Page images



a Isai. 13. 10.

of God's judgment.


He exhorteth to repentance. devoureth the stubble, as a strong, the sun and the moon shall be dark, about 800. people set in battle array.

and the stars shall withdraw their about 800. 6 Before their face the people shall shining :

be much pained: all faces shall ga- 11 And the LORD shall utter his Ezek. 32. 7. + Heb. pot. ther + blackness.

voice before his army: for his camp 7 They shall run like mighty men; is very great: for he is strong that they shall climb the wall like men of executeth his word: for the bday of Jer. 30.7% war; and they shall march every one the Lord is great and very terrible ; Zeph. 1. 15. on his ways, and they shall not break and who can abide it? their ranks:

12 , Therefore also now, saith the 8 Neither shall one thrust another; LORD, o turn ye even to me with all c Jer. 1. 1. they shall walk every one in his your heart, and with fasting, and with

path: and when they fall upon the weeping, and with mourning : Or, dart. ! sword, they shall not be wounded.

13 And rend your heart, and not 9 They shall run to and fro in the your garments, and turn unto the city; they shall run upon the wall, LORD your God : for he is dgracious d Exod. 34. C. they shall climb up upon the houses; and merciful, slow to anger, and of Jonah 4. 2. they shall enter in at the windows great kindness, and repenteth him of like a thief.

the evil. 10 The earth shall quake before 14 e Who knoweth if he will return e Jonah 3. 9.

them; the heavens shall tremble : and repent, and leave a blessing behind Dr. Chandler, in his Travels in Asia Minor, takes of the people were the cause, which merited this dreadnotice of the prodigious crackling and noise which ac- ful visitation : and the way to remove it was for the companied an accidental fire, which was kindled in the people to repent of their sins, by open confession and long parched grass near Troas, and devoured all before acknowledgment of them, by a deep humiliation and it. Parkhurst.

sorrow for them, and by utterly renouncing and for6.- all faces shall gather blackness.] The alteration saking them. This is the great reason of the Prophet's in the countenance was to indicate the inward pain. discourse, and the main point which he pursues throughDr. Pocock. Compare Jer. viii. 21; Nahum ii. 10. W. out it. Reading. Lowth.

turn ye even to me with all your heart,] Let not 7. They shall run like mighty men ; &c.] They shall your heart be divided between God and your idols or march in such a swift and orderly manner, that no place other sins, but let it be given wholly up to Him. God shall be inaccessible to them, nor any force be able to requires in our love and service of Him, that it be “with withstand them. W. Lowth.

all our heart, with all our soul, and with all our might,” 8. Neither shall one thrust another :) Many writers Deut. vi. 5;" and with all our mind,” as our Saviour mention the order of locusts in their flight and march; adds in repeating that first and great commandment, and their manner of proceeding directly forwards, what- without obeying which no other can be duly observed, ever obstacles were interposed. Abp. Newcome. See Dr. Mark xii. 30. Without being actuated by the heart, al? Shaw's note on Exod. x. 15.

performances of the outward man are insufficient and and when they fall upon the sword, they shall vain, or rather they are displeasing. But when the not be wounded.] This refers to the scales with which heart shall have duly performed its part, the outward locusts are covered as with a coat of mail. Abp. New- man is not left unconcerned, but hath his part also to

perform, in order to express how the inward man of the 9. They shall run to and fro in the city ; &c.] Com- heart is really affected : and so by the joint concurrence pare Exod. x. 5, 6. St. Jerome saith of locusts, that of both true conversion or repentance is made up. The there is nothing inaccessible to them; they seize, not Prophet therefore to the inward affection of the whole only on the fields, corn, and trees, but also enter cities, heart adds those outward acts, which are to accompany houses,

and the most private chambers. Dr. Pocock. and express it, “fasting, and weeping, and mourning.” 10. The earth shall quake before them ; &c.] This and Dr. Pocock. the following clause express great consternation and He that would so turn to the Lord, as to find mercy calamity. The two other clauses may well have a literal | with Him, must not turn from one sin to another, or sense; see the note on ver. 2: or they may denote, in a from one sect to another, or from one religion to another strong Eastern manner, devastation spread through a only; but he must turn from all his sins, from all his whole country. Abp. Newcome.

former wicked ways and unrighteous thoughts, and 11. And the Lord shall utter his voice before his army:] must “turn unto the Lord with all his heart:” that is, Like a leader or general, He shall command or encou- our hearts must be wholly inclined to God, and our rage this His army, and can make the meanest parts of souls be offered up as a whole burnt offering unto the creation the instruments of His vengeance." God's Him, without any mental reservation or hypocritical voice sometimes denotes His anger : the most terrible equivocation. There is no agreement between Christ way of declaring His will is when He speaks to us by and Belial, between God and sin in the same heart. Bp. His judgments. Compare chap. iii. 16; Amos i. 2; Beveridge. Jer. xxv. 30. The time of God's particular judgments, 13. And rend your heart, and not your garments,] Not as well as that of His general one, is commonly ex- merely your garments. See Gen. xxxvii. 29, 34 ;

Job pressed by the “ day of the Lord,” the former being an i. 20 ; 2 Sam. i. 11. earnest and imperfect representation of the latter. W. repenteth him of the evil.] See the notes on Gen. Lowth.

vi. 6. 12. Therefore also now, saith the Lord, &c.] The sins 14. Who knoweth if he will return &c.] Who knoweth




+ Heb. he hath

Joel prescribeth a fast.


He comforteth Zion, him; even a meat offering and a drink you the northern army, and will drive about 800. offering unto the LORD your

God? him into a land barren and desolate, about 800. 15 | Blow the trumpet in Zion, with his face toward the east sea, and f Chap. 1. 14. sanctify a fast, call a solemn assem- his hinder part toward the utmost sea, bly :

and his stink shall come up, and his
16 Gather the people, sanctify the ill savour shall come up, because the
congregation, assemble the elders, hath done great things.
gather the children, and those that 21 4 Fear not, 0 land; be glad fed to do.
suck the breasts : let the bridegroom and rejoice: for the LORD will do
go forth of his chamber, and the bride great things.
out of her closet.

22 Be not afraid, ye beasts of the
17 Let the priests, the ministers of field : for the pastures of the wilder-
the Lord, weep between the porch ness do spring, for the tree beareth
and the altar, and let them say, Spare her fruit, the fig tree and the vine do
thy people, O Lord, and give not yield their strength.
thine heritage to reproach, that the 23 Be glad then, ye children of

heathen should | rule over them: Zion, and rejoice in the Lord your yainst them. $ wherefore should they say among God: for he hath given you || the & 79.10. & the people, Where is their God. former rain † moderately, and he 101, 9 18 1 Then will the Lord be jea- h will cause to come down for you

the righteousness. lous for his land, and pity his people. rain, the former rain, and the latter accordi

19 Yea, the LORD will answer and rain in the first month. say unto his people, Behold, I will 24 And the floors shall be full of Deut. 11. 14. send you corn, and wine, and oil, wheat, and the fats shall overflow with and ye shall be satisfied therewith : wine and oil. and I will no more make you a re

25 And I will res proach among the heathen:

years that the locust hath eaten, the 20 But I will remove far off from cankerworm, and the caterpiller, and

1. Or, use a bijreord

1 15. 2.

according to righteousness. h Lev. 26. 4.

re to you the


whether your humiliation may not yet prevail with 18. Then will the Lord be jealous for his land,] He Him, and cause Him to withdraw His judgınents, and will be moved with great affection for it, so as to take instead thereof to bestow a blessing of plenty upon away what is injurious to it, and to seek its good, that us; so that there may be both matter and occasion for it continue not desolate and a reproach to its enemies. the sacrifices of our thanksgiving unto the Lord ? Bp. Dr. Pocock. Hall.

20. — and his stink shall come up, &c.] That a strong 16. Gather the people, &c.] As their sin and its punish- and pestilential smell arises from the putrid heaps of ment was national, extending to all ranks and degrees locusts, whether driven upon land or cast up from the of people, the repentance and humiliation was to be as sea, in which they have perished, appears from the tesextensive as general. All are summoned; none ex- timony of many writers. Among various other authoempted. Wogan.

rities to the same effect, St. Jerome is quoted by Bochart 17. between the porch and the altar,] The altar of as saying, that in his time those troops of locusts, burnt offerings stood before the porch of the temple, which covered Judea, were cast by the wind into the 2 Chron. viii. 12; and the mid-space in the open court sea; and that, when the waters threw them up, their was naturally a place of great concourse, that the smell caused a pestilence. Thevenot says of them, prayers of the people might accompany the sacrifice.“ They live not above six months : and when dead, Abp. Newcome.

the stench of them so corrupts and infects the air, - and let them say, Spare thy people, O Lord,] It that it often occasions dreadful pestilences.Abp. Nexwas usual to prescribe certain forms of prayer or praise come. to the priests in their publick ministrations : see Hosea because he hath done great things,] Or rather, xiv. 2; i Chron. xvi. 36. Such was this here men- although He hath done great things." Though this tioned, wherein they beseech God to deliver His people, army of insects, by Divine appointment, has made such not for any merit of theirs, but for the glory of His own destruction in the land, yet shall it come to this name, lest the neighbouring heathens should take occa- shameful end. W. Lowth. Or, “ because He doth or sion to blaspheme His name, as if He were not able to shall do great things;" He, that is, Jehovah. Junius, protect His people. Compare Ps. xlii. 10; lxxix. 10; Castalio. cxv. 2, W. Lowth.

23. - for he hath given you the former rain] In the that the heathen should rule over them :] Or, as margin, ** a teacher of righteousness :” a translation, in the margin, “should use a byword against them;" which the words will well bear; and which is given in that is, should make them the subject of scorn and many versions, and by many expositors of great rote derision, as if they were forsaken by the God whom and learning, most of whom understand it as a prothey worshipped. W. Lowth.

phecy of the Messiah. Dr. Pocock. The translation “rule over them” may be supported; the former rain and the latter rain in the first because, when they were distressed by the locusts, they month.] See the notes on Deut. xi. 14 ; xxviii. 12; would be an easier prey to an enerny: but to “ make a 1 Sam. xii. 17. The first month was Nisan, answering proverb of them” is the more natural translation. Abp. partly to our March, and partly to April. Secker.

25. — I will restore to you the years that the locust


with present, and


future blessings. Before the palmerworm, my great army which 29 And also upon the servants and

Before CHRIST about 800. I sent among you.

upon the handmaids in those days about 800, 26 And ye shall eat in plenty, and will I pour out my spirit. be satisfied, and praise the name of 30 And I will shew wonders in the LORD your God, that hath dealt the heavens and in the earth, blood, wondrously with you: and my people and fire, and pillars of smoke. shall never be ashamed.

31 * The sun shall be turned into k Chap. 3. 15. 27 And ye shall know that I am in darkness, and the moon into blood, the midst of Israel, and that I am the before the great and the terrible day Lord your God, and none else : and of the Lord come. my people shall never be ashamed. 32 And it shall come to pass,

that 28 q And it shall come to pass whosoever shall call on the name of 1 Rom. 10.13. i Isai. 41.3. afterward, that I i will pour out my the Lord shall be delivered : for in

spirit upon all flesh; and your sons mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall
and your daughters shall prophesy, be deliverance, as the Lord hath
your old men shall dream dreams, said, and in the remnant whom the
your young men shall see visions : LORD shall call.

Acts 2. 17.

hath eaten,] That is, I will repair the damage, which the that resemble them, have a double aspect, and refer to a land has for several years received from the ravages of primary and a final dispensation. Compare Matt. xxiv. these devouring creatures. Dr. Pocock.

29. Dr. Gray. my great army] We have here a key to the Very great slaughter, and the burning of many towns, grand and beautiful description which runs through and even of a part of Jerusalem itself

, preceded the these two chapters. Every reader must be struck with destruction of the city and the temple, and the total the poetical and sublime manner, in which the allegory subversion of the Jewish polity, by the Romans. Abp. is conducted. There is not a more splendid piece of Newcome. poetry extant. Abp. Newcome.

31. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon 27. And ye shall know that I am in the midst of Israel,] into blood,] That is, into the colour of blood. Harmer. In order to a removal of the threatened evils, the people These expressions may be understood of the “fearful are exhorted to turn unto God by serious repentance, sights, and great signs from heaven,” Luke xxi. 11, and are promised that on so doing they should be re- which alarmed the minds of the Jews before the taking ceived again into His favour, and owned' for His people. of Jerusalem by Titus. Abp. Newcome. Or, as some Dr. Pocock.

expositors think, they are meant, not literally, but meta28.— I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh ; &c.] phorically; and denote such calamities as should deprive The plentiful effusion of the Holy Spirit is mentioned the people of all sight of comfort. Dr. Pocock. See the by the Prophets as the peculiar character of the Gospel notes on Isaiah xiii. 10, 13. state: and it is elsewhere compared to the pouring out before the great and the terrible day of the Lord of waters upon a thirsty land, whereby it becomes come.] These wonderful things were in part shewn at fruitful. See Isai. xliv. 3 ; liv. 13 ; Jer. xxxi. This the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus; but they shall text is applied by St. Peter to the descent of the Holy be fully and perfectly completed towards the end of the Ghost upon the first believers, Acts ii. 17. “All flesh' world, before the last judgment; which time deserves comprehends the Gentiles as well as the Jews: which signally to be called “ the day of the Lord,” and “the promise we see was punctually fulfilled, Acts x. 44; xi. great day,” for the great things that shall be done in it; 17. W. Lowth.

and “the terrible day,” for all the judgments that are This prophecy is one of the clearest and most un- in it to be executed upon all the people who have ever doubted of any that foretold the establishment of the lived in the world. Dr. Pocock. new law. It hath been fulfilled in the Christian church 32. — whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord] St. two ways: first, by the extraordinary effects of such Paul, Rom. x. 13, explains this of such persons as give a general effusion of the Holy Spirit, whereby the themselves up to Christ, and profess themselves His Apostles and primitive saints were empowered to disciples; that being the most effectual means of escaping work miracles, speak with diverse tongues, and fore- the judgments coming upon the unbelieving Jews, and tell future events; and, secondly, in the more ordinary likewise of being “delivered from the wrath to come :" gifts of Divine grace, bestowed upon all Christians. see Luke xxi. 22 ; 1 Thess. ii. 16. W. Lowth. Wogan.

This “ calling on the name of the LORD,” mentioned 29. And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids by the Prophet, and applied by the Apostle to Jesus &c.] Not only, no particular sex or age, but also no Christ, plainly proves that Jesus is the Lord Jehovah, particular condition, should render persons incapable of and that He is to be invoked as the proper object of receiving the good gifts of God's Spirit“ in those days;" prayer. Wogan. See the note on Rom. x. 13. that is, under the kingdom of Christ. See Gal. iii. 28; - for in mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be dei Cor. vii. 22. Dr. Pocock.

liverance,] These words may be understood figura30. And I will shew wonders in the heavens &c.] The tively of the Church of God; which, having been first Prophet, having foretold in the clearest terms the gene- seated in mount Zion and Jerusalem, and thence exral effusion of the Holy Spirit, which was to charac- tended all the world over, Luke xxiv. 47, carried the terize the Gospel dispensation, concludes this chapter name thereof along with it. Dr. Pocock. with a striking description of the destruction of Jerusa- and in the remnant whom the Lord shall call.] lem, which followed soon after, and punished the Jews Namely, such as should embrace the Gospel, and thus for their obstinate rejection of the sacred influence : escape the dangers and destruction which would seize speaking in terms, which, as well as those of our Saviour'on others. Dr. Pocock.


about 800.

about 800.


my land.

Gods judgments against


the enemies of his people. CHAP. III. coasts of Palestine? will ye render


CHRIST i God's judgments against the enemies of his me a recompence? and if ye recompeople

. 9 God will be known in his judg- pense me, swiftly and speedily will I
ment. 18 His blessing upon the church.

return your recompence upon your
FOR, behold, in those days, and own head ;

5 Because ye have taken my silver
again the captivity of Judah and Je- and my gold, and have carried into

your temples my goodly + pleasant + Heb.
2 I will also gather all nations, and things:
will bring them down into the valley 6 The children also of Judah and
of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with the children of Jerusalem have ye
them there for my people and for my sold unto † the Grecians, that ye + Heb. the
heritage Israel, whom they have scat- might remove them far from their Grecianr.
tered among the nations, and parted border.

7 Behold, I will raise them out of
3 And they have cast lots for my the place whither ye have sold them,
people; and have given a boy for an and will return your recompence upon
harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that your own head :
they might drink.

8 And I will sell your sons and
4 Yea, and what have ye to do with your daughters into the hand of the

me, 0 Tyre, and Zidon, and all the children of Judah, and they shall sell Chap. III. ver. 1.- in those days, and in that time,] boy for the price of their lust to a harlot, and sold a The time called “the last days," chap. ii. 28, according girl only for a cup of wine to drink. Bp. Hall. to St. Peter's interpretation, Acts ii. 17, which com- The way of dividing captives by lot appears to have prehends all that time which reaches from the first to been in use of old among nations : compare Nahum üi. the second appearance of the Messiah : see the note 10; Obad. ver. 11. Dr. Pocock. upon Isai. ï. 2. The context shews that here is pro- 4. Yea, and what have ye to do with me, 0 Tyre, and bably meant the latter part of these last days or times. Zidon,] When the Babylonians, the appointed instruW. Lowth.

ments of My vengeance, afflict My land, why do you when I shall bring again the captivity of Judah also and the bordering nations assist them? Do you and Jerusalem,] That is, when all the Jews then living, take this occasion of avenging the former victories of wheresoever dispersed, shall be converted to Christ- My people over you? If so, this your act of revenge ianity, and thereupon shall be brought back by God to shall be speedily punished. Abp. Newcome. their own country of Judah, and shall again inhabit 5. Because ye have taken my silver and my gold, &c.] Jerusalem. Dr. Wells. Or the words may be in- The temple was despoiled of its ornaments, either through terpreted, not literally of bringing back the Jews to the necessities or wickedness of the kings of Judah, their ancient seat, but of freeing them from the cap- several times; see 2 Kings xii. 18; xviii. 16; 2 Chron. tivity of sin, and the yoke of the Mosaical law. Dr. xxviii. 24. It was likewise plundered by the Chaldeans Pocock.

often ; once in the reign of Jehoiakim, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 2. I will also gather all nations,] Taking the words in 7; then in the short reign of Jehoiachin, 2 Kings xxiv. a spiritual sense, such as are enemies to God's Church, 13, before the last destruction of it, 2 Kings xxv. 17, and the true Christian religion. Thus the Jews felt 18. Some part of the furniture might perhaps be sold His judgments by the destruction of their city and to the merchants of Tyre and Sidon. W. Lowth. commonwealth, soon after Christ's first coming; and 6. The children also of Judah have ye sold] It was at His second coming punishment shall be inflicted on customary for the merchants of the neighbouring all the wicked. Dr. Pocock.

countries to buy the children of Israel for slaves, in the valley of Jehoshaphat,] That is, the place order to sell them again. See 1 Mac. iii. 41. Javan, where the Lord will execute judgment; for so the word that is, Greece, particularly dealt in that sort of traffick, " Jehoshaphat” signifies, being compounded of Jehovah, Ezek. xxvii. 13. W. Lowth. and shaphat, which means to judge. The expression 7. Behold, I will raise them out of the place whither likewise alludes to the valley of Berachah, as it was af- ye have sold them, &c.] Grotius thinks that this promise terwards called, 2 Chron. xx. 26, which was famous for concerning the children of Judah was made good under the victory gained there by Jehoshaphat and his people Alexander the Great and his successors, who in favour over a great confederacy of their enemies. This valley of the Jewish nation restored to liberty many Jews who was not far from Jerusalem, if it be the same with that were captives or in servitude in Greece: and that the described Zech. xiv. 4. W. Lowth, Dr. Wells. threatening in the next verse concerning the persecutors

and will plead with them there] God pleads with of the Jews had its effect when the same Alexander men, and vindicates the cause of oppressed truth took Gaza, Sidon, and Tyre. Others think the fulfilland innocence by His judgments. Then their own ing of these things may be referred to the times of consciences fly in the face of the guilty, and force Cyrus or of the Maccabees. The general import of the them to acknowledge the justice of their punish- passage is, that though God sometimes suffers His ments. Compare Ezek. xvii. 20 ; xx. 35; xxxviii. 22. people to be trampled on, and contemptuously used, W. Lowth.

and injuriously treated by His and their enemies, yet 3. And they have cast lots for my people ; &c.] And He will in due time deliver them from the hand of their they have scornfully and proudly tyrannized over My enemies, to whom He will render a just reward, propeople, and have cast lots upon them, as some slight portionable to the wrong that they have done to His commodities for sale or exchange ; and have given a people. Dr. Pocock.



+ Heb. Sanctify.

|| Or, concision, or,

a Isai. 2. 4.

Amos 1. 2.

God will be known


in his judgment. them to the Sabeans, to a people far 14 Multitudes, multitudes in the about 800. off: for the Lord hath spoken it. valley of decision : for the day of about 800.

9 q Proclaim ye this among the the Lord is near in the valley of Gentiles; + Prepare war, wake up the decision. mighty men, let all the men of war 15 The c sun and the moon shall c Chap.2. 31. draw near; let them come up : be darkened, and the stars shall with

10 a Beat your plowshares into draw their shining. || Or, scythes. swords, and your || pruninghooks into 16 The LORD also shall d roar out d Jer. 25. 30.

spears : let the weak say, I am strong. of Zion, and utter his voice from Je

11 Assemble yourselves, and come, rusalem; and the heavens and the all ye heathen, and gather yourselves earth shall shake: but the Lord will

together round about: thither || cause be the + hope of his people, and the + bring down. thy mighty ones to come down, O strength of the children of Israel. LORD.

17 So shall ye know that I am the 12 Let the heathen be wakened, LORD your. God dwelling in Zion, and come up to the valley of Jehosha- my holy mountain : then shall Jeruphat: for there will I sit to judge all salem be + holy, and there shall #lieb. the heathen round about.

no estrangers pass through her any e Rev. 21. 27. 13 b Put ye in the sickle, for the more. harvest is ripe: come, get you down; 18 9 And it shall come to pass in for the press is full, the fats overflow; that day, that the mountains shall for their wickedness is great. *drop down new wine, and the hills f Amos 9. 13.

| Or, the LORD shall

of repair, or, harbour.

b Rev, 14. 15.

9. Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles ;] After these Particular judgments upon kingdoms and nations are particular threatenings against Tyre and Sidon, and the often described in such terms as properly belong to the neighbouring coast, the Prophet returns to what he had general judgment. W. Lowth. The words, in their mentioned, ver. 2, concerning the heathen or unbe- plainest and most literal exposition, seem to denote lieving world, gathering themselves either to oppose such prodigies as shall precede or attend the last dreadthe Jews in their return homeward, or some other way ful day, and among them a real alteration in the shining to hinder the growth of Christ's kingdom. W. Lowth. of the sun, moon, and stars, not used here, as they

Prepare war, &c.] The Prophet in an ironical are elsewhere, for comparative expressions, but to sigand insulting manner encourages them to make their nify what shall then really and actually be. Dr. Pocock. utmost efforts to oppose the designs of Providence : but 16. The Lord also shall roar out of Zion,] Where He it should be all in vain. See the like expressions, Isai. shall give tokens of His especial residence. W. Lowth. viii. 9, 10; Jer. xlvi. 3, 4; Ezek. xxxviii. 7. W. Lowth. Or, by Zion and Jerusalem may be understood heaven,

11. thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O the seat of His glory, the representation of which was Lord.] According to this rendering of the passage, in- formerly in the sanctuary, Heb. xii. 22. Bp. Hall, Dr. terpreters understand by "mighty ones” the angels of Pocock. God's anger, when He speaks to us by His God, sent down to defeat His enemies. But in the judgments, is fitly compared to the roaring of a lion: margin it is rendered, “the Lord shall bring down;" see Jer. xxv. 30; Amos i. 2; iii. 8. W. Lowth. and in our older English Bibles, “then shall the Lord - and the heavens and the earth shall shake :] Great cast down the mighty men:” that is, such as, pre- commotions or convulsions of states and governments suming on their might, rebelliously exalted themselves are expressed by “shaking the heavens and the earth :" against God and His people. Dr. Pocock.

compare Ezek. xxxviii. 19; Haggai ii. 6, 22. But here 12. there will I sit to judge all the heathen round the words may be understood in a literal sense, because about.] God here speaks after the manner of men, the action here described in this chapter is a forerunner with whom it is usual for the judge, examining matters and token of the approaching day of judgment. W. and giving sentence, to sit: not as if sitting and stand- Lowth. ing were postures properly attributed to God. Dr. 17. then shall Jerusalem be holy, &c.] This chaPocock.

racter belongs to the “new Jerusalem.” Compare Isai. 13. Put ye in the sickle, &c.] God will give His xxxv. 8; lii. 1; lx. 21; Rev. xxi. 27. Or it may be commands to the angels, who are “the reapers,” Matt. understood of the earthly Jerusalem, as the metropolis xiii. 39, to cut off the wicked by a speedy destruction; of the converted world. As the inhabitants themselves for their iniquities are come to maturity, and are ripe shall be holy, so the city shall be called the “ Holy for judgment. Compare Jer. li. 33; Hos. vi. 11 ; Matt. City,” as in former times it was ; see Dan. ix. 16; xiii. 38, 41; Rev. xiv. 15. W. Lowth.

Zech. viii. 3: compare Isai. xxiv. 23; Micah iv. 7; 14. Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision :] Obad. ver. 17. It shall be no longer subject to be O what multitudes, what infinite multitudes of wicked polluted or oppressed by unbelievers : compare Nahum sinners, shall then and there be adjudged ! Bp. Hall. i. 15. W. Lowth. “ The valley of decision” is so called, because God will 18. And it shall come to pass in that day, &c.]. And there decide on those assembled before Him, and pass it shall come to pass in those last times, wherein the judgment on them according to their deeds; for which Gospel shall be published, that God shall give plenty reason it was before called “the valley of Jehoshaphat." of spiritual nourishment to His Church; so that every Dr. Pocock. See the second note on ver. 2.

part thereof shall abound with effectual help and means 15. The sun and the moon shall be darkened, &c.] This of salvation : and from thence shall flow forth those particular judgment shall be a forerunner of the general waters of life, which shall water and

refresh the souls of one, when the whole frame of nature shall be dissolved. I all the faithful followers of God. Bp. Hall.

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