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Before CHRIST

334.

Before CHRIST

534.

Daniel is informed
CHAP. XII.

of the times.
11 And from the time that the cometh to the thousand three hundred
daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and five and thirty days.

and † the abomination that || maketh 13 But go thou thy way till the up the abomi- desolate set up, there shall be a thou- end be: || for thou shalt rest, and hon, and

sand two hundred and ninety days. stand in thy lot at the end of the

12 Blessed is he that waiteth, and days.

+ Heb. to set

thouc.

nation, &c. l Or, astonisheth.

to Daniel, “None of the wicked shall understand; but The Prophet had been making inquiries after the the wise shall understand.” And our Saviour pro- end of these wonders; the angel had given him all mises only, that “if any man will do the will of God, the information that was needful either for himself he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God," or future times, and with this he dismisses him, subJohn vii. 17. Abp. Secker.

joining at the same time a short epitome of his own 12. Blessed is he that waiteth, &c.] Some expositors fate; that, as he was now far advanced in life, he must suppose St. John to allude to these words, Rev. xx. 6, expect soon to retire from this world; that he should where he says, “ Blessed and holy is he that hath' rest in peace to the time of the end, when he should part in the first resurrection.” In like manner the again be raised up and restored to life, and receive his Prophet here pronounces those blessed, who, after a final allotment from his righteous Judge, before whom patient expectation of the fulfilling of God's promises, he should stand in judgment at the last day, or “at the come to have a share in the enjoyment of them. W. end of the days.” Lowth.

The word " lot” must here be meant in the good 13. But go thou thy way till the end be: &c.] Be sense, that the Prophet should be ranked among the content with that state and condition, which God shall blessed, and partake of the heavenly inheritance, when appoint thee, till the finishing of all these wonderful the mystery of God shall be perfected. The expression events. W. Lowth.

seems to indicate a long space of time. Wintle.

The following are the Chapters from Daniel appointed for Proper Lessons on Sundays and Holydays:

Chap. III.

19th Sunday after Trinity, VI.

...ditto,
IX.

.. Thursday before Easter,
X. ver. 5................ St. Michael and all Angels,

Morning.
Evening.
Morning.
Evening.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

TO THE

TWELVE MINOR PROPHETS.

THE writings of the twelve Minor Prophets were in the Hebrew, canon comprised in one book, which was called by St. Stephen “ the Book of the Prophets,” Acts vii. 42, compared with Amos v. 25. By whom they were so compiled is uncertain ; probably, however, they were collected together in that form by Ezra, or by some

member of the Great Synagogue; but certainly above 200 years before the birth of Christ. The twelve Minor Prophets were so called, not in respect to any supposed inferiority in their writings as to

matter or style, but in reference to the brevity of their works. The shortness, indeed, of these prophecies seems to have been one reason for joining them together; by which means the volume of their contents was

swelled to a greatness in some degree correspondent to their importance. These twelve Prophets furnish us in scattered parts with a lively sketch of many particulars relative to other king

doms; they describe in prophetick anticipation, but with historical exactness, the fate of Babylon, of Nineveh, of Tyre, of Sidon, and of Damascus. The three last Prophets especially illustrate many circumstances at a period, when the historical pages of Scripture are closed, and when profane authors are entirely wanting. They describe, under the most striking representations, the advent and character of Messiah and His kingdom; and endeavour, by the most admirable instruction, to excite those religious sentiments, which would facilitate the reception of the Gospel. Dr. Gray.

HOS E A.

INTRODUCTION.

HOSEA has been supposed to be the most ancient of the twelve Minor Prophets; and indeed by some writers

he is represented as having preceded all the Prophets, since he flourished about the middle of the reign of Jeroboam the Second, the son of Joash, king of Israel, and towards the commencement of that of Uzziah, who began to reign over Jerusalem about the year of the world 3194. According to some accounts of no great authority, he was of the tribe of Issachar, and of the city of Beleenor ; others represent him to have been of the tribe of Judah. He was the son of Beeri

, and entered on the prophetick office some time between the years of the world 3194 and 3219. He continued to prophesy above sixty years : during the successive reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and probably to about the third year of the reign of the last; or, if we reckon by the kings of Israel, he may be described as having flourished during the reign of Jeroboam and his successors, to the sixth year of Hoshea, which corresponds with the third year of Hezekiah. Hosea was therefore nearly contemporary with Isaiah, Amos, and Jonah. It is probable that he resided chiefly in Samaria ; and that he was the first Prophet, of those at least whose prophecies we possess, that predicted the destruction of that country; which was effected soon after the Prophet's death by Shalmaneser, king

of Assyria. Dr. Gray. Hosea's principal subject is that which is the principal subject indeed of all the Prophets ; the guilt of the Jewish

nation in general, their disobedient refractory spirit, the heavy judgments that awaited them, their final conversion to God, their re-establishment in the land of promise, and their restoration to God's favour, under the immediate protection of the Messiah, in the latter ages of the world. He confines himself more closely to this single subject than any other Prophet

. Comparatively, he seems to care little about other people. He wanders not, like Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, into the collateral history of surrounding heathen nations. He meddles not, like Daniel, with the revolutions of the great empires of the world. His own country seems to engross his whole attention; her privileges, her crimes, her punishment, her pardon. He predicts, indeed, in the strongest and the clearest terms, the ingrafting of the Gentiles into the Church of God: but he mentions it only generally; he enters not, like Isaiah, into a minute detail of the progress of the business. He alludes to the calling of our Lord from Egypt; and to the

resurrection on the third day; and he celebrates, in the loftiest strains of triumph and exultation, the Saviour's final victory over death and hell. But yet, of all the Prophets, he certainly enters the least into the detail of the mysteries of redemption. We have nothing in him descriptive of the events of the interval between the two advents of our Lord: nothing diffuse and circumstantial , upon the great and interesting mysteries of the Incarnation, and the

Atonement. His country, and his kindred, is the subject next his heart. Their crimes excite his indignation; their sufferings interest his pity ;

Hosea sheweth

CHAP. I.

God's judgments. their future exaltation is the object on which his imagination fixes with delight. It is a remarkable dispensation of Providence, that clear notices, though in general terms, of the universal redemption, should be found in a writer so strongly possessed with national partialities. This Judaism, if I may so call it, seems to make the particular character of Hosea as a Prophet. Not that the ten tribes are exclusively his subject. His country is indeed his particular and constant subject; but his country generally, in both its branches, not in either

taken by itself. Hosea delights in a style, which always becomes obscure, when the language of the writer ceases to be a living

language. He writes in short, detached, disjointed sentences ; not wrought up into artificial periods. His transitions from reproof to persuasion, from threatening to promise, from terrour to hope, and the contrary, are rapid and unexpected. His similes are brief, accumulated, and often introduced without the particle of similitude. Yet these are not the vices, but the perfections of the holy Prophet's style: for to these circumstances it owes that eagerness and fiery animation, which are the characteristick excellence of his writings, and

are so peculiarly suited to his subject. Bp. Horsley. The book of Hosea is cited by St. Matthew as unquestionably the inspired production of a Prophet, Matt. ii. 15;

as likewise by St. Paul, Rom. ix. 25, 26; 1 Cor. xv. 55; and, indeed, by Christ Himself, Matt. ix. 12, 13; xii. 7. Dr. Gray.

Before CHRIST about 785.

Before CHRIST

CHAP. I.

the LORD by Hosea. And the i Hosea, to shew God's judgment for spi, thee a wife of whoredoms and chil

Lord said to Hosea, Go, take unto about 785.
ritual whoredom, taketh Gomer, 4 and hath
by her Jezreel, 6 Lo-ruhamah, 8 and Lo- dren of whoredoms: for the land hath
ammi. 10 The restoration of Judah and committed great whoredom, departing
Israel.

from the Lord.
THE word of the Lord that came 3 So he went and took Gomer the

unto Hosea, the son of Beeri, in daughter of Diblaim; which conceived,
the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and bare him a son.
and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in 4 And the Lord said unto him,
the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, Call his name Jezreel; for yet a little
king of Israel.

while, and I will + avenge the blood + Heb. visit. 2 The beginning of the word of of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, Chap. I. Under the figure of a wife living in adul. have committed the like spiritual whoredom, departing tery, and bearing illegitimate children, is represented from the Lord, and worshipping idols. Dr. Wells, W. the great idolatry of the children of Israel, which pro- Lowth. voked God to cast them off; yet with the promise of Some commentators understand by a wife of repairing that loss, by bringing in the Gentiles into the whoredoms” a wife, that had heretofore been noted for Church, and afterwards uniting Israel and Judah under unchastity, howsoever now reclaimed. Bp. Hall, Junius. one head, the Messiah. The Prophet likewise foretells 3. So he went and took Gomerwhich conceived, &c.] the extinction of Jehu's family. W. Lowth.

After the marriage the Prophet’s wife bore three chilVer. 1. - in the days of Uzziah, and in the days of dren. These children represent certain distinct parts Jeroboam] Jeroboam, the son of Joash, the second or descriptions of the Jewish nation, of the whole of king of Israel of that name, and contemporary with which the mother was the emblem. Of the three chilUzziah, is here mentioned, because this prophecy very dren, the eldest and the youngest were sons; the internearly concerns the kingdom of Israel. There was no mediate child was a daughter. The eldest appears to need of enumerating any of the succeeding kings of have been the Prophet's son; but the two last were Israel, because, from the Prophet's mention of his pro- illegitimate. Bp. Horsley. phesying from the times of Uzziah to those of Heze- 4.- Call his name Jezreel ;] The names, imposed kiah, it follows that he prophesied all the reigns of upon the children by God's direction, sufficiently deJeroboam's successors; the reign of Hezekiah bearing clare what particular parts of the Jewish nation were date from the third year of Hoshea, the last of the kings severally represented by them. The name of the first of Israel. W. Lowth.

was Jezreel, importing “ seed of God;" and the per2. by Hosea.] To speak “ to Hosea,” ver. 1, and sons, represented by the Prophet's proper son, to whom “ by Hosea,” in this verse, are phrases of different im- the name is given, were all those true servants of God, port. To speak to expresses, that to him the discourse scattered among all the twelve tribes of Israel, who, in was immediately addressed. To speak by, that through the times of the nation's greatest depravity, worshipped him it was addressed to others : and that the speech, so the everlasting God, in the hope of the Redeemer to addressed to others, was not the Prophet's own, but come. These were a holy seed; the genuine sons of God's; God using the Prophet as His organ of speech God; begotten of Him to a lively hope, and the early to the people. Bp. Horsley.

seed of that Church, which shall at last embrace all the Go, take unto thee a wife of whoredoms and chil- families of the earth. These are Jezreel, typified by the dren of whoredoms :] That is, Marry a wife, who will / Prophet's own son and rightful heir, as the children of afterwards, namely, after the birth of her first child, God, and heirs of the promises. Bp. Horsley. prove unfaithful to thy bed, and bear children begotten I will avenge the blood of Jezreel upon the house by others ; for hereby will be most fitly, and even sen- of Jehu,] That is, the blood of the holy seed, the faithful sibly represented to the people of Israel their like base servants of God, shed by the idolatrous princes of Jehu's dealing with Me: inasmuch as the people of the land family in persecution, and the blood of children shed in

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

obtained mercy.

not add any
more to.
| Or, that

The spiritual whoredoms
HOSEA.

of Israel, and will cause to cease the kingdom 7 But I will have mercy upon the about 785. of the house of Israel.

house of Judah, and will save them about 785. 5 And it shall come to pass at that by the Lord their God, and will not day, that I will break the bow of Is- save them by bow, nor by sword, nor rael in the valley of Jezreel.

by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen. 11 That is, Not having

6 | And she conceived again, and 8 | Now when she had weaned

bare a daughter. And God said unto Lo-ruhamah, she conceived, and bare till ebid will him, Call her name || Lo-ruhamah: a son.

for + I will no more have mercy upon 9 Then said God, Call his name I should alto- the house of Israel; || but I will || Lo-ammi : for ye are not my people, That is, gether pardon utterly take them away.

and I will not be your God.

people. their horrible rites upon the altars of their idols. Bp. of their very worst kings, the publick religion was the Horsley.

worship of the true God, according to the rites of His and will cause to cease the kingdom of the house own appointment, by a priesthood of His own instituof Israel.] It is said, that what is here threatened shall tion. And this was probably the reason, that the be done after a little while" upon the house of Jehu ; kingdom of Judah, though severely punished, was howand it is added, as a consequence on it, or what should ever treated with longer forbearance; and, when the be effected together with it, or by it, that “the kingdom dreadful judgment came, in some respects with more of Israel should cease.” So he saith, “yet a little while.” lenity. Bp. Horsley. The time was not yet come, that it could be done, be- - and will save them by the Lord their God, &c.] cause God's promise to Jehu was, that “his children of This promise may be principally referred to their delithe fourth generation should sit on the throne of Israel;" verance from captivity, not by human means, but by and the present king Jeroboam was but the third from God's moving the heart of Cyrus to restore them, Ezra him. In the time of Zachariah, who succeeded Jero- i. 1, &c. Dr. Pocock. boam, and reigned but six months, what is here said In the different treatment of the house of Judah and was effected. And so both the promise before made, the house of Israel, we see the prophecy hitherto reand the curse now denounced, were in their due time markably verified. After the excision of the kingdom fulfilled. Dr. Edward Pocock.

of the ten tribes, Judah, though occasionally visited 5. And it shall come to pass at that day,] Quickly with severe judgments, continued however to be cheafter the extinction of Jehu's family. W. Lowth. rished with God's love, till they rejected our Lord.

I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Then Judah became Lo-ammi ; (see note on ver. 9;) Jezreel.] See 2 Kings xv. 29; and xvii. 5, 6. The taking but still continues to be visibly an object of God's love, of several cities successively, and at last of the capital preserved as a distinct race for gracious purposes of itself, was a “ breaking of the bow of Israel,” a demo- mercy. Bp. Horsley. lition of the whole military strength of the kingdom by the Lord their God,] Interpreters observe, " in the valley of Jezreel,” where all those cities were that this expression may allude to the salvation to be situated. Bp. Horsley.

accomplished by the Messiah, who is God as well as The bow, being in those times of great use in war, man; the Lord being spoken of as a distinct Person was figuratively and proverbially taken for all sorts of from the principal Author of the salvation here promilitary ms and instruments; and also for all strength mised. Compare Isai. xxxv. 4; xl. 9. W. Lowth. of war. Dr. Pocock.

There is one certain deliverance, promised to the Jews 6. Call her name Lo-ruhumah:] All of the Jewish in one Prophet after another, by the name of "salvation people, that were not Jezreel, the "seed of God,” those by the Lord,” by “ the Lord God Himself,” as superiour who were not Israel, though they were of Israel, are to and different from their former deliverances by flesh typified by the two illegitimate children. The first of and blood; and this the Jews appropriate to the rethese, the daughter, was called Lo-ruhamah. The sex demption of the Messiah. God saves, and God judges, of the child is the emblem of weakness. Her name sig- by Him. And He is therefore termed “the Lord" in nifies“ unbeloved,” or “unpitied;" or, as it is para- Mal. ii. 1, as being Emmanuel, the God, the Saviour phrased in the margin of our Bible, in conformity with with us. Bp. Chandler. all the ancient versions, “not having obtained mercy;" 8, 9. -she conceived, and bare a son. Then said God, This daughter typifies the people of the ten tribes, in Call his name Lo-ammi :] The child conceived after the enfeebled state of their declining monarchy, torn by Lo-ryhamah was weaned, must typify the people of the intestine commotions and perpetual revolutions, harassed kingdom of Judah, in the subsequent periods of their by powerful invaders, impoverished by their tyrannical history. Or rather, this child typifies the whole nation exactions, and condemned by the just judgment of God of the children of Israel, reduced, in its external form, to utter excision as a distinct kingdom, without hope of by the captivity of the ten tribes, to that single kingrestoration : for so the type is explained by the Holy dom. The sex represents a considerable degree of naSpirit Himself. Bp. Horsley.

tional strength and vigour, remaining in this branch of 7. But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah,] It the Jewish people, very different from the exhausted was an aggravation of the guilt of Israel, that idolatry state of the other kingdom previous to its fall. Nor was the very foundation of her polity. Her very exist- have the two tribes ever suffered so total an excision. ence, as a distinct kingdom, was founded on the worship The ten were absolutely lost in the world soon after of the calves, which was instituted by Jeroboam for pre- their captivity. But the people of Judah have never venting the return of the ten tribes to their allegiance ceased totally to be. In captivity at Babylon they to the house of David. The two tribes, on the contrary, lived a separate race, respected by their conquerors. remained loyally attached to David's family, and the From that captivity they returned. They became an idolatry, into which from time to time they fell, was opulent and powerful state ; formidable at times to the rather the lapse of individuals, than the premeditated rival powers of Syria and Egypt; and held in no small policy of the nation. Except in the reigns of one or two I consideration by the Roman people, and the first em

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST about 785.

26.

The restoration of Judah and Israel. CHAP. I, II.

The idolatry of the people. 10 Yet the number of the chil

CHAP. II. about 785. dren of Israel shall be as the sand of

the sea, which cannot be measured | 1 The idolatry of the people. 6 God's judga Rom. I. 25, nor numbered; a and it shall come to

ments against them. 14 His promises of

reconciliation with them. 11 or, instead pass, that || in the place where it was of

LAY

your ple, there it shall be said unto them,

people. Ye are the sons of the living God. || Ruhamah.

|| That is, 11 Then shall the children of

2 Plead with your mother, plead : obtained Judah and the children of Israel be for a she is not my wife, neither am I mercy: gathered together, and appoint them- her husband : let her therefore put selves one head, and they shall come away her whoredoms out of her sight, b Ezek. 16. up out of the land: for great shall be and her adulteries from between her the day of Jezreel.

breasts;

b Jer. 3. 18. Ezek. 34. & 37.

a Isai. 50. 1.

perours of Rome. And even in their present state of “ Head” is often given to Christ in the New Testaruin and degradation, without territory and without ment: see Eph. i. 22 ; iv. 15; v. 23; Col. i. 18; so polity of their own, such is the masculine strength of that in Him, who is our peace, all further difference and suffering with which they are endued, they are still enmity being taken away, both Jews and Gentiles are extant in the world, as a separate race, but not as God's made one, Eph. ii. 15, 16, as one body under one head. people, otherwise than as they are reserved for signal Dr. Pocock. mercy; God grant that it may be at no very distant and they shall come up out of the land:] Jeruperiod! But at the present they are Lo-ammi, “Not salem being situated on an eminence, and in the heart My people.” And so they have actually been more of a mountainous region, which rose greatly above the than seventeen centuries and a half; and to this con- general level of the country to a great distance on all dition they were condemned when this prophecy was sides, the sacred writers always speak of persons going delivered. Bp. Horsley.

to Jerusalem, as “going up.” Bp. Horsley. 9. - for ye are not my people,] That is, “Ye, O men This mountain being a type of the Church of Christ, of Judah, are not My people.” Bp. Horsley.

it is very proper and significant language to say of those, 10. Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be as who should come into the Church, that they should the sand of the sea, &c.] We learn from St. Paul, that come up out of the land.” Dr. Pocock. Israel is a name, not only belonging to those, who are - for great shall be the day of Jezreel.] Great and so according to the flesh, but comprehending all that happy shall be the day, when the holy seed of both rightly believe in God, all the seed of Israel and Abra- branches of the natural Israel shall be publickly acham, as well that which is of the faith of Abraham, who knowledged of their God; united under one head, their is the father of all believers, as that which is of the flesh King Messiah; and restored to the possession of the and of the law, Rom. iv. 11, 16; Gal. iii. 7. So that by promised land, and to a situation of high pre-eminence the multitude of believers, as well of the Gentiles as of among the kingdoms of the earth. Bp. Horsley. Or, the Jews, is this to be made good, that “the number of taking the words in a spiritual sense, we may underthe children of Israel should be as the sand of the sea.'

.” stand " the day of Jezreel" as comprehending the whole Dr. Pocock.

time of grace and salvation; all the time since the - and it shall come to pass, that in the place &c.] appearance of Christ, that “one Head,” in whom they, That is, at Jerusalem, or at least in Judea, where this of whom it is said "ye are not My people,” are called prophecy was delivered, and where the execution of the “ the sons of the living God,” and are all gathered tosentence took place. This prophecy appears to promise gether, and ascend out of the world. Dr. Pocock. the restoration of the natural Israel of the house of Judah to their own land. Bp. Horsley.

Chap. II. ver. 1. Say ye unto your brethren, Ammi ; Or, the promise may extend to others, as well as to and to your sisters, Ruhamah.] Although the Israelites, them; even to as many of other nations, who had ever in the days of Hosea, were in general corrupt and adbeen looked on as “ not God's people, as the whole dicted to idolatry, yet there were among them in the Gentile world were ; and that any where, in any place: worst times some, who had not bowed the knee to Baal.

as many as the Lord our God should call,” These were always Ammi, and Ruhamah; God's own Acts ii. 39. Dr. Pocock.

people, and a darling daughter. It is probable that 11. Then shall the children of Judah and the children God here commissions these faithful few to admonish of Israel be gathered together, &c.] When “the fulness the inhabitants of the land in general, of the dreadful of the Gentiles is come in,” this will be a means of con- judgments that would be brought upon them by the verting the Jews, and bringing them into the Church: gross idolatry of the Jewish Church and nation. Speak see Rom. ix. 25, 26. Either the prediction signifies, to your brethren, O Ammi, (O My people,) and to your that upon this will follow the restoration of the Jewish sisters, 0 Ruhamah, (O darling daughter.) Bp. Horsley. nation, when they shall return into their own country 2. Plead with your mother, &c.] Because by her from the several dispersions, where they were scattered, false dealing with God, and alienating herself from God, and become one nation or kingdom under the Messiah, she hath alienated His mind from her, and so far protheir Head and King. Compare Ezek. xxxvii. 21, 22; voked Him, that He hath declared He will in severity Mic. ii, 13. W. Lowth. Or, the being “gathered to- of judgment proceed against her and her children ; let gether” denotes, not so much their coming together her, that she may avert God's displeasure and reconcile into one place, as consent and agreement of mind, the Him again to her, turn to Him by repentance, and put effect of which shall be, that they shall with one accord away from her her idolatries, her spiritual fornications, submit to one government. Dri Pocock.

and evil doings; and let her children, that she

may

do and appoint themselves one head,] The title' of 'so, and that they may escape God's judgments, plead

even to

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