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e Jer. 47. 4.
the desolation of Israel.
The restoring of Davids tabernacle. 3 And though they hide themselves Israel ? saith the LORD. Have not I in the top of Carmel, I will search and brought up Israel out of the land of take them out thence; and though Egypt? and the Philistines from they be hid from my sight in the Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir? bottom of the sea, thence will I com- 8 Behold, the eyes of the Lord mand the serpent, and he shall bite God are upon the sinful kingdom, them:
and I will destroy it from off the face 4 And though they go into capti- of the earth ; saving that I will not vity, before their enemies, thence will utterly destroy the house of Jacob,
I command the sword, and it shall slay saith the LORD. b Jer. 44. 11. them: and I will set mine eyes upon 9 For, lo, I will command, and I
them for evil, and not for good. will + sift the house of Israel among Heb. cause
5 And the Lord God of hosts is all nations, like as corn is sifted in a he that toucheth the land, and it shall sieve, yet shall not the least t grain + Heb. stone. melt, and all that dwell therein shall fall upon the earth. mourn: and it shall rise up wholly 10‘All the sinners of my people like a flood; and shall be drowned, as shall die by the sword, which say, The by the flood of Egypt.
evil shall not overtake nor prevent us. 6 It is he that buildeth his 11 9 In that day will I raise up the ! Preppheres. 1] † stories in the heaven, and hath * tabernacle of David that is fallen, f Acts 15. 16.
founded his || troop in the earth; he and + close up the breaches thereof; + Heb hedge,
12 That they may possess
nant of Edom, and of all the heathen, 7. Are ye not as children of the † which are called by my name, saith whom my Ethiopians unto me, O) children of the LORD that doeth this.
+ Heb. upon
name is called.
3. — the serpent,] The word is used for a water- 8. – saving that I will not utterly destroy &c.] God animal, Isai. xxvii. 1; and appears to be here used for still promises to preserve a remnant in the midst of His some carnivorous fish. W. Lowth.
heaviest judgments, that He may perform to them the The general meaning of these verses is, that whatever promises made to their fathers. See Jer. xxx. 11; Joel places of refuge the Israelites may seek, their attempts ii. 32 ; Rom. xi. 28, 29. W. Lowth. at hiding themselves shall be ineffectual : for the hand 9. — yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth.] of God, which is every where present, will draw them I will mingle or scatter the Israelites among
all nations, from thence, and give them over to their enemies. Da- just as good and bad grain are mingled in a sieve; but
will so order it that none of the good grain shall be lost, 6. It is he that buildeth his stories in the heaven,] An or fall to the ground. Compare Matt. iii. 12. W. awful description of God's irresistible power, discover- Lowth. ing itself in the works of the creation, particularly in 11. In that day] When I come to make a remarkable His appointing several regions of the air, as so many difference between the good and the bad, ver. 9. W. apartments that lead to the highest heavens, the seat of Lowth. His own glory. See Ps. civ. 3. W. Lowth.
the tabernacle of David] Under the figure of —and hath founded his troop in the earth ;] The rebuilding a tabernacle, that was partly demolished by old English translation hath rendered the sense very force, partly decayed with age, the Prophet foretells the perspicuously thus : “And hath laid the foundation of restoring of the kingdom of David to one of his seed His globe of elements in the earth.” The word, ren- after it should be fallen into a very low condition, and dered “troop," signifies the collection of elements and the enlargement of his subjects in the room of those, other creatures, which furnish the earth, expressed by who had shaken off their obedience. Bp. Chandler. a word, which we render “the host," Gen. ii. 1. W. 12. That they may possess the remnant of Edom, &c.] Lowth.
That My apostles and servants, and their successors, 7. Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, whom I shall use in the restoration of the Church, may &c.] Is there any reason in you, O ye children of take a kind of spiritual possession of the Gentiles in My Israel
, why I should respect you more than the very name, (bringing them within the pale of the Church Ethiopians? Why should I make any difference be- and fold of the great Shepherd of our souls ;) even of twixt you and the very Philistines ? If you say that I the greatest enemies of the Church, as the Edomites brought up Israel out of Egypt, so also did I bring the were of the Jews : at least of a remnant of them, that Philistines out of Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir. is, so many as shall return by true repentance and obeBp. Hall.
dience from their opposition to the truth. Dr. Stokes. The sense seems to be, Trust not in your ancestors, saith the Lord that doeth this.] After the restowho were so highly favoured by Me; your vices have ration of the Jews from their captivity, the Messiah made you vile in My sight. Trust not in My deliver- came, and the Gentiles were admitted into His ance of you from the land of Egypt. Other nations Church: and on the future grand restoration of the have been transplanted into fertile countries, as well as Jews, the borders of the Christian Church will be enyou; and particularly your neighbouring enemies. Abp. larged among the Gentiles, Rom. xi. 12, 15. Abp. NewNewcome.
+ Heb. draweth forth. || Or, new wine. g Joel 3. 18.
The restoring of the
tabernacle of David. 13 Behold, the days come, saith inhabit them; and they shall plant cuBefors about 787, the Lord, that the plowman shall vineyards, and drink the wine there about 787.
overtake the reaper, and the treader of; they shall also make gardens, and
14 And I will bring again the cap- pulled up out of their land which I
13. - the plowman shall overtake the recper, &c.] enemies. Compare Jer. xxiii. 6 ; xxxii. 41; Ezek. xxxiv. Rather, " the plowman shall meet the reaper;" that is, 28 ; Joel iii. 20; Mic. iv. 4; Zeph. iii. 13. W. Lowth. there shall be such an increase of the fruits of the earth, We have here a prophecy, that the ruin of the house that' as soon as the harvest is got in, it will be time and kingdom of David should precede the coming of to plow for the next year, which was not usual in those the Messiah ; who should at his coming repair the hot countries, where the corn was ripe early in the sum- breaches thereof, and build it again. The captivity of mer, in the month of May, or June at farthest. And Zedekiah by the Chaldees perfected the fall of David's “the treader of grapes” shall meet “him that soweth kingdom, which could not rise before the return from seed ;” that is, the vintage shall be so plentiful, that that captivity, and was to rise, as seems to be implied, whereas it used to begin in August, it shall not be over before a new captivity began. After the Babylonian till seedtime, the earliest season of which was Novem- captivity was over, none of David's race was in any acber. W. Lowth. It is a lively way of expressing, that count. Edom was not “possest” by any of Zorobabel's the harvest and vintage should be copious and long in descendants, nor were “the heathen called by God's gathering. Abp. Newcome. And together with plenty name” through their means; till God gave unto Jesus of all outward blessings, it prefigures the abundance of the throne of His father David, and for the suffering of God's spiritual graces, and the great harvest of the death exalted Him to His right hand, to be a Saviour Church, of which our Saviour Himself speaks, Matt. and a Prince. His coming was " for the fall and rising ix. 37, in such figurative expressions as were familiar again of many in Israel,” and by the preaching of His to the Oriental writers. Poole, Dr. Stokes.
Apostles the Gentiles were converted, and made part of - the hills shall melt.] They shall flow, as it were His kingdom, out of which the Jews had excluded themwith the abundance of wine produced on them, Joel iii. selves. But “ the days come,” when this sball appear 18. Mountains and hills are the proper places for to be more visibly the kingdom of David, by the coming vineyards. Abp. Newcome. See the note on Joel iï. of the body of the Jews into it, and probably by His 18.
literally “planting them” again in their “ land," as His 15. - they shall no more be pulled up out of their land] principal subjects, from whence they shall be no more But shall dwell in it secure from any annoyance of ejected. Bp. Chandler.
OB A DIA H.
THIS Prophet hath furnished us with no particulars of his own origin or life, any more than of the period in
which he was favoured by the Divine revelations. That he received a commission to prophesy is evident; as well from the admission of his work into the sacred canon, as from the completion of those predictions which he delivered.
It is probable that he flourished about the same time with Ezekiel and Jeremiah ; and the best opinions concur in
supposing him to have prophesied a little after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, which happened about the year of the world 3416. He predicted therefore the same circumstances which those Prophets had foretold against the Edomites, who had upon many occasions favoured the enemies of Judah ; and who, when
strangers carried their forces away captive, and foreigners cast lots upon Jerusalem,” had rejoiced at the destruction, and insulted the children of Judah in their affliction, ver. 11–14; Ps. cxxxvii. 7. The Prophet, after describing the pride and cruelty of the Edomites, declares, that though they dwelt in fancied
security among the clefts of the rocks, yet the “men of Teman should be dismayed,” and “every one of the mount of Esau should be cut off by slaughter;” and that the men who had confederated with them against Jacob, and been supported by them as their allies, should inflict the punishment of their malevolence. The Prophet concludes with consolatory assurances of future restoration and prosperity to the Jews, to whom should arise deliverance from Zion : saviours who should judge the nations; and a spiritual kingdom, appropriated
and consecrated to the Lord. The Prophet's work is short, but composed with much beauty: it unfolds a very interesting scene of prophecy,
and an instructive lesson against human confidence and malicious exultation. Dr. Gray.
Before CHRIST about 587.
c Jer. 49.9.
men of thy peace.
i The destruction of Edom, 3 for their pride, 5 If cthieves came to thee, if rob
10 and for their wrong unto Jacob. 17
bers by night, (how art thou cut off!) about 587.
would they not have stolen till they HE vision of Obadiah. Thus had enough? if the grapegatherers
saith the Lord God concerning came to thee, would they not leave a Jer. 49. 14. Edom; a We have heard a rumour || some grapes ?
gleanings ? from the Lord, and an ambassador is " 6 How are the things of Esau sent among the heathen, Arise ye, and searched out! how are his hidden let us rise up against her in battle. things sought up!
2 Behold, I have made thee small 7 All the men of thy confederacy among the heathen: thou art greatly have brought thee even to the border: despised.
+ the men that were at peace with + Heb. the 3 4 The pride of thine heart hath thee have deceived thee, and prevaildeceived thee, thou that dwellest in ed against thee; † they that eat thy Heb, the the clefts of the rock, whose habita- bread have laid 'a wound under bread. tion is high ; that saith in his heart, thee: there is none understanding Who shall bring me down to the || in him.
| Or, of it. ground?
8 d Shall I not in that day, saith d Isai, 29. 14. 4 • Though thou exalt thyself as the Lord, even destroy the wise men the eagle, and though thou set thy out of Edom, and understanding out nest among the stars, thence will I of the mount of Esau ?
bring thee down, saith the Lord. 9 And thy mighty men, O Teman, Ver. 1-5. Compare the passages from Jeremiah, re- they delivered thee into the hand of thy enemy. Abp. ferred to in the margin; and see the notes upon them. Newcome.
6. How are the things of Esau searched out ! &c.] But they that eat thy bread] Nevertheless, those very as for thine enemies, the Chaldees, they shall ransack persons, whom thou didst maintain as thy allies, have and rifle all the things of Edom, and shall search out given thee a secret blow of which thou wast not aware. all thy hidden commodities, and carry them away at W. Lowth. Bp. Hall.
9. — Teman,] See Jer. xlix. 7; Amos i. 12; "the 7. — even to the border :] Thy own border, where mount of Esau” is mount Seir.
Jer. 49. 7.
b Jer. 49. 16.
Before CHRIST about 587.
e Gen. 27. 41. Ezek. 35. 5.
|| Or, do not
The destruction of Edom.
The salvation of Jacob. shall be dismayed, to the end that reward shall return upon thine own about 587. every one of the mount of Esau
head. be cut off by slaughter.
16 For as ye have drunk upon my 10 | For thy e violence against thy holy mountain, so shall all the heathen Ainos 1. 11. brother Jacob shame shall cover thee, drink continually, yea, they shall
and thou shalt be cut off for ever. drink, and they shall || swallow down, i Or, sup up.
11 In the day that thou stoodest on and they shall be as though they had
the other side, in the day that the not been. ! Or, carried strangers || carried away captive his 17 | But upon mount Zion shall about 585.
forces, and foreigners entered into be || deliverance, and || there shall be Or, they his gates, and cast lots upon Jerusa- boliness ; and the house of Jacob shall 1 Or, it shall lem, even thou wast as one of them. possess their possessions.
12 But I thou shouldest not have 18 And the house of Jacob shall behoid, &c.
looked on the day of thy brother in be a fire, and the house of Joseph a
shouldest thou have † spoken proudly house of Esau; for the Lord hath magnified thy in the day of distress.
affliction in the day of their calamity, and the fields of Samaria: and Ben-
20 And the captivity of this host 14 Neither shouldest thou have of the children of Israel shall possess stood in the crossway, to cut off those that of the Canaanites, even unto
of his that did escape; neither should- Zarepliath; and the captivity of Jeru|| Or, shut up. est thou have || delivered up those salem, || which is in Sepharad, shall 10t, shall
of his that did remain in the day of possess the cities of the south.
21. And 6 saviours shall come up g1 Tim. i. 15 For the day of the Lord is near on mount Zion to judge the mount is. Ezek. 35. 15. upon all the heathen : fas thou hast of Esau; and the kingdom shall be h Luke 1. 35.
done, it shall be done unto thee: thy the Lord's.
possess thal which is in
10. For thy violence against thy brother &c.] See the a mystical sense by the destruction of the enemies of the note on Amos i. 11.
Church. Poole. 11. — in the day that the strangers carried away cap- 19. And they of the south &c.] Edom lay to the tive his forces,] When Jerusalem was taken by Nebu- south ; the Philistines to the west ; Ephraim to the chadnezzar, thou didst join with the enemy; see Ps. north ; and Gilead to the east. Abp. Newcome. These cxxxvii. W. Lowth.
words import the conquests of the Jews over their 12. thou shouldest not have looked on the day of thy idolatrous neighbours in every direction. W. Louth. brother] Thou oughtest not to have taken pleasure at Or, the enlargement of the Church of Christ in the the sight of thy brother's calamity. So the expression times of the Gospel. Poole. of “looking upon an enemy" signifies the beholding his 20. the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Sepharad, fall with satisfaction, Ps. liv. 7 ; lix. 10; xcii. 11; shall possess the cities of the south.] Others translate the cxii. 8. Compare Micah iv. 11 ; vii. 10. W. Lowth. passage, as in the margin, “ The captivity of Jerusalem
16. For as ye have drunk upon my holy mountain, &c.] shall possess that which is in Sepharad, and the cities of As
you of Edom shall drink of the cup of My indigna- the south.” If the word be taken as an appellative, it tion upon, or rather because of, My holy mountain, and signifies a border, and may denote that part of Arabia the holy land of Judea, which you have persecuted, which bordereth upon the south of Judea, or the so shall all those nations, that joined with you in “ cities of the south," here mentioned. W. Lowth. your offences, ever taste of the same cup, till they have 21. And saviours shall come up on mount Zion &c.] drunk it up, and be as if they had never been. Dr. By “saviours" may be understood the leaders of the Stokes.
Jews, who should fight their battles, and vanquish their 17. But upon mount Zion shall be deliverance, &c.] enemies, denoted by the inhabitants of the "mount of This was remarkably verified at the first preaching of the Esau.". In this sense the word “saviour" is taken, Gospel, when God's law came forth from Zion, Isai. ii. | Judg. iii. 9; Isai. xix. 20. Or we may understand the 3; Joel ii. 32 ; Ps. cx. 2. W. Lowth.
word in a spiritual sense, for the preachers of salvation, 18. And the house of Jacob shall be a fire, &c.] This whose office it is to convert unbelievers and “aliens to was fulfilled in part by Hyrcanus and the Maccabees, the commonwealth of Israel.” Compare ver. 17, and 1 Mac. v. 3: but was to be accomplished more fully in Amos ix. 12. W. Lowth.
J Ο Ν Α Η.
THOUGH Jonah be placed fifth in the order of the Minor Prophets, he is generally considered as the most
ancient of all the Prophets whose writings we possess, not excepting Hosea. Jonah was the son of Amittai, of the tribe of Zabulon, and was born at Gath-hepher, in that tribe : see 2 Kings xiv. 25 ; Josh. xix. 13. St. Jerome informs us, that the Prophet's sepulchre was shewn there in his time ; and there the natives still
believe it to exist. Jonah is generally supposed to have flourished in the reigns of Joash and Jeroboam the Second, kings of Israel ;
the former of whom began to reign in the year of the world 3163, the latter died in the year of the world 3220. Among other testimonies given to the prophetick character of Jonah, may be reckoned that of Tobit, who professed a
firm confidence in the accomplishment of Jonah's prediction against Nineveh, and whose son, indeed, afterwards
lived to witness its completion, Tobit xiv. 4–6, 15. The sacred writers likewise, and our Lord Himself, speak of • him as a Prophet of considerable eminence; 2 Kings xiv. 25; Matt. xii. 39, 41; xvi. 4; Luke xi. 29; see also
2 Esdras i. 39.
The style of Jonah is narrative and simple; the beautiful prayer contained in the second chapter has been justly
admired. The book furnishes us with a fine description of the power and mercies of God." Dr. Gray.
Before CHRIST about 862,
Before CHRIST about 862.
thought to be
a Gen. 10.11,
Tarshish from the presence of the
4 He is bewrayed by a tempest, 11 thrown 4 9 But the LORD + sent out a
great wind into the sea, and there cast forth. OW the word of the Lord came was a mighty tempest in the sea, so
unto || Jonah the son of Amittai, that the ship + was like to be broken. Hebi saying,
5 Then the mariners were afraid, broken.
the ship into the sea, to lighten it of
Chap. I. ver. 2. Arise, &c.] Arise, go to Nineveh, the Tarshish. The greater part of learned persons have great city of the Assyrians, and denounce My judgments judged that the place here meant was Tartessus upon against it, for their wickedness is grown to that height, the river Bætis in Spain ; and, if Jonah thought to sethat I can no longer forbear it. Bp. Hall.
cure himself by distance from the presence of the Lord, 3. But Jonah rose up to flee] Jonah might consider he could not have a place more proper for his purpose, as this mission as an uncommon, unprofitable, and dange- it was one of the most remote in the then known world. rous one. He certainly thought that his veracity as a Bryant. Prophet would be affected by God's merciful change of - from the presence of the Lord.] That is, from the purpose, chap. iv. 2. This and other parts of his con- place where God usually had shown Himself present by duct deserves censure. But men endued with extraor- revealing His word and will to His Prophets. Perhaps dinary gifts of the Spirit, and made the instruments of he might think that God would not insist upon the declaring God's will to mankind, have occasionally been execution of His commission, when he was in a strange subject to great human infirmities, and have even con- country, where were no Prophets nor prophetick imtracted great guilt. See 1 Kings xiii. 18, 20; Matt. vii. pulses. Poole. 22; Acts xv. 39; i Cor. xiii. 2 ; Gal. ii. 11. Abp. 5. – into the sides of the ship :] The word, rendered Newcome.
“ship,” is expressed by a different word in this and the Tarshish] See note at 1 Kings x. 22. It is two immediately preceding verses. It seems to denote a probable that there were more places than one named roofed or ceiled room or cabin in the ship, to the sides