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of four beasts. teeth: it devoured and brake in were three of the first horns plucked celor S T about 555. pieces, and stamped the residue with up by the roots : and, behold, in this about sss. the feet of it : and it was diverse horn were eyes like the eyes
9 9 I beheld till the thrones were
another little horn, before whom there snow, and the hair of his head like ticularly what this beast might mean; see ver. 19; and springing all together from its head was recorded as was answered by the angel in the 23rd verse. This one, and that these horns were expressly interpreted to fourth kingdom can be no other than the Roman empire, mean ten kings or kingdoms. Bp. Hallifax. which was “ dreadful, and terrible, and strong exceed- 8. - behold, there came up among them another little ingly,” beyond any of the former kingdoms. It was horn,] In all the several respects, which the Prophet “diverse from all kingdoms,” not only in its republican notices, the Pope fully answers the character of the form of government, but likewise in strength, and power, little horn;" so that if exquisite fitness of application and greatness, length of duration, and extent of domi- may assure us of the true sense of the propbecy, we nion. “It devoured, and brake in pieces, and stamped can have no doubt concerning the person. He is here the residue with the feet of it :” it reduced Macedon called “ a little horn :” and the power of the popes was into a Roman province about 168 years, the kingdom of originally very small, and their temporal dominions Pergamus about 133 years, Syria about 65 years, and were little, and inconsiderable in comparison with others Egypt about 30 years, before Christ. And besides the of the ten horns. Bp. Newton. For the several points of remains of the Macedonian empire, it subdued many resemblance, see the notes on ver. 20, 21, 24, 25. other provinces and kingdoms, so that it might by before whom there were three of the first horns a very usual figure be said to “devour the whole plucked up by the roots :] Three of the ten kingdoms, earth, and to tread it down, and break it in pieces ;” namely, those of the Heruli
, the Ostrogoths, and the and became in a manner what the Roman writers de Lombards, were successively plucked up or eradicated lighted to call it, the empire of the whole world. Bp. before the little horn, in the way of which they stood: Newton.
and by the annexation of their dominions to the papacy, Daniel has not described the shape of this beast, but the pope became also a temporal power. Hence he St. John has supplied the deficiency; representing it in assumed the three keys in his arms, and the triple the Apocalypse as compounded of all the rest, or com- crown or mitre, as a temporal prince; and “his look bining their destructive qualities, having “the body of was more stout than his fellows,” whom he frequently the leopard, the feet of the bear, and the mouth of the awed by his anathemas and excommunications. Dr. lion,” and exceeding them in having seven heads, but Hales. with the same number of ten horns, which marks its in this horn were eyes &c.] See below on identity with Daniel's fourth beast, Rev. xiii. 1, 2. Dr.
ver. 20. Hales.
9. I beheld till the thrones were cast down, &c.] That stamped the residue with the feet of it:) This is, till all the earthly kingdoms were brought to an end : alludes to the fury of wild beasts, which stamp upon but the word may be rendered" were pitched,” or set that part of their prey that they cannot devour. 'W. down, for the reception of the Deity, and the saints who Lowth.
sat by Him; see Matt. xix. 28, and Rev. iv. 4; and this and it had ten horns.] Another remarkable pro- sense the versions follow. Wintle. perty of this fourth beast is, that "it had ten horns :" The fourth monarchy being to continue till the conand according to the angel's interpretation, ver. 24," the summation of all things, the general judgment is deten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings,” or king- scribed in this and the following verses, wherein sentence doms, “ that shall arise.” “ Four kings,” a little before, was to pass upon this fourth beast, and an end to be ver. 17, signified four kingdoms : and so here “ten put to his dominion. W. Lowth. kings” are ten kingdoms, according to the usual phra- - the Ancient of days] The eternal Judge of the seology of Scripture. We must look for these king- world; see Rev. xvi. 5; He that was from the begindoms amid the broken pieces of the Roman empire, ning, 1 John ii. 14 : who is elsewhere described "coverrepresented under the fourth beast. The Roman empire ing Himself with light as with a garment,” Ps. civ. 2 ; was, by means of the incursions of the northern nations, and as a clear and unspotted brightness, 1 John i. 5. dismembered into ten kingdoms; and Machiavel hath W. Lowth. given us their names; 1. the Ostrogoths in Mæsia; By this term is undoubtedly meant the Deity, the 2. the Visigoths in Pannonia ; 3. the Sueves and Alans supreme eternal Spirit, whom the Prophet thus describes, in Gascoigne and Spain; 4. the Vandals in Africa; to adapt himself to human apprehensions, and to make 5. the Franks in France ; 6. the Burgundians in Bur- the following part of his descriptions more intelligible; gundy ; 7. the Heruli and Turingi in Italy; 8. the Saxons but no similitude is pointed out, nor ought we from and Angles in Britain ; 9. the Huns in Hungary; 10. hence to attempt to represent by any figure the invisible the Lombards, at first upon the Danube, afterwards in God. Image.worship was not allowed the Jews under a Italy. Bp. Newton,
less perfect dispensation, and therefore must be very illThe names of these ten kingdoms have been enume- suited to the spirituality of the Christian service. "The rated by several writers of the most respectable autho- purity and sanctity of the Divine nature are next sharity; and the few variations in their accounts may be dowed forth by similar allusions. The throne and wheels readily explained from the confusion and uncertainty of of fire at the conclusion of this verse may serve to denote the times of which they wrote. It is enough for us, His dread majesty, that pierces and penetrates all things, and an illustrious verification of the prophecies of Holy summons all to His judgment, and executes in an instant Scripture, that such a partition was noticed long before His sovereign will and final determinations. See Rev. by Daniel; and that among other particularities men- iv. 2, &c. and Ezek. i. 26. Grotius observes, the ancient tioned as incident to the fourth beast, this of ten horns thrones and curule chairs had wheels. Wintle.
+ Chald. a
His vision of God's kingdom.
The vision interpreted. the pure
wool: and his throne was / which shall not pass away, and his about 555. like the fiery flame, and his wheels as kingdom that which shall not be de- about 555. burning fire.
stroyed. 10 X fiery stream issued and came 15 q I Daniel was grieved in my a Rev. 5. 11. forth from before him: a thousand spirit in the midst of my + body, Chald.
thousands ministered unto him, and and the visions of my head troubled
16 I came near unto one of them • Rev. 20. 12. and the b books were opened. that stood by, and asked him the
11 I beheld then because of the truth of all this. So he told me, and
out of the earth.
away: yet † their lives were pro- possess the kingdom for ever, even places. prolonging in life was giren longed for a season and time:
for ever and ever. 13 I saw in the night visions, and, 19 Then I would know the truth behold, one like the Son of man came of the fourth beast, which was diverse with the clouds of heaven, and came † from all the others, exceeding Chald. from to the Ancient of days, and they dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, brought him near before him. and his nails of brass ; which de
14 And there was given him do-voured, brake in pieces, and stamped minion, and glory, and a kingdom, the residue with his feet;
that all people, nations, and lan- 20 And of the ten horns that were Chap. 2. 44. guages, should serve him: his do- in his head, and of the other which
minion is an everlasting dominion, came up, and before whom three fell; 10. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before Him that followeth doth declare. The two foregoing him:] Lightnings and streams of fire were His har- verses having explained why the fourth beast was debingers, to give notice of His speedy approach. Com-stroyed, this part of the verse shews by whom it was pare Ps. 1. 3; xcvii. 3. W. Lowth.
done, represents Christ in His judicial capacity, and thousand thousands ministered unto him, &c.] His describes Him by the title He often gives Himself," the retinue was an innumerable company of angels. See Son of man,” in allusion to this place : particularly He Deut. xxxiii. 2; Ps. lxviii. 17; Heb. xii. 22; Rev. v. 11. alludes to this text, Matt. xxvi. 64, where He speaks of W. Lowth. This is a figurative description of the last His coming in “ the clouds of heaven,” by which exjudgment, probably taken from the Jewish courts of pression Hé acknowledged himself to be Messias here justice. Wintle.
described; and gave a direct answer to the question 11, I beheld then because of the voice of the great words proposed to Him, “ Art thou the Christ, the Son of the &c.] The final overthrow, or total abolition of this Blessed?"compare Mark xiv. 61, 62 ; Rev. i. 7 : wherebeast, on account of the blasphemies or presumptions upon they condemned Him as guilty of blasphemy. W. of the eleventh horn, is here described; and the refer- Lowth. ence is probably to that awful reckoning, when the - and they brought him near before him.] To signify beast and the false prophet were to be cast alive into a that Christ received His kingdom from his Father : see lake of fire, burning with brimstone; and to this the fire, Matt. xi. 27; xxviii. 18; John ii. 35; 1 Cor. xv. 27; the judgment, and the entire destruction of the beast Eph. i. 21; Phil. ii. 9, 10; Rev. v. 7. Compare Jer. naturally lead our attention. See Rev. xix. 20. Wintle. xxx. 21. W. Lowth. To take at His hands investiture
12. Ås concerning the rest of the beasts, &c.] As to of His new dignity, this exercise of His universal and the three first monarchies, though the succeeding mo- everlasting kingdom. Bp. Chandler. narchy took away the dominion of that which went 14. And there was given him dominion, &c.] All these before, yet it was not done all at once, but by degrees; kingdoms shall in their turns be destroyed, but the kingand the nations, where those monarchies were seated, dom of the Messiah shall stand for ever : compare Luke still had a being, though they changed their masters. i. 33. Bp. Newton. Whereas the destruction of the last monarchy implied 16. I came near unto one of them that stood by,] To one the putting of an end to that empire and to all other of the angels, who always attended upon the throne of earthly governments : the kingdom of Christ being then God and Christ, ver. 9, 10. Several angels are repreimmediately to take place. See ver. 13, 14; chap. ii. 34. sented as being present at Daniel's visions : see chap. W. Lowth.
viii. 13, 16; x, 5, 6, 16; xii. 5, 6. W. Louth. 13. - behold, one like the Son of man came with the 19. Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, clouds of heaven,]. One in the shape and likeness of a &c.] See the note on ver. 7. man; but clothed with such ensigns of majesty, as 20. And of the ten horns, &c.] See the last note on shewed Him to be an extraordinary Person ; (see the ver. 7. note upon Ezek. ii. 1 ; and compare Rev. i. 13; xiv. 14;) and of the other which came up, and before whom indeed no less than the Messiah, as the description of three fell ;] See the notes on ver. 8.
Mic, 4. 7.
Before CHRIST about 555.
The interpretation of
Daniel's vision. even of that horn that had
and 24 And the ten horns out of this
them; and he shall be diverse from
25 And he shall speak great words
until a time and times and the divid-
26 But the judgment shall sit,
27 And the d kingdom and do- d Luke 1. 33. even of that horn that had eyes,] Of the little horn, attributes and titles of holiness and infallibility; exactwhich represents the papal power, it was before said, ing obedience to his ordinances and decrees in prefe“in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man,” ver. 8: rence to, and open violation of, reason and Scripture; namely, to denote his cunning and foresight, his looking insulting men, and blaspheming God. Bp. Newton. out and watching all opportunities to promote his own and shall wear out the saints of the most High,] interest. And the policy of the Roman hierarchy hath See above, note on ver. 21. almost passed into a proverb. Bp. Newton.
- and think to change times and laws :] Appointing and a mouth that spake very great things,] Such fasts and feasts, canonizing saints, granting pardons had the Pope, especially in former ages, boasting of his and indulgences for sins, instituting new modes of supremacy, thundering out his bulls and anathemas, worship, imposing new articles of faith, enjoining new excommunicating princes, and absolving subjects from rules of practice, and reversing at pleasure the laws both their allegiance. Bp. Newton.
of God and men. Bp. Newton. whose look was more stout than his fellows.] The and they shall be given into his hand until a time Pope has assumed an unlimited superiority, not only and times and the dividing of time.] “They," that is, over his fellow bishops, but even over crowned heads. either the saints shall be subject to his power, or his Bp. Newton.
influence shall prevail over the times, or solemnities, and 21. — the same horn made war with the saints, &e.) And laws. Possibly both might be meant to be included in below, he “shall wear out the saints of the Most High," the usurpation. Wintle. ver. 25 : that.is, by wars, and massacres, and inquisi- The period here mentioned must be computed accordtions, persecuting and destroying the faithful servants ing to the nature and genius of the prophetick lanof Jesus and the true worshippers of God, who protest guage. According to this “time and times and the diagainst his innovations, and refuse to comply with the viding of time,” or half a time, are three years and a half: idolatry practised in the Church of Rome. Bp. Newton, and the ancient Jewish year consisting of twelve months,
22. Until the Ancient of days came, &c.] Until the and each month of thirty days, “ a time and times and half final judgment, when the saints shall sit as assessors a time,” or three years and a half, are reckoned in the with God, shall be seated on thrones, and reign as kings Revelation as equivalent to "forty and two months," or and priests with God and Christ, and possess the king- a thousand two hundred and threescore days,” chap. dom for ever, Rev. xx. 4, 6. Wintle.
xi. 2, 3 ; xii. 6, 14: and a day in the style of the Proand another shall rise after them ;] Rather, phets is a year, Ezek. iv. 6: and it is confessed, that “behind them :” the meaning appears to be, that the the seventy weeks in the ninth chapter of Daniel are ten horns were not aware of the growing up of “the weeks of years; and consequently 1260 days are 1260 little horn,” till it overtopped them. Jos. Mede. years. So long the little horn, or the papal power, will
he shall be diverse from the first,] The papal continue : but from what point of time the commencepower being an ecclesiastical and spiritual, as well as a ment of these 1260 years is to be dated, is not so easy civil and temporal authority. Bp. Newton.
to determine. And, as Ireneus saith in a like case, it he shall subdue three kings.] See note on ver. 8, is surer and safer to wait for the completion of the pro“ before whom there were three" &c.
phecy, than to conjecture and divine about it. When 25. And he shall speak great words against the most the end shall come, then shall we know better whence High,] See ver. 8, 20; chap. xi. 36. St. John plainly to date the beginning. Bp. Newton. alludes to this text, Rev. xii. 5, 6, where the beast is 26. But the judgment shall sit, &c.] This being the said "to open his mouth in blasphemy against God.” last of the four earthly kingdoms or monarchies, when This he did by advancing his own authority above that that is destroyed, there will be an end of the present of God, and in derogation to His laws; compare 2 state of things, when all human “rule, authority, and Thess. ii. 4; as also by setting up the worship of power,” shall cease, 1 Cor. xv. 24 ; and “the kingdoms images, and other idolatrous practices, which the Pro- of this world shall become the kingdoms of our Lord, phet Isaiah calls reproaching and blaspheming God, and of His Christ,” Rev. xi. 15. W. Lowth. Isai. Ixv. 7. W. Lowth.
After what manner these great changes will be efOr, as Symmachus interprets it, “he shall speak great fected, we cannot pretend to say, since God hath not words as the Most High :" setting up himself above all been pleased to reveal it. We see the remains of the "ten laws divine and human, arrogating to himself godlike horns” which arose out of the Roman empire. We see the
Before CHRIST about 553.
His vision of
the ram and he goat. c Heforst minion, and the greatness of the 2 And I saw in a vision; and it about 555. kingdom under the whole heaven, came to pass, when I saw, that I was
shall be given to the people of the at Shushan in the palace, which is in
dom is an everlasting kingdom, and a vision, and I was by the river of
3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and
4 I saw the ram pushing westward,
and northward, and southward ; so
deliver out of his hand; but he did
king Belshazzar a vision appeared great.
on the face of the whole earth, and “ little horn” still subsisting, though not in its full pears from hence, that it was usual for the king of strength and vigour, but as we hope upon the decline, Persia to wear, instead of a diadem, a ram’s head made and tending towards a dissolution. And having seen so of gold, and adorned with precious stones. Bp. Newmany of these particulars accomplished, we can have no ton. Rams' heads with horns, one higher and the other reason to doubt that the rest also will be fulfilled in due lower, are still to be seen on the pillars of Persepolis. season, though we cannot frame any conception, how | Sir J. Chardin. Christ will be manifested in glory, how the little horn the two horns were high ; &c.] This is said, bewith the body of the fourth beast will be given to the cause the empire of the Medes and Persians was a burning flame, or how the saints will take the kingdom, coalition of two very formidable powers : “but one was and possess it for ever and ever. It is the nature of higher than the other, and the higher came up last.” such prophecies not to be perfectly understood till they The kingdom of Media was the more ancient of the are fulfilled. The best comment upon them will be two, and more famous in history: Persia was of little their completion. Bp. Newton.
note or account till the time of Cyrus, but under Cyrus
the Persians gained and maintained the ascendant. Bp. Chap. VIII. Hitherto the prophecies of Daniel, that Newton. is, from the fourth verse of the second chapter to this 4. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and chapter, are written in Chaldee. As they greatly con- southward ;) Daniel saw the ram standing,” or estacerned the Chaldeans, so they were published in that blished in his strength, after the succession of the Perlanguage. But the remaining prophecies are written in sian power under Cyrus ; and then butting “westward, Hebrew, because they treat altogether of affairs subse- and northward, and southward,” or subduing Lydia, quent to the times of the Chaldeans, and relate not at Babylonia, and Egypt, with their dependencies, repreall to them, but principally to the Church and people of sented in the former vision by three ribs in the bear's God. Bp. Newton.
mouth. Dr. Hales. Ver. 2. - Shushan — Elam ; — Ulai.] Elam, in its - he did according to his will, and became great.] larger sense, probably comprehended the whole country None of the neighbouring kingdoms being able to withon each side of the river Ulai, or Eulæus, the one part stand its power, the Persian empire was increased and being called Elymais, the other Susiana. Shushan, the enlarged to such a degree, that it extended “from India metropolis, according to Pliny, was placed on this river, even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and or rather surrounded by it, and seems to have been the twenty provinces,” Esth. i. 1: so that seven provinces capital of both parts. Wintle. See the note on Nehem. were added to the hundred and twenty which it coni. 1.
tained in the time of Cyrus, Dan. vi. 1. Bp. Newton. The Ulai is the same as the Choaspes, according to 5. — behold, an he goat] The interpretation of which Rennell's Geography of Herodotus. Dr. Hales. is given in ver. 21. "A goat” is very properly made
3.- there stood before the river a ram] The second the type of the Grecian or Macedonian empire. The empire in the former vision is the first in this : and what first king of the Macedonians, about 200 years before was there compared to a bear is here prefigured by a Daniel, instigated by an oracle, as it is said, made a ram. This “ram having two horns,” according to the goat his ensign, and called his capital city Ægeæ, or explication of the angel Gabriel, was the empire of the the goat's town. Jos. Mede. It is also remarkable, that Medes and Persians, ver. 20; Cyrus, the founder of Alexander's son by Roxana was named the son of the this empire, was son of Cambyses, king of Persia, and goat; and some of his successors are represented on by his mother Mandane was grandson of Astyages king their coins with goat's horns. Bp. Newton. of Media : and afterwards marrying the daughter of an -- came from the west &c.]
He came “ from the only child of his uncle Cyaxares king of Media, he suc-west ;" for Europe lies westward of Asia : he came “on ceeded to both crowns,' and united the kingdoms of the face of the whole earth,” carrying every thing before Media and Persia. The propriety of the emblem ap- I him in all the three parts of the world then known: Vol. II.
Before CHRIST about 553.
11 Or, none
Daniel's vision of
the ram and he goat. Il touched not the ground: and the goat | upon him: and there was none that about 553, had fa notable horn between his eyes. could deliver the ram out of his
6 And he came to the ram that hand. touched him had two horns, which I had seen 8 Therefore the he goat waxed + Heb. a turn standing before the river, and ran very great: and when he was strong, of sight.
unto him in the fury of his power. the great horn was broken; and for
7 And I saw him come close unto it came up four notable ones a toward a Chap. 11. 4. the ram, and he was moved with the four winds of heaven. choler against him, and smote the 9 And out of one of them came ram, and brake his two horns: and forth a little horn, which waxed exthere was no power in the ram to ceeding great, toward the south, and stand before him, but he cast him toward the east, and toward the down to the ground, and stamped pleasant land.
b Ps. 48. 2. Ezek. 20, 6.
“and he touched not the ground;" alluding to the to be kingdoms of Greeks, not of Alexander's own swiftness of his marches, and the rapidity of his con. family, but only of his nation; and neither were they quests. For the same reason the same empire in the to be equal to him in power and dominion : an empire former vision was likened to a “leopard,” which is a united is certainly more powerful than the same empire swift nimble animal; and, to denote the greater quick, divided, and the whole is greater than any of the parts. ness and impetuosity, to a leopard with four wings.” They were likewise to extend “toward the four winds Bp. Newton.
of heaven :" and in the partition of the empire Cassanand the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.] der held Macedon, and Greece, and the western parts; “ The rough goat” (see the 21st verse)" is the king of Lysimachus had Thrace, Bithynia, and the northern Grecia,” that is, the kingdom; "and the great horn regions; Ptolemy possessed Egypt, and the southern between his eyes is the first king :" not the first mo- countries ; and Seleucus obtained Syria, and the eastnarch, but the first kingdom, that which lasted during ward provinces. Thus were they divided “toward the the reign of Alexander the Great, and his brother Ari- four winds of heaven." Bp. Newton. dæus, and two young sons, Alexander and Hercules. 9. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, &c.] Sir Isaac Newton.
This "little horn" has been supposed to mean Antio6,7. And he came to the ram &c.] In these two chus Epiphanes, king of Syria, who was a great enemy verses we have an account of the Grecians overthrowing and cruel persecutor of the Jews. And at first sight the Persian empire. The ram had before “pushed he does indeed in some features very much resemble westward ;” and the Persians, in the reign of Darius the “little horn;" but on a nearer view it
appears, that Hystaspes and Xerxes, had poured down with great in other parts there is no similitude or correspondence armies into Greece; but now the Grecians in return between them. Sir Isaac Newton, with that sagacity carried their arms into Asia, and the he goat invaded which was peculiar to him, and with which he penethe ram that had invaded him. Bp. Newton.
trated into Scripture as well as into nature, perceived - standing before the river, &c.] The first and plainly that the “ little horn" could not be drawn for principal engagement in which Alexander overthrew the Antiochus Epiphanes, but must be designed for some Persians was at the river Granicus in Phrygia. The other subject. Bp. Newton. The description of it throughsucceeding part of this description is a striking repre- out is exactly applicable in all its parts to the Roman sentation of his conquering the Persian monarch in temporal power; and this application is sanctioned also repeated battles, subduing his whole kingdom, taking by the prevailing opinion of the generality of commenall his forts and strong cities, making the king himself, tators. Dr. Hales. The Romans, who were prefigured with his family, principal officers, &c. prisoners, and by a great “beast” in the former vision, are here reprethus utterly overturning the Persian empire. Bp. Newton. sented by the “horn” of the goat: for nothing is more
8. Therefore the he goat waxed very great : and when usual, than to describe the same person or thing under he was strong, &c.] This verse is interpreted by the different images upon different occasions; and besides, angel in ver. 22. Nothing is fixed and stable in human in this vision the Roman empire is not designed at affairs ;
and the empire of the goat, though exceeding large, but only the Roman empire as the horn of the great, was perhaps for that very reason the sooner bro- goat. When the Romans first got footing in Greece, ken in pieces. It was in its full strength, when Alex- then they became a horn of the goat. Out of this horn ander died of a fever at Babylon. He was succeeded they came, and at first were“ a little horn,” but in proin the throne by his natural brother Philip Aridæus, cess of time overtopped the other horns. From Greece and by his own two sons Alexander Ægus and Her- they extended their arms, and overran the other parts of cules; but in the space of about fifteen years they were the goat's dominions: and their actions within the doall murdered, and then the first horn or kingdom was minions of the goat, and not their affairs in the western entirely broken. The royal family being thus extinct, empire, are the principal subject of this prophecy. But the governours of provinces, who had usurped the their actions, which are most largely and particularly power, assumed the title of kings, and, by the defeat specified, are their great persecution and oppression of and death of Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus, they the people of God; which renders it probable, that the were reduced to four, Cassander, Lysimachus, Pto- appellation of the “ little horn” might be given them for lemy, and Seleucus, who parted Alexander’s dominions the same reason, that the great persecutor and opamong them, and divided and settled them into four pressor of the saints in the western empire is also called kingdoms. These four kingdoms are the four notable the “ little horn.” It is the same kind of power, and horns, which came up in the room of the first great therefore might be signified by the same name. Bp. horn ; and are the same as the four heads of the leo- Newton. pard in the former vision. “ Four kingdoms shall stand -- which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, up out of the nation, but not in his power :" they were and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.] This