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Before CHRIST

CHRIST

Fulfilled about 168.

Fulfilled about 169.

astonishetk.

The exploits of one
DANIEL.

of the princes shall be to do mischief, and they shall 30 q For the ships of Chittim shall

Before about 534. speak lies at one table; but it shall come against him: therefore he shall about 544.

not prosper : for yet the end shall be be grieved, and return, and have in-
at the time appointed.

dignation against the holy covenant:
28 Then shall he return into his so shall he do; he shall even return,
land with great riches; and his heart and have intelligence with them that
shall be against the holy covenant; forsake the holy covenant.
and he shall do exploits, and return to 31 And arms shall stand on his
his own land.

part, and they shall pollute the sanc-
29 At the time appointed he shall tuary of strength, and shall take away
return, and come toward the south ; the daily sacrifice, and they shall place
but it shall not be as the former, or the abomination that || maketh deso- ! Or.
as the latter.

late. &c.] Ptolemy Philometor by some means, of which his- ochus was terrified, and withdrew his army. “ Theretory does not inform us, came into the hands of Antio fore he grieved and returned.” He led back his forces chus : and after Antiochus was come to Memphis, and into Syria: “and ha indignation against the holy cothe greater part of Egypt had submitted to him, he and venant;" for he vented all his anger upon the Jews, Philometor did frequently eat and converse together slaying great multitudes, plundering and burning the " at one table ;” but, notwithstanding this appearance city, pulling down its walls and houses, shedding the of peace and friendship, “ their hearts" were really bent blood of those who came to worship at the temple, de"to do mischief,” and they "spoke lies” the one to the filing the sanctuary, and causing the whole service to other. For Antiochus pretended to take care of his be omitted. “So he did ;” and after his "return” to nephew Philometor's interest, and promised to restore Antioch he published a decree, which obliged all perhim to the crown, at the same time that he was plotting sons upon pain of death to conform to the religion of his ruin, and was contriving means to weaken the two the Greeks: and so the Jewish law was abrogated, the brothers by a war against each other, that the con- heathen worship was set up in its stead, and the temple queror, wearied and exhausted, might fall an easy prey itself was consecrated to Jupiter Olympius. In the to him. On the other side, Philometor laid the blame transacting and ordering of these matters, he “had inof the war on his governour Eulæus, professing great telligence with them that forsook the holy covenant," obligations to his uncle, and seemed to hold the crown Menelaus and the other apostate Jews of his party, who by his favour, and at the very same time that he was were the king's chief instigators against their religion resolved to take the first opportunity of breaking the and their country. Bp. Newton. league with him, and of being reconciled to his brother: 3). And arms shall stand on his part, &c.] The last and accordingly, as soon as ever Antiochus was with attack of Antiochus on the city and people of the Jews drawn, he made proposals of accommodation, and by has been already noticed. Another power was introthe mediation of their sister Cleopatra a peace was made duced at the thirtieth verse, in the term “ships of between the two brothers, who agreed to reign jointly | Chittim;" and to this the narrative most probably now in Egypt and Alexandria. But still this artifice and turns, and will be found applicable to the affairs and dissimulation did not prosper on either side. For consequences of this fourth beast or kingdom to the neither did Antiochus obtain the kingdom, neither did end of the book, although there are various opinions Philometor utterly exclude him, and prevent his return- concerning the application of this part of the prophecy. ing with an army, as each intended and expected by the Wintle, Bp. Newton. measures which were taken ; for these wars were not to In the same year that Antiochus by command of the have an

“end” till the “time appointed,” which was not Romans retired out of Egypt, and set up the worship yet come. Bp. Newton.

of the Greeks in Judea, the Romans conquered the king28. Then shall he return into his land with great riches ;] dom of Macedon, the fundamental kingdom of the emHe did indeed “return with great riches;" for the spoils pire of the Greeks, and reduced it into a Roman prowhich he took in Egypt were of immense value. "Re- vince; and thereby began to put an end to the reign of turning thence, he set “ his heart against the holy cove- Daniel's third beast. This is thus expressed by Daniel. nant:" for having heard of some disturbances, which And after him “arms ;” that is, Romans “shall stand had arisen at Jerusalem on a report of his death, and up.” “Arms" are every where in this prophecy put concluding that the whole nation of the Jews had re- for the military power of a kingdom ; and they “stand volted, he marched against Jerusalem; besieged the up," when they conquer and grow powerful. "Hitherto city, and took it by force of arms: slew 40,000 of the Daniel described the actions of the kings of the north inhabitants, and sold as many more for slaves ; polluted and south ; but upon the conquest of Macedon by the the temple and altar with swine's flesh, profaned the Romans, he left off' describing the actions of the Greeks, Holy of Holies by breaking into it, and took away the and began to describe those of the Romans in Greece. golden vessels and other sacred treasures to the value of They conquered Macedon, Illyricum, and Epirus, in the 1800 talents. When he had “done” these “exploits,” year of Nabonassar 580 : thirty-five years after, by the he “returned to his own land.” Bp. Newton.

last will and testament of Attalus the last king of Per29, 30. At the time appointed] Namely, the time gamus, they inherited that rich and flourishing kinghinted at before, ver. 28, "he shall return” &c. Antio- dom; that is, all Asia westward of mount Taurus; sixtychus, perceiving that the two brothers had provided for nine years after they conquered the kingdom of Syria, their mutual safety and interests by making peace, was and reduced it into a province, and thirty-four years so offended that he again invaded Egypt. But this after they did the like to Egypt. By all these steps the expedition was not so successful as his “former" ones; Roman - arms stood up" over the Greeks: and after because “ the ships of Chittim,” which brought the ninety-five years more, by making war upon the Jews, Roman ambassadors from Italy, to command a peace be- they polluted the sanctuary of strength, and took tween the contending kings, “came against him.” Anti- away the daily sacrifice, and then placed the abomina

Before CHRIST

CHRIST about 534.

The invasion and tyranny
CHAP. XI.

of the Romans. 32 And such as do wickedly against | and to purge, and to make them

Before about 531. the covenant shall he || corrupt by white, even to the time of the || Or, cause

flatteries : but the people that do end: because it is yet for a time to dissembie. know their God shall be strong, and appointed. do exploits.

36 And the king shall do according
33 And they that understand among to his will; and he shall exalt himself,
the people shall instruct many: yet and magnify himself above every god,
they shall fall by the sword, and by and shall speak marvellous things
flame, by captivity, and by spoil, against the God of gods, and shall
many days.

prosper till the indignation be accom-
34 Now when they shall fall, they plished: for that that is determined
shall be holpen with a little help: but shall be done.
many shall cleave to them with flat- 37 Neither shall he regard the God
teries.

of his fathers, nor the desire of women, 35 And some of them of under- nor regard any god : for he shall mag| Or, by them. standing shall fall, to try || them, nify himself above all. tion" of desolation. For this abomination was placed the emperour. This is also called “a little help,” beafter the days of Christ, Matt. xxiv. 15; in the sixteenth cause the temporal peace and prosperity of the Church year of the emperour Adrian, in the year of our Lord lasted but a little while. The spirit of persecution pre132, they placed this abomination by building a temple sently revived ; and no sooner were the Christians deto Jupiter Capitolinus where the temple of God in Je- livered from the fury of their heathen adversaries, than rusalem had stood. Thereupon the Jews under the they began to quarrel among themselves, and to perseconduct of Barchochab rose up in arms against the cute one another. Such, more or less, has been the Romans, and in the war had fifty cities demolished, condition of the Church ever since: and, generally nine hundred and eighty-five of their best towns de- speaking, “those of understanding have fallen" a sacristroyed, and eighty thousand men slain by the sword : fice to others, some of the best and wisest men to some and in the end of the war, in the year 136, were banished of the worst and most ignorant. These calamities Judea upon pain of death, and thenceforward the land were to befall the Christians, “ to try them, and to remained desolate of its old inhabitants. Sir Isaac purge, and to make them white,” not only at that time, Newton, Bp. Newton.

but“ even to the time of the end, because it is yet for 32, 33, And such as do wickedly against the covenant a time appointed.” Bp. Newton. &c.] The Roman magistrates and officers made use of 36. And the king shall do according to his will ; &c.] the most alluring promises, as well as of the most ter- The prophecy now proceeds to describe the principal rible threatenings, to prevail upon the primitive Chris- author of the persecutions which should be permitted tians to renounce their religion, and offer incense to the for the trial of the Church. A “king” or “kingdom,” statues of the emperours and images of the gods. Many as before noticed, signifies any government, state, or were induced to comply with the temptation, and apos- potentate : and the meaning of this verse appears to be, tatized from the faith : but the true Christians, “the that, after the empire was become Christian, there people that knew their God, were strong," remained should spring up in the Church an antichristian power, firm to their religion, and gave the most illustrious that should act in the most absolute and arbitrary proofs of the most heroick patience and fortitude. It manner, exalt itself above all laws divine and human, may be said also with the strictest truth and propriety dispense with the most solemn and sacred obligations, of the primitive Christians, that being dispersed every and in many respects enjoin what God had forbidden, where, and preaching the Gospel in all the parts of the and forbid what God had commanded. This power Roman empire, they “instructed many,” and gained a began in the Roman emperours, who summoned coungreat number of proselytes to their religion : "yet they cils, and directed and influenced their determinations fell by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by almost as they pleased. After the division of the emspoil, many days;" for they were exposed to the malice pire, this power still increased, and was exerted princiand fury of ten general persecutions, and suffered all pally by the Greek emperours in the East, and by the manner of injuries, afflictions, and tortures, with little bishops of Rome in the West; as we shall see in the intermission for the space of three hundred years. Bp. several particulars hereafter specified by the Prophet. Newton.

This power too was to continue in the Church, and 34, 35. Now when they shall fall, &c.] The Church “prosper till the indignation be accomplished : for that had now laboured under long and severe persecutions that is determined shall be done.” This must denote from the civil power. The tenth and last general per- some particular period. Bp. Newton. secution was begun by Diocletian : it raged, though 37. Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, &c.] not at all times equally, ten years; and was suppressed He shall apostatize in some measure from the religion entirely by Constantine, the first Roman emperour, who of his Christian fathers, as he actually did, both in the made open profession of Christianity: and then the Greek and Latin Church, by worshipping “Mahuzzim” Church was no longer persecuted, but was protected instead of the true God blessed for ever. “Nor shall and favoured by the civil power. But still this is called he regard the desire of women," or conjugal affection : only "a little help;” because, though it added much the meaning is, he shall neglect and discourage marto the temporal prosperity, yet it contributed little to riage, as both the Greeks and Latins did, to the great the spiritual graces and virtues, of Christians. It was detriment of human society, and to the great discredit attended with this peculiar disadvantage, that “ many of the Christian religion. Thus did the power here clave to them with flatteries.” Many became Christians described “magnify himself above all,” even God Himfor the sake of temporal emolument, and pretended to self, by contradicting the primary law of nature; and be of the religion, only because it was the religion of making that dishonourable which the Scripture hath

Before CHRIST about 534.

Before CHRIST

honour he shall honour a god whom, &c. || Or, mnunilions. 1 Heb. Mauzzim.

desired. + Heb.

munitions. + Heb. a

+ Heb. mountain of

holiness.

of delight, or, ornament.

forth.

Events that shall take

DANIEL

place in the latter times. 38 But t in his estate shall he hon- 43 But he shall have power over our the god of 11 | forces: and a god the treasures of gold and of silver, and about 534.

whom his fathers knew not shall he over all the precious things of Egypt: + Heb. as for the almighty honour with gold, and silver, and and the Libyans and the Ethiopians seat he shall with precious stones, and † pleasant shall be at his steps.

44 But tidings out of the east and 39 Thus shall he do in the t most out of the north shall trouble him: strong holds with a strange god, whom therefore he shall go forth with great he shall acknowledge and increase fury to destroy, and utterly to make

with glory: and he shall cause them away many. + Heb. things

to rule over many, and shall divide 45 And he shall plant the taberfortresses of the land for + gain.

nacles of his palaces between the seas 40 And at the time of the end in the 1| + glorious holy mountain; Or, goodly. price. shall the king of the south push at yet he shall come to his end, and him: and the king of the north shall none shall help him.

delight of
come against him like a whirlwind,
with chariots, and with horsemen, and

CHAP. XII.
with many ships; and he shall enter 1 Michael shall_deliver Israel from their
into the countries, and shall overflow troubles. 5 Daniel is informed of the

times.
and pass over.

411 He shall enter also into the A Nm at that time, shall Michael
! Or, goodly Il + glorious land, and many countries
4 Heb. land shall be overthrown : but these shall standeth for the children of thy peo-

escape out of his hand, even Edom, ple: and there shall be a time of
and Moab, and the chief of the chil trouble, such as never was since there
dren of Ammon.

was a nation even to that same time: + Heb. sent 42 He shall +stretch forth his hand and at that time thy people shall be

also upon the countries: and the land delivered, every one that shall be
of Egypt shall not escape.

found written in the book. pronounced “ honourable in all,” Heb. xii. 4. Bp. endowments, and have had the choicest of the lands Newton.

appropriated for church lands, are points of such pub38. But in his estate shall he honour the god of forces :) lick notoriety, that they require no proof, as they will Or “Mahuzzim;" that is, properly, “munitions, buls | admit of no denial. Bp. Newton. warks, fortresses;" or, as the word may signify, "pro- 40. And at the time of the end shall the king of the tectors, defenders, guardians.” Them he should wor- south push at him : &c.]. The minute and astonishing ship as God, or with God : and it is notorious, that the conformity of the foregoing prophetical description, ver. worship of saints and angels was established both in the 31-39, throughout with the events, and its exact harGreek and Latin Church ; and that their shrines and mony with the parallel prophecies of Daniel himself and images were adorned with the most costly offerings, with corresponding passages in the New Testament, and“ honoured with gold and silver, and with precious afford a high probability to the correctness of the interstones, and desirable things.” What renders the com- pretation, which Bp. Newton has supported with great pletion of the prophecy still more remarkable is, that learning and ability, and at considerable length, in his they were celebrated and adored under the title of Ma- Dissertations on the Prophecies. The last part of this huzzim, of bulwarks and fortresses, of protectors and vision, ver. 40—45, appears to be unfulfilled. It is guardians, of mankind. Bp. Newton.

therefore “sealed” or “shut up” at present, till further 39. Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a light shall be furnished by the events. Dr. Hales. strange god, &c.] This verse contains other instances of his regard to Mahuzzim; but for the better under- Chap. XII. ver. 1. And at that time shall Michael stand standing of this part of the prophecy, it may be proper up,] To defend the cause of the true people of God, to propose a more literal translation of it. “Thus shall and to destroy the enemies of the true religion. Wintle. he do: to the defenders of Mahuzzim, together with - and there shall be a time of trouble,] When the the strange god whom he shall acknowledge, he shall Jews shall be restored, there shall be such calamities as multiply honour; and he shall cause them to rule over no nation hath ever before experienced, since men were many, and the earth he shall divide for a reward.” That formed into civil societies. Tribulations are often menis, “He shall multiply honour” to the defenders and tioned in Scripture, as preceding extraordinary events; champions of Mahuzzim, as well as to Mahuzzim them- see Ezek. xxx. 2, 3: and especially, as ushering in the selves : deifying Mahuzzim, he shall also glorify their kingdom of God, whether that kingdom relate to the priests and ministers : " and he shall cause them to rule first or second advent of the Messiah. See Isai. viii. over many, and the earth he shall divide for a reward.” 22; Jer. xxx. 7; Matt. xxiv. 21: at which last place an The defenders and champions of Mahuzzim were the expression is used of like import with this of Daniel. popish ecclesiasticks and religious orders : and that they This unusual and extraordinary time of trouble is suphave been honoured and reverenced, and almost adored posed to correspond with that represented by St. John, in former ages, that their authority and jurisdiction have to follow upon the pouring out of the seventh vial, Rer. extended over the purses and consciences of men, that xvi. 18: yet the people of God shall escape. Wintle. they have been enriched with noble buildings and large every one that shall be found written in the book.]

Before CHRIST

534.

Before CHRIST

534.

+ Heb. lip.

a Matt. 25. 46. John 5. 29. || Or, teachers. b Matt. 13. 43.

The general resurrection.

CHAP. XII. Daniel is informed of the times. 2 And many of them that sleep in 5 9 Then I Daniel looked, and, the dust of the earth shall awake, behold, there stood other two, the a some to everlasting life, and some to one on this side of the † bank of the shame and everlasting contempt. river, and the other on that side of

3 And they that be || wise shall the bank of the river. • shine as the brightness of the firma-l. 6 And one said to the man clothed ment; and they that turn many to in "linen, which was || upon the waters e Chap. 10. 5. righteousness as the stars for ever and of the river, How long shall it be to above. ever.

the end of these wonders ? 4 But thou, O Daniel, shut up the 7 And I heard the man clothed in words, and seal the book, even to the linen, which was upon the waters of time of the end: many shall run to the river, when he dheld up his right a Rev. 10. 5. and fro, and knowledge shall be in- hand and his left hand unto heaven, creased.

and sware by him that liveth for ever

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Whosoever shall be registered or arranged in the class tuous, that they are in a more especial manner the of the pious or faithful. At Ezek. ix. 4, the pious are favourites of Heaven, and may with greater confidence said to be marked with the “thau” in their foreheads, expect their reward. The glories of the future world like the capital

“chi" of the Greeks; see Phil. iv. 3; are shadowed forth in Scripture by the loftiest and most Rev. ii. 5 ; xx. 15; where the book is called the “book splendid images in this ; but after all, so inadequate is of life.” Rejoice,” says our Lord to His disciples, language, and so inferiour the conceptions of the human Luke x. 20, “ because your names are written in hea- mind to this great subject, that the finest description ven;" because ye are enlisted under the banners of the of the joys of eternity is that negative one of St. Paul, Gospel

, called the kingdom of heaven, and are thereby which he hath in some measure borrowed from Isaiah, entitled to its present graces, and if ye persevere with · Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered faith and constancy will be rewarded with its future into the heart of man, the things which God hath preglories. Wintle.

pared for them that love Him.” i Cor. ii. 9. Wintle. 2. And many of them that sleep &c.] The prophecy, 4. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, &c.] To as we have seen, was brought down to the restoration “shut up" a book, and to “seal it, is the same with of the Jews, and thereupon proceeds to the general re- concealing the sense of it from common understandstoration, or resurrection of all men, and the final judg- ings: see chap. viii. 26. The same reason is assigned ment. The Jews themselves believed this doctrine, and for this command in both places ; namely, because there had hopes therein founded on the promises of God to would be a long interval of time between the date, and their fathers, Acts xxvi. 6; and there is no passage in the final accomplishment, of the prophecy: compare the Old Testament that more strongly declares this truth chap. x. i. But the nearer that time approached, the than that before us. Wintle.

more light should men have for understanding the These expressions can with truth and propriety be prophecy itself: as implied in the following words, applied only to the general resurrection of the just and many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be unjust: and, though it may be said, “ many of them increased :” many shall be inquisitive after truth, and that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake,” yet that keep correspondence with others for their better inforis no objection to the truth here delivered ; for as 'Theo- mation : and the gradual completion of some prophedoret observed long ago, the Prophet had said “many" cies shall direct observing readers to form a judgment for “all,” as St. Paul does in Rom. v. 15, 19. The concerning those particulars which are yet to be fulfilled. proper conclusion of all is the general resurrection, and W. Lowth. the consequent happiness of the wise and good : ver. 3, One cannot help observing here the analogy between "And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness God's word and works: not only operations of nature of the firmament; and they that turn many to righ- have been unravelled, but every useful art and inventeousness as the stars for ever and ever.” Bp. Newton. tion traced out and brought to perfection by the con

3. And they that be wise shall shine &c.] *The words tinual labour and successive industry of man. And allude to chap. xi. 33, 35, and import, that they, who the like gradual process is observable with respect to have been the great “lights” of the world, and have the word of God: in its early communication it was wrapt instructed others by their doctrine, and confirmed them up in mystery, and surrounded by obscurity, for this in the truth by their sufferings and example, shall among other purposes, to excite the attentive observahave an eminently glorious reward at the day of judg- tion of men, and engage their diligence; so that by affordment. So the martyrs are described as having a share in ing proper employment for our active spirits, it may serve “the first resurrection,” Rev. xx. 5. Our Saviour's words to train and habituate them to that temper and frame, plainly allude to this text, Matt. xiii. 43. W. Lowth. which will be a suitable qualification for them in the

The Judge of all the earth will certainly do right. future world ; where we shall be continually exercised He hath given the fullest assurance that there is a re- in acts of devotion and praise, and be making constant ward for the righteous : and it is certain, that this re- advances in knowledge, goodness, and happiness.Wintle. ward will be augmented in proportion as men have been 5. behold, there stood other two,] I saw two other more extensively useful, or have advanced the real and angels on the bank of the river Hiddekel, attending best interest of their fellow creatures. In the last verse upon that supreme Angel, or the Son of God, who apthe reward and punishment are expressed generally as peared in the glorious form above described : see chap. to their degree, and merely said to be perpetual in their x. 4,5. W. Lowth. duration; in this they are exalted to the highest pitch 7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, &c.] And of distinction in their degree, and their duration is ex. I heard Christ, the great Angel of the covenant, the pressed in the strongest terms of pointing out eternity. eternal Son of God, answer him again ; who, lifting up The design of which is to convince the eminently vir. I both His hands towards heaven, the place of His throne,

Before CHRIST

554.

Before CHRIST

531.

Daniel is informed
DANIEL.

of the times. that it shall be for a time, times, and 9 And he said, Go thy way, Daniel:

|| an half; and when he shall have ac- for the words are closed up and sealed 1 Or, part.

complished to scatter the power of till the time of the end.
the holy people, all these things shall 10 Many shall be purified, and
be finished.

made white, and tried; but the wicked
8 And I heard, but I understood shall do wickedly: and none of the
not: then said I, O my Lord, what wicked shall understand; but the wise
shall be the end of these things ? shall understand,

sware by Himself, and His eternal Father, and blessed 8. And I heard, but I understood not : &c.] The Spirit. Bp. Hall.

full discovery was not made to the Prophet, but reserved Holding up the hand” was a ceremony anciently for future ages, till time should bring it to light. The used in taking an oath : see notes at Gen. xiv. 22 ; question that follows, " What shall be the end of these Deut. xxxii. 40. W. Lowth.

things?" alludes to the like expression having been that it shall be for a time, times, and a half:] That used in the preceding parts of this book, and especially is, as hath been before noticed, for three prophetick at chap. x. 14. The inquiry is checked at the next years and an half; and three prophetick years and an half verse, and an intimation given, that it is not so much are 1260 prophetick days; and 1260 prophetick days are for the use of the present as of future ages, that this 1260 years. The same time therefore is prefixed for the revelation is made. The prophecy is of distant referdesolation and the oppression of the Eastern Church, as for ence and interpretation; it is necessary therefore that the tyranny of the little horn in the Western Church : and it should be involved in obscurity. What is delivered it is most remarkable, that the doctrine of Mohammed may satisfy the minds of the pious and faithful; but it was first forged at Mecca, and the supremacy of the is not meant that the curious should be gratified, that Pope was established by virtue of a grant from that human pride should be indulged, or that the counsels wicked tyrant Phocas, in the very same year of Christ of God should be made subservient to the ambition of 606. There is a farther notation of the time in the fol- princes, or any sinister designs of man. Wintle. lowing words, “and when he shall have accomplished 9. And he said, Go thy way, Daniel : &c.] Such to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things prophecies, as belong to things yet future, especially shall be finished:” when the Jews shall be recalled from to the times and circumstances of those things, are few, their dispersion, then all these things shall receive their if any of them, fit for the unlearned to pry into parfull and final completion. The prophet not sufficiently ticularly. Nay, the learned themselves, if they are pruunderstanding this answer, inquired, ver. 8, What or dent also, will observe what answer the angel gave to the how long shall be these latter times, or latter wonders ? Prophet Daniel : “And I heard, but I understood not: And it is answered again, ver. 11, that “from the then said I, O my Lord, what shall be the end of these time of the taking away the daily sacrifice, and setting things ? And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the up the abomination that maketh desolate, there shall words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end.” be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.” The When the proper season comes, possibly in some cases “setting up of the abomination of desolation" appears not before the event hath interpreted them, the propheto be a general phrase, and comprehensive of various cies will prove their own reality by their clearness; events. It is applied by the writer of the first book of and strengthen, perhaps in an hour of much need, “the Maccabees, chap. i. 54, to the profanation of the temple patience and the faith of the saints," Rev. xiii. 10, by Antiochus, and his setting up the image of Jupiter Thus it happened to the Apostles. They understood Olympius upon the altar of God. It is applied by our not beforehand our Saviour's prediction, “Destroy this Saviour, Matt. xxiv. 15, to the destruction of the city temple, and in three days I will raise it up.' But and temple by the Romans, under the conduct of Titus, “when He was risen from the dead, they remembered in the reign of Vespasian. It may for the same reason that He had said this unto them: and they believed the be applied to the Roman emperour Adrian's building Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said,” John a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, in the same place where ii

. 19, 22. Abp. Secker. the temple of God had stood : and to the misery of the 10. Many shall be purified, &c.] The persecutions Jews, and the desolation of Judea, that followed. It of the faithful are designed for the trial of their faith, may with equal justice be applied to the Mohammedans and the purification of their lives ; see chap. xi. 35. invading and desolating Christendom, and converting But as for those, who are obstinately bent upon folthe churches into mosques ; and this latter event seemeth lowing the corrupt practices, to which they have been to have been particularly intended in this passage. If accustomed, neither the exhortations nor threatenings this interpretation be true, the religion of Mohammed of God's word, nor the judgments, which they see overwill prevail in the East the space of 1260 years ; and take others, will prevail with them to forsake their then a great and glorious revolution will follow; per- wicked practices. See Rev. ix. 20; xxii. 11. W. Lowth. haps the restoration of the Jews, perhaps the destruction and none of the wicked shall understand; &c.] of Antichrist : but another still greater and more glorious The holy writers often repeat this maxim, that an honest will succeed; and what can this be so probably, as the and good heart is a necessary qualification for receivfull conversion of the Gentiles to the Church of Christ? ing and understanding Divine truths. See Isai. vi. 9, For (ver. 12,)“ Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh &c.; Hos. xiv. 9; John viii. 47; x. 27 ; xvii. 37. W. to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.” | Lowth. Here then are three different periods assigned, 1260 It is not less our duty to subject all our vicious inyears, 1290 years, and 1335 years : and what is the clinations to the authority of holy writ, than our vain precise time of their beginning and consequently of prejudices. For if we indulge but one, it will naturally their ending, as well as what are the great and signal bias us to reject, or misinterpret, whatever is inconevents, which will take place at the end of each period, sistent with it: and besides, we shall lose the hope of we can only conjecture, time alone can with certainty that illumination, without which we can apprehend discover. Bp. Newton.

nothing to good purpose. This is what the angel saith

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