsura as Bethshur, Bosora as Bosor, &c.; which 50. — What shall we do with these,] As if they had last place
, together with those mentioned with it, chap. said, These Nazarites ought to shew themselves in the v. 26, seems plainly to be situated beyond Jordan, in temple, and, having performed their offerings
, to be the country of Galaad, or Gilead, largely taken. Some duly released from their vow. But we have no access names are also probably corrupted in course of time to the temple. Grotius,
Before CHRIST about 166.
c Deut. 20. 5.
Apocrypha. cilekist against them, except thou, O God, be
4 While as yet the forces
dispersed from the camp.
55 And after this Judas ordained and when he found no man there,
56 But as for such as C were build- 6 But as soon as it was day, Judas
ing houses, or had betrothed wives, shewed himself in the plain with d Judg, 7. 3. or were planting vineyards, or were three thousand men, who neverthe
fearful, those he commanded that they less had neither || armour nor swords || Or, targets.
7 And they saw the camp of the
with horsemen; and these were expert
59 For it is better for us to die in delivered in the Red sea, when Pha-
60 Nevertheless, as the will of God heaven, if peradventure the Lord will
mercy upon us, and remember CHAP. IV.
the covenant of our fathers, and de
stroy this host before our face this
11 That so all the heathen may
know that there is one who delivereth
12 Then the strangers lifted up
sand footmen, and a thousand against them.
2 To the end he might rush in were with Judas sounded their trum-
heathen being discomfited Aed into
unto the plains of Idumea, and Azo
53. — except thou, O God, be our help.] In thus in the time of Eusebius and Jerome, was called Gazara. causing his army to address themselves to God for His Dr. Wells. assistance and protection, Judas acted the part of a Idumea] Idumea," or the land of Edom, in wise and religious commander, as knowing that “the the Old Testament, means the country which lay bebattle was the Lord's,” and therefore that it would be tween the lake of Sodom and the Red sea, and was impious to begin so important an enterprise without afterwards called Arabia Petrea. But the inhabitants first imploring the Divine aid. Stackhouse.
of this country, being driven out by the Nabatheans,
whilst the Jews were captives at Babylon, took posChap. IV. ver. 2. the men of the fortress] The session of that part of the south of Judea, which had garrison of the citadel of Jerusalem, called Acra. been the inheritance of the tribe of Simeon and half Drusius, Grotius.
the tribe of Judah. This is the only Idumea, and the 15. — Gazera,] See the note on chap. iii. 46. Gezer, I inhabitants of it the only Idumeans or Edomites, spo