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|| Or, against the host.

Daniel's vision of


the ram and he goat. 10 And it waxed great, even || to of transgression, and it cast down the about 358, the host of heaven; and it cast down truth to the ground; and it practised, about 533,

some of the host and of the stars to and prospered.
the ground, and stamped upon them. 131 Then I heard one saint speak-

11 Yea, he magnified himself even ing, and another saint said unto|| † that 1 Or, the 1 or against. || to the prince of the host, and || by certain saint which spake, How long

him the daily sacrifice was taken shall be the vision concerning the daily membenderful
away, and the place of his sanctuary sacrifice, and the transgression || of Heb.
was cast down.

desolation, to give both the sanctuary or, making
12 And || an host was given him and the host to be trodden under
against the daily sacrifice by reason foot ?

numberer of secrets, or

| Or,

| Or, the host was giren orer for the transgression against the daily sacrilice.


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horn therefore was to rise up in the northwest parts of of “ taking away the daily sacrifice, and casting down those nations, which composed the body of the goat; the place of the sanctuary;" seem to prefigure the most and from thence was to extend his dominion towards grievous miseries, the utter demolition and extirpation Egypt, Syria, and Judea. Sir Isaac Newton.

of the Jewish state, the dreadful devastation made by The actions of the little horn here described accord the Romans under Titus Vespasian, when

the stars well with the Romans. He "waxed exceeding great;" fell from heaven, and the powers of the heavens were and so did the Roman empire, even within the territory shaken.” Dr. Zouch. of the goat.

“ Toward the south;" the Romans made 12. And an host was given &c.] Or, as we read in the Egypt a province of their empire, and kept possession margin, “ the host was given over for the transgression of it for several centuries. "Toward the east;" the against the daily sacrifice, and he cast down the truth to Romans grew very powerful in this direction, conquer the ground, and he practised, and prospered.” Or, as ing and making a province of Syria, which was the the same thing is expressed by the angel, “ He shall eastern kingdom of the goat. “And toward the plea- destroy wonderfully,” &c. see ver. 24, 25. The Romans sant land;" that is, Judea : see Ps. cvi. 24; Jer. iii. 19; carried their conquest and their revenge so far, as to Dan. xi. 16, 41. The Romans effectually conquered put an end to the government of the Jews, and entirely and subdued the Jews, first made a province of their to take away their place and nation. Bp. Newton. country, and then destroyed their city and temple, and 13. — unto that certain saint which spake,] “Unto dispersed the people, so that after so fatal a fall they that excellent one that was speaking." Wintle. This have never been able to rise again. Bp. Newton. “excellent Saint,” who uttered the response, was the

10. And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven ; Oracle Himself, who before appeared to Isaiah in glory, &c.] Or, “ against the host of heaven.” This part of sitting on His throne between the Seraphim, Isai. vi. 1; the prophecy relates mostly to the persecution and op- and now appeared to Daniel, as a man, standing bepression of the people of God. “ The host of heaven fore him," and bidding the other angel, whom He are the people and great men of the Jews. Sir Isaac called Gabriel, to explain the vision to the Prophet. Dr. Newton. Either the Jewish state in general, “ the Hales. mighty and the holy people,” ver. 24: or the priests The word, rendered here “ certain Saint," is transand Levites in particular, who are called "stars," as lated in the margin “the Numberer of secrets,” or “the being eminent for their station, and illustrious for their wonderful Numberer;" and must mean a Person of knowledge; and “the host of heaven,” as they watched extraordinary rank, as being able to unfold those seand served in the temple, and their service is denomi- crets, which were bid from the angels; and is therenated “a warfare," Numb. viii

. 24, 25. Our Saviour fore justly supposed to be the Son of God, called makes use of the like expressions in speaking of the de- “Wonderful, Counsellor,” Isai.ix.6, as being acquainted struction of Jerusalem by the Romans, Matt. xxiv. 29. with all God's purposes and designs ; compare John i. Bp. Newton.

18. W. Lowth. In this elevated language is the Jewish hierarchy How long shall be the vision &c.) Moses had preshadowed out after the manner of the Eastern writers. dicted, that the desolation to follow the Roman capThe Jewish polity, both civil and religious, was the tivity would be of very long continuance, Deut. xxviii. work of Heaven. The government, laws, and worship, 59. And Isaiah had enquired from the Oracle, in vision, of the holy people, were figured by the sun, moon, and How long it should continue ? Isai. vi. 11 ; to which stars. See Matt. xxiv. 29; Mark xiii. 24. Thus the no definite answer was then given. That was reserved fall of Babylon is foretold in Isai. xiii. 10; and the de- for the highly favoured Daniel, in this remarkable struction of Egypt in Ezek. xxxii. 7, 8; and that of episode, introduced into the midst of the second vision, Idumea in Isai. xxxiv. 4, 5, Dr. Zouch.

and intimately connected therewith ; immediately fol11. Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the lowing the account of the destruction of the temple by host,] Or, “ against the prince of the host.” Bp. the Romans. Dr. Hales. Newton. The Messiah, the Prince of the Jews, whom - the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, &c.] In he put to death. Sir Isaac Newton. See the note on the original there is no such word as “concerning :” ver. 25.

and Mr. Lowth rightly observes, that the words may be and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and rendered more agreeably to the Hebrew thus, the place of his sanctuary was cast down.] The Romans how long a time shall the vision last, the daily sacrifice took away the daily sacrifice of the Jews, and utterly be taken away, and the transgression of desolation condestroyed their temple. Bp. Newton.

tinue ?&c. Thus it is rendered in several translations. In the 7th verse the he goat is said to “ cast down the The answer is,“ Unto two thousand and three hundred ram to the ground, and to stamp upon him :" by which days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed."In the is implied the total destruction of the ram. And here original it is “unto two thousand and three hundred the expressions of “casting down some of the host and evenings and mornings," an evening and morning of the stars to the ground, and stamping upon them;" being in Hebrew the notation of time for a day; and

« For

Before CHRIST about 553.

Before CHRIST about 553.

+ Heb. made


+ Heb.

Gabriel comforteth Daniel,


and interpreteth the vision 14 And he said unto me, Unto | toward the ground: but he touched two thousand and three hundred me, and † set me upright.

+ days; then shall the sanctuary be 19 And he said, Behold, I will + Heb. + cleansed.

make thee know what shall be in the me stand morning. 15 | And it came to pass, when I, last end of the indignation : for at the standing.

. justified.

even 1 Daniel, had seen the vision, time appointed the end shall be.
and sought for the meaning, then, 20 The ram which thou sawest
behold, there stood before me as the having two horns are the kings of
appearance of a man.

Media and Persia.
16 And I heard a man's voice be- 21 And the rough goat is the king

tween the banks of Ulai, which called, of Grecia : and the great horn that c Chap. 9. 21. and said, · Gabriel, make this man to is between his eyes is the first king. understand the vision.

22 Now that being broken, where17 So he came near where I stood: as four stood up for it, four kingdoms and when he came I was afraid, and shall stand up out of the nation, but fell upon my face: but he said unto not in his power. me, Understand, O son of man: for 23 And in the latter time of their at the time of the end shall be the kingdom, when the transgressors tare + Heb.are vision.

come to the full

, a king of fierce accomplished. 18 Now as he was speaking with countenance, and understanding dark

me, I was in a deep sleep on my face sentences, shall stand up. . in allusion to this expression it is said afterwards, “The here given to the Prophet, either to put him in mind vision of the evening and the morning is true.” that he was but flesh and blood, that he might not be

The days without doubt are to be taken agreeably to exalted for having these heavenly visions imparted to the style of Daniel in other places, not for natural, but him; or else it may be interpreted for a mark or title prophetick days; that is, years; and as the question of honour, implying something more than an ordiwas asked, not only how long the daily sacrifice should nary man, even such an one as was highly favoured be taken away, and the transgression of desolation con- and beloved of God. W. Lowth. See the note on tinue, but also how long the vision shall last ; so the Ezek. ii. 1. answer is to be understood; and these two thousand for at the time of the end shall be the vision.] Or, and three hundred days denote the whole time from the “ to the time of the end;" that is, there is a precise beginning of the vision to the cleansing of the sanc- time appointed for the accomplishment of the vision, tuary. 'l'he sanctuary is not yet cleansed, and conse- when it shall certainly be fultilled. See ver. 19; and quently these years are not yet expired. When these compare chap. ix. 27'; xi. 35, 36; Hab. ii. 3. W. years shall be expired, then their end will clearly shew Lowth. from whence the beginning is to be dated, whether from 19. — in the last end of the indignation :] Or, “to the the vision of the ram, or of the he goat, or of the little last end of the indignation.” I will explain to thee horn. It is difficult to fix the precise time, when the the whole series of God's judgments upon His people prophetick dates begin, and when they end, till the pro- to the end and conclusion of them. See chap. xii. 8. phecies are fulfilled, and the event declares the certainty W. Lowth. of them. Bp. Newton.

23. And in the latter time of their kingdom, &c.] That 16. And I heard a man's voicewhich called, and said, is, of Alexander's successors. Dr. Hales. The Romans Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.] And I might well be said to stand up “ in the latter time of heard the voice of Him, who was the Word of His their kingdom,” for they saw the end, not only of one Father, speaking in the tone of a man, betwixt the kingdom, but of all the four, which were successively banks of Ulai ; which called and said, Gabriel, it is subdued, or otherwise gotten possession of, by the the pleasure of Him, who is the God of spirits, that Romans. Bp. Newton. thou make this man to understand the vision. Bp. when the transgressors are come to the full,] Hall.

Alluding to the various invasions of the Jewish polity The Person who utters this voice seems to be the and religion which took place under the Romans; when, same who is called “the wonderful Numberer,” ver. 13; among other profanations, under the Roman consul because He speaks as one that had authority over the Paulus Æmilius, the Jewish religion was put down, angel Gabriel. W. Lowth.

and the heathen worship was set up in the cities of Daniel was so overpowered by the Divine presence, Judea, and in Jerusalem; and the temple itself was that he fell on his face in a deep sleep or trance towards consecrated to Jupiter Olympius, and his image was the earth, till Gabriel touched him, and restored him to erected upon the very altar. Then indeed “ the transhis senses, and set him upright, and then explained to gressors were come to the full ;” and then, as we see, him more particularly the former historical part of the the Romans “stood up a king of fierce countenance, vision : concluding with a reference to the latter chro- and understanding dark sentences.' Bp. Newton. nological part, or “vision of the evening-mornings," a king of fierce countenance, and understanding that it was "true," or would be verified by the accom- dark sentences,] “A king” in the prophetick style is plishment; but that the accomplishment was remote, or the same as “a kingdom" and a kingdom is any state

for many days,” and that “the vision was shut up," or government. Bp. Newton, or sealed, and its further disclosure hidden for the pre- What follows is a description of the Roman power sent. Dr. Hales.

and policy, in subduing the world by force and iraud. 17.- O son of man:] . This title is given to none of That peculiar characteristick of the Romans,“ the the Prophets but Ezekiel and Daniel." Probably it is I fierce countenance,” first noticed by Moses, Deut.



Gabriel interpreteth

the vision. 24 And his power shall be mighty, 25 And through his policy also he about 553, but not by his own power : and he shall cause craft to prosper in his about 553.

shall destroy wonderfully, and shall hand; and he shall magnify himself

prosper, and practise, and shall destroy in his heart, and by || peace shall des- 1 or, people of the the mighty and the + holy people. troy many: he shall also stand up

+ Heb.



. 50, is here repeated, so as to leave no doubt of successful as the Romans? Even their temporary disits application. Dr. Hales. The classical reader will appointments and defeats gave fresh vigour to them. doubtless recollect numberless instances of that peculiar They continually renewed their strength, after the most trait in the person of a Roman citizen, which the Pro- violent and rude attacks; and, though for a short time phets Moses and Daniel have conveyed by the term of deep sunk in calamity and distress, they fainted not, but a fierce countenance.” Dr. Zouch.

with redoubled efforts exerted their wonted prowess. The latter phrase is translated in the Syriack,“ skilful They seem to have been thoroughly sensible of their in ruling;” and in the Arabick, “skilful of disputa- own good fortune, as appears from the inscriptions on tions.” It may mean, that this would be a politick their coins, indicating in various phrases their sense of and artful, as well as a formidable, power. Bp. Newton. the prosperity of their empire. It may be added, that

The policy, with which the Romans conducted their this good fortune peculiarly attended them in their designs, is thought to be meant in this passage, in al- Eastern conquests. Dr. Zouch. lusion to their adroitness and penetration in discovering and practise,] That is, shall perform great actions. the designs of their enemies, their knowledge of the The great and splendid actions of the Romans have parties and interests that prevailed in the courts and commanded the admiration of all ages. To this subject councils of different princes; in short, their consum- the panegyrist finds himself unequal. So long as the mate skill in the intricacies of political intrigue. The volumes of history are read, the achievements of this contrivances of artful and subtle statesmen may very wonderful people will be viewed with astonishment and justly be called “dark sentences.” In the art of un- applause. Dr. Zouch. ravelling their covert and secret machinations, consisted and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.] that singular address, which distinguished the character And thus fully accomplish the direful imprecation of of the Roman people. Their arms were victorious: but the Jews, when they urged Pontius Pilate to hasten the their victories were ensured only by the artifice and death of Jesus Christ; “His blood be on us and on our prudence with which they conducted themselves on children.” Dr. Zouch. Concerning the destruction of every occasion. Dr. Zouch.

Jerusalem by the Romans, see the notes on Deut. 24. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own xxviii; Matt. xxiv. power :] The strength of the other kingdoms consisted 25. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to in themselves, and had its foundation in some part of prosper in his hand ;] The original word, rendered the goat; but the Roman empire, as a horn or kingdom craft,” is always taken in a bad sense, and implies of the goat, was not mighty by its own power, was not every kind of fraud, injustice, and deception. This strong by virtue of the goat; but drew its nourishment strong lineament is exemplified by the insincerity, artiand strength from Rome and Italy. There grew the fice, and injustice of the Roman patricians in their contrunk and body of the tree, though the branches ex- duct towards the plebeians : but it peculiarly belongs tended over Greece, Asia, Syria, and Egypt. Bp. New to the character of the Romans, if we consider those ton. Or, it may mean, that the singular progress of scenes of fraud and injustice, which were exhibited by the Roman greatness was to be attributed, not so much them towards the conquered nations, when reduced to to their own strength, as to the assistance of their allies, the form of a province. Dr. Zouch. and not seldom to the feuds and divisions of their and he shall magnify himself in his heart,] See enemies, of which they were always on the watch to 1 Mac. viii

. 13. This expression is strictly applicable take advantage. Dr. Hales. It was the consummate to the insolent conduct of Rome after a successful and policy of the Romans to use the resources and strength destructive war. The epithets, so liberally bestowed of every conquered nation in still further conquest; and on the city of Rome, upon ancient coins and medals, thus to make the world, as it were, the great instrument imply much vanity and presumption. Proud and arroof its own subjection. Dr. Zouch.

gant titles were conferred upon the Roman emperours. and he shall destroy wonderfully, &c.] See the Indeed their poets, their orators, and their historians, note on ver. 12. The Romans “ destroyed wonderfully" seldom omit an opportunity of exulting in the boasted both by their arms and their arts : and, even in times of universal empire of the city. The citizens held them“ peace,” by their cruel and bloody combats of gladi- selves equal to kings and princes. They confounded ators and captives. Dr. Hales.

their dominion with the extent of the globe of the earth. Rome was the seat of perpetual wars. Mithridates, Cicero speaks of Rome in all the language of panegyrick : when he saw the Romans eager to watch every oppor- and by one of her own historians, Rome is pronounced tunity of embroiling themselves in war, said of them, to be the city destined for the habitation of men and These conquerors of mankind seem to be really de- gods. Dr. Zouch. scendants of a wolf; such is their rapacity, such their and by peace shall destroy many:] Or rather, insatiable avidity.” In wars with foreign nations they “ in peace shall destroy many. Even in times of were not sparing of the blood of their enemies. Their tranquillity and peace, he shall delight in scenes of cruelty excites our indignation. The effusion of blood cruelty and slaughter. As the character of a people in their civil commotions, the dreadful carnage which may be deduced from their diversions, when we confollowed their odious proscriptions, the savage massacres sider the entertainments to which the Romans were of their best and most virtuous citizens, can only tend principally addicted, we must, I fear, pronounce them to inspire sentiments of horrour and aversion. And, as a people estranged from the sentiments of humanity, to their humanity in the administration of justice, many in peace destroying many." What can fix them in a of their laws may be said, like those of Draco, to have more unpleasing point of view, than the shews of their been written in blood. Dr. Zouch.

gladiators ? Even in the most flourishing and polished and shall prosper,] What nation was ever so I periods of their state, they left their theatres, to become


d 2 Mac. 9. 9.

Gabriel interpreteth

the vision. cheerst against the Prince of princes; but he | up, and did the king's business; and about 553. shall be a broken without hand. I was astonished at the vision, but about 553.

26 And the vision of the evening none understood it.
and the morning which was told is

true: wherefore shut thou up the
vision: for it shall be for


i Daniel, considering the time of the captidays.

vity, 3 maketh confession of sins, 16 and 27 And I Daniel fainted, and was

prayeth for the restoration of Jerusalem.

20 Gabriel informeth him of the seventy sick certain days; afterwards I rose weeks.

spectators of cruel and bloody combats. Nor has a character of the Romans will appear to be most accusingle writer among them intimated his disapprobation rately defined in this justly-celebrated prophecy; as of such a conduct, except Seneca, the philosopher. being, 1. A people of fierce countenance, of great perTheir other diversions, such as the sight of their fellow sonal courage: 2. Noted also for their policy and wiscreatures torn in pieces by wild beasts, did not discover dom: 3. Rising to dominion and power, not so much marks of a more mild and merciful temper. Lipsius by their own strength, as by the assistance of their conhas observed, that no war brought such slaughter and federates, and not seldom by the feuds and divisions of devastation on the human race, as these diversions; their enemies : 4. Engaged in almost perpetual wars, and that one month has cost Europe twenty or thirty and making dreadful havock and slaughter on the thousand lives. Dr. Zouch.

earth; 5. Generally successful in their designs: 6. Perhe shall also stand up against the Prince of forming great and illustrious actions : and, 7. Apprinces ;] It was by the malice of the Jews, but by the pointed by Providence as an instrument for the punishauthority of the Romans, that the Messiah was put to ment of the Jews, the holy people of God. 8. Cordeath, and He suffered the punishment of the Roman ruption soon prevailed among the Romans; fraud and malefactors and slaves. Bp. Newton. “He shall stand extortion prospered in their provinces. 9. This people up against,” that is, shall become the judge of, "the assumed high and lofty titles, treating their conquered Prince of princes.” The word, rendered - shall stand enemies with great insolence and pride, and considering up against,” is probably used here, as in other passages themselves as sovereigns of the universe. 10. In times of Scripture, in a forensick sense; and thus expresses, of peace feasting their eyes with cruel and bloody specin vivid colours, the judicial proceedings of the Roman tacles. 11. And to complete the whole, we see a Rojudge against Jesus Christ. For that by "the Prince man magistrate judging the Messiah, and passing the of princes” is here meant Jesus Christ, will admit, I sentence of death upon “ the Prince of princes.' It think, of little doubt. This splendid title is properly must be allowed that the annals of Rome are adorned applied to Him, who is called the “ Prince of the kings with noble examples of genuine and disinterested virtue. of the earth,” Rev. i. 5; "Lord of lords, and King of Yet whatever encomium is due to the great and splendid kings," Rev. xvii. 14; “The Prince of Peace,” Isai. ix. qualities of several illustrious individuals, displayed 6 ; whose "dominion is an everlasting dominion, which both in publick and in private life, perhaps the national shall not pass away,” Dan. vii. 14; “to whom all character of the Romans cannot be more clearly delipower was given in heaven and in earth,” Matt. xxviii. neated than in the portrait, which is here presented to 18; who, like a triumphant conqueror, “led captivity us. Dr. Zouch. captive," Eph. iv. 8; who is the “Star" that was to 26. — wherefore shut thou up the vision ;] The same come out of Jacob, and the “Sceptre” that was to arise thing is expressed by shutting up the words," and out of Israel, Numb. xxiv. 17; before whom "all kings sealing the book," chap. xii. 4. The expression in shall fall down,” and whom “all nations shall serve,'

" both places denotes the concealing of the sense of it Ps. lxxii. 11; the “ Prince" or Captain of our salva- from common understandings; or the deferring of the tion,” Heb. ii. 10. Or, " to stand up against the Prince accomplishment of the events therein foretold. So we of princes" may be interpreted, to oppose His authority, find "shutting” and “opening,". sealing” and “unby persecuting His faithful servants, and depreciating folding,” are opposed in the prophetical language, and their merit; and thus to wage war against Him and import the same as concealing and revealing; delaying His religion. The page of history is stained with deeds the accomplishment of a prophecy, and bringing it into of exquisite cruelty and inhuman barbarity, exercised effect. See Isai. xxix. 11; Rev. v. 1—5; xxii. 10. The by the Romans against the first professors of Christ- words instruct us, that prophecies are never fully unianity: and while the supreme magistrate of Rome in- derstood till they are accomplished; and the nearer the dulged himself in the various modes of torture, the time approaches of their accomplishment, the more light zeal of the historian was equally exerted in debasing the shall diligent searchers have for explaining them. See characters of innocent men, and branding their religion chap. xii. 4. W. Lowth. with odious appellations. Dr. Zouch.

27. And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days ;] - but he shail be broken without hand.] As “the So much was he affected with the misfortunes and stone,” in Nebuchadnezzar's dream, was “ cut out of afflictions, which were to befall the Church and penple the mountain without hands,” that is, not by human, of God. This concern of Daniel, and affection for his but by supernatural means, so “ the little horn shall be religion and country, shew him in a very amiable light, broken without hand;" not die the common death, nor and give an additional lustre and glory to his character. fall by the hand of men, but perish by a stroke from Bp. Newton. Heaven. And this agrees perfectly with other predictions of the fatal catastrophe of Rome. See chap. ii. Chap. IX. This chapter contains a very affecting 34; vii. 11, 26. All which implies, that the dominion and fervent prayer of Daniel, on a near view of the exof the Romans shall be finally destroyed with some ex- piration of the seventy years allotted for Judah's captraordinary manifestation of the Divine power. Bp. tivity; the success of his prayer is pointed out at the Newton.

conclusion of it, and the deliverance of his brethren is To a reader, conversant in the history of Rome, the communicated to the Prophet in a very extraordinary

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Before CHRIST about 538.


11 Or, in which he, &c.


& 29. 10.

Daniel, considering the time of the CHAP. IX.

captivity, maketh confession of sins. IN N the first year of Darius the son, that are near, and that are far off,

of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the through all the countries whither thou Medes, || which was made king over hast driven them, because of their the realm of the Chaldeans;

trespass that they have trespassed 2 In the first year of his reign I against thee. Daniel understood by books the num- 8 O Lord, d to us belongeth confu- 4 Baruch 1.

ber of the years, whereof the word of sion of face, to our kings, to our a Jer. 25. 12. the LORD came to a Jeremiah the princes, and to our fathers, because

prophet, that he would accomplish we have sinned against thee.
seventy years in the desolations of 9 To the Lord our God belong

mercies and forgivenesses, though we
39 And I set my face unto the have rebelled against him;
LORD God, to seek by prayer and 10 Neither have we obeyed the
supplications, with fasting, and sack- voice of the LORD our God, to walk
cloth, and ashes :

in his laws, which he set before us
4 And I prayed unto the LORD my by his servants the prophets.

God, and made my confession, and 11 Yea, all Israel have transgressh Neh. 1.5. said, O Lord, the great and dread- ed thy law, even by departing, that

ful God, keeping the covenant and they might not obey thy voice; there-
mercy to them that love him, and to fore the curse is poured upon us, and
them that keep his commandments; the oath that is written in the e law of e Lev. 26. 14,

5 ° We have sinned, and have com- Moses the servant of God, because Deut. 28. 15,
mitted iniquity, and have done wicked- we have sinned against him.
ly, and have rebelled, even by de- 12 And he hath confirmed his 18. & 31. 17,
parting from thy precepts and from words, which he spake against us, and &c.
thy judgments :

against our judges that judged us, by
6°Neither have we hearkened unto bringing upon us a great evil: for
thy servants the prophets, which spake under the whole heaven hath not
in thy name to our kings, our princes, been done as hath been done upon
and our fathers, and to all the people Jerusalem.
of the land.

13 Asl it is written in the law of Lev. 26. 14. 7 O Lord, righteousness || be- Moses, all this evil is come upon us : Lam. 2. 17. hast, &c.

longeth unto thee, but unto us con- yet | made we not our prayer before 1 Heb.
fusion of faces, as at this day; to the the Lord our God, that we might not the faccos
men of Judah, and to the inhabitants turn from our iniquities, and under-the, &c.
of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, stand thy truth.


c Baruch 1. 17.

&c. & 29. 20, &c. & 30. 17,

&c. & 32. 19,

Deut. 28. 15.

| Or, thou

revelation by the angel Gabriel ; but the misconduct and confession,] Both acknowledging His justice and holiingratitude of the Jews would occasion the nitter destruc- ness, and my own and my people's iniquity. The better tion of their restored city, after a period, and by reason men are, the greater is the sense of their guilt, and the of an event, which the prophecy plainly indicates. deeper is their humiliation ; see Job xlii. 6; 1 Tim. i. Wintle.

15. W. Lowth. Ver. 1. - Darius the son of Ahasuerus,] Called Cy- Daniel here sets himself to confess his sins, and axares, the son of Astyages, by the heathen historians, those of his countrymen, and to entreat for mercy on with whom Josephus agrees. “ Astyages had the name Jerusalem, with a fervour and affection never to be exof Ahasuerus among the Jews : see Tobit xiv. 15. W. ceeded. Our devotions, according to this model, should Lowth. For Ahasuerus see note at Ezra iv. 6.

consist of confession of sins ; deprecation of the punish2. 1 Daniel understood by books) The several pro- ments and judgments acknowledged to be justly due to phecies of Jeremiah are called so many books. See them; supplication for pardon, deliverance, and grace; Jer. xxv. 13; xxix. 1. W. Lowth.

and intercession for the Church, and all included in seventy years] Which were now very far ad- her, our relations, friends, countrymen, and fellow Chrisvanced. This first year of Darius was the sixty-eighth tians, and more especially for all the sons and daughters of the captivity. Wintle.

of affliction : the whole to be concluded with thanksgiv3. And I set my face unto the Lord God,] I directed ing; concerning which we may observe, that no my face towards the place where the temple stood: see situation in this world can exclude the necessity, chap. vi. 10. W. Lowth.

and take away the ground of it, since we find Daniel to seek by prayer and supplications,]. The pro- “giving thanks," when the city and temple of God mises of God are generally conditional : and the pro- were in ashes, and himself a captive in Babylon. Even mise of restoring the Jews after seventy years' captivity, then he not only," prayed,” but also “gave thanks had this condition particularly expressed, that they before his God, as he did aforetime,” chap. vi. 10. Bp. should "call upon Him and pray unto Him," and then Horne. He would “hearken unto them,” Jer. xxix. 12, W. 12. - our judges that judged us,] Judges here sigLowth.

nify any princes or rulers. Compare Job xii. 17; Ps. 4. And I prayed unto the Lord my God, and made my ii. 10; cxlviii. 11; Prov. viii. 16." W. Lowth.

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