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Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

+ Heb.

himself.

The overthrow of Persia

CHAP. X, XI.

by the king of Grecia. 21 But I will shew thee that which fourth shall be far richer than they all: about 534. is noted in the scripture of truth : and and by his strength through his riches about $34.

there is none that + holdeth with me he shall stir up all against the realm strengtheneth in these things, but Michael your of Grecia. prince.

3 And a mighty king shall stand

up, that shall rule with great do-
CHAP. XI.

minion, and do according to his
i The overthrow of Persia by the king of will.
Grecia. 5 Leagues and conflicts between 4 And when he shall stand

up,

his the kings of the south and of the north. 30 kingdom shall be broken, and shall The invasion and tyranny of the Romans.

be divided toward the four winds of LSO I in the first year of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor

Darius the Mede, even I, stood according to his dominion which he
to confirm and to strengthen him. ruled : for his kingdom shall be

2 And now will I shew thee the plucked up, even for others beside
truth. Behold, there shall stand up those.
yet three kings in Persia; and the 5 And the king of the south

A

Great, particularly in the Greek kingdom of Syria. Bp. rivers were dried up by his army yet his wealth remained Horsley.

unexhausted. “ And by his strength through his riches 21. - in the scripture of truth :] Or, “in the writing he shall stir up all,” both subjects and allies “ against of truth;” that is, what is certain and irrevocable. the realm of Grecia.” The expedition of Xerxes into God's decrees are spoken of as if they were committed Greece is one of the most memorable events in ancient to writing, and registered in a book. See Deut. xxxii. history. Herodotus affirms, that in raising his army he 34; Ps. lvi. 8; Isai. Ixv. 6 ; Mal. ii. 16. W. Lowth. searched every place of the continent, and computes

that the whole number of his armament amounted to Chap. XI. This and the following chapter contain more than five millions of men. After him no mention the substance of Daniel's last vision, or a series of pro- is here made of any other king of Persia. “It is to be phetical story from the third year of Cyrus to the end noted,” saith St. Jerome, " that the Prophet, having of time. The dominion is soon made to pass from the enumerated four kings of the Persians after Cyrus, slipPersians to the Grecians; the state of the Greek empire peth over nine, and passeth to Alexander ; for the is continued through various changes and revolutions, prophetick spirit did not care to follow the order of hisand particularly with respect to Syria and Egypt, till at tory, but only to touch upon the most famous events.” length it yields to the Romans. Several particulars Xerxes was the principal author of the long wars and afterwards follow that must relate to the fate of the inveterate hatred between the Grecians and Persians ; Church of Christ ; and the last chapter has a peculiar and, as he was the last king of Persia who invaded respect unto the “ time of the end,” to the end of all Greece, he is the last mentioned. The Grecians then prophecy, or to the grand consummation of all things. in their turn invaded Asia ; and Xerxes' expedition Wintle.

being the most memorable on one side, as Alexander's It is the usual method of the Holy Spirit, to make was on the other, the reigns of these two are not imthe latter prophecies explanatory of the former; and properly connected together. Bp. Newton. revelation is “as the shining light, that shineth more A farther reason may perhaps be assigned, why these and more unto the perfect day,” Prov. iv. 18. The four kings of Persia only are mentioned, because they were great empires of the world, which were shown to Ne- all that should reign before Artaxerxes Longimanus, by buchadnezzar in the form of a great image, were again whom the decree was issued, according to the prophecy more particularly represented to Daniel in the shape of of the seventy weeks, for rebuilding Jerusalem. Wintlé. four great wild beasts. In like manner the memorable 3. And a mighty king &c.] That Alexander was “a events, which were revealed to Daniel in the vision of the mighty king” and conqueror ; that he not only“ ruled ram and the he goat, are here again more clearly and expli- with great dominion” over Greece and the whole Persian citiy revealed in this vision by an angel ; so that this empire, but likewise added India his conquests ; and latter prophecy may not improperly be said to be a com- that he did according to his will,” no one, not even ment and explanation of the former. Bp. Newton. his friends daring to contradict and oppose him, or, if

Ver. 1. Also I in the first year of Darius &c.] This they did, like Clitus and Callisthenes, paying for it with verse should have been joined to the last chapter : the their lives ; are facts too well known to require any angel adds, that as he now joins in defending the cause particular proof or illustration. Bp. Newton. See the of the Jewish nation, so, at the time of the overthrow notes on chap. vii. 6; viii. 5, 6. of the Babylonish monarchy, he assisted in advancing 4. And when he shall stand up, &c.] When he shall Darius to the succession, which was the occasion of be in the height of his prosperity. W. Lowth. The restoring the Jewish captivity. W. Lowth.

particulars, foretold in this verse, were in a good mea2- Behold, there shall stand up &c.)The angel first sure suggested before, chap. viii. 8; see the note there. prophesies of the Persian empire, which was then sub- Thus was Alexander's kingdom“ broken and divided, sisting, There shall stand up yet,” that is, after not to his posterity,'' but “was plucked up, even for Cyrus, the founder of the empire, who was then reign- others beside those.” Bp. Newton. ing, “three kings in Persia :" these were Cambyses, 5. And the king of the south shall be strong, &c.] Smerdis the Magian, and Darius the son of Hystaspes. Though the kingdom of Alexander was divided into four “And the fourth shall be far richer than they all.” The principal parts, yet only two of them are here inentioned, fourth after Cyrus was Xerxes ; of whom Justin truly Egypt and Syria : partly because these two were by far remarks, that his riches were so abundant, that when the greatest and most considerable ; but more particu

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Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

then selves.

ressels of their

Leagues and conflicts between

DANIEL.

the kings of the south and north. shall be strong, and one of his princes; shall come with an army, and shall about 534. and he shall be strong above him, and enter into the fortress of the king of about $34.

have dominion; his dominion shall be the north, and shall deal against them,
a great dominion.

and shall prevail :
6 And in the end of years they

8 And shall also carry captives a teha tehall | shall join themselves together; for into Egypt their gods, with their

the king's daughter of the south shall princes, and with #their precious ves- + Heb.

come to the king of the north to make sels of silver and of gold; and he desire. + Heb. rights. + an agreement: but she shall not shall continue more years than the

retain the power of the arm; neither king of the north.
shall he stand, nor his arm : but she 9 So the king of the south shall

shall be given up, and they that come into his kingdom, and shall rethe forumom brought her, and || he that begat her, turn into his own land.

and he that strengthened her in these 10 But his sons || shall be stirred or, shall times.

up, and shall assemble a multitude of 7 But out of a branch of her roots great forces : and one shall certainly shall one stand up in his estate, which come, and overflow, and pass through:

she brought

forth.

war.

larly because Judea, lying between them, was sometimes as the mother, by order of Laodice. “And he that in the possession of the kings of Egypt, and sometimes strengthened her in these times,” her husband Antiof the kings of Syria. It is in respect of their situation ochus, as St. Jerome conceives; or those who took her to Judea, that they are called the kings “of the part and defended her; or rather, her father, who died south” and “of the north.” “And the king of the a little before, and was so very fond of her that he took south shall be strong, and one of his princes," (as the care continually to send her fresh supplies of the water passage may be rendered after the Greek version,) that is, of the Nile, thinking it better for her to drink of of Alexander's princes, “shall be strong above him.” than that of any other river, as Polybius relates. Bp. The “ king of the south” was indeed very “strong ;" Newton. for Ptolemy annexed Cyprus, Phenicia, Caria, and many .7—9. But out of a branch of her roots &c.] Such islands, cities, and regions to Egypt ; and likewise en- wickedness was not to pass unpunished and unrevenged. larged the bounds of his empire by the acquisition of Out of the same “root” with Berenice sprang Ptolemy Cyrene. But still “ the king of the north,” or Seleucus Euergetes, her brother ; who no sooner succeeded his Nicator, was “strong above him," or stronger than he: father Ptolemy Philadelphus in the kingdom, than “he for, having annexed the kingdoms of Macedon and came with an army, and entered into the fortress," or Thrace to the crown of Syria, he became master of three fenced cities, “ of the king of the north," that is, of parts out of four of Alexander's dominions, and is repre- Seleucus Callinicus, who with his mother Laodice sented by historians as “the conqueror of the con- reigned in Syria : and he “dealt,” or acted,“ against querors," and “the greatest king after Alexander.” them, and prevailed” so far that he took Syria, and Bp. Newton.

Cilicia, and the upper parts beyond Euphrates, and al6. And in the end of years they shall join themselves most all Asia. And when he had heard that a sedition together ; &c.] After many years of hostility between was raised in Egypt, he plundered the kingdom of Sethe kings of Egypt and Syria, Ptolemy Philadelphus. leucus, and took 40,000 talents of " silver,” and “prethe second king of Egypt, and Antiochus Theus, the cious vessels,” and images of their “ gods” two thouthird king of Syria, agreed to make peace upon con- sand and five hundred. “ So the king of the south dition, that Antiochus should put away his former wife came into the kingdom of the north, and then returned Laodice and her two sons, and should marry Berenice into his own land.” He likewise “continued more the daughter of Ptolemy. “ For the king's daughter of years than the king of the north ;" for Seleucus Callithe south shall come to the king of the north to make” nicus died in exile of a fall from his horse, and Ptolemy rights or agreements : and accordingly, Ptolemy Phila- Euergetes survived him about four or five years. Bp. delphus brought his daughter to Antiochus Theus, and Newton. with her an immense treasure, so that he received the 10. But his sons shall be stirred up, &c.] The sons of appellation of the dowry-giver. “But she shall not re- the king of the north should endeavour to vindicate and tain the power of the arm,” that is, her interest and avenge the cause of their father and their country. The power with Antiochus; for after some time, he brought sons of Seleucus Callinicus were Seleucus Ceraunus back his former wife Laodice with her children to court and Antiochus the Great. The former, who succeeded again. Neither shall he stand, nor his arm,” or his his father on the throne, was indeed “stirred up, and seed : for Laodice, fearing the fickle temper of her hus- assembled a multitude of great forces,” in order to reband, lest he should recall Berenice, caused her husband cover his father's dominions, but was poisoned by two to be poisoned; and neither did his seed by Berenice of his generals after an inglorious reign of two or three succeed him in the kingdom, but Laodice contrived years. Upon his decease his brother Antiochus was and managed matters so that her eldest son Seleucus proclaimed king. The Prophet's expression is very reCallinicus was fixed on the throne of his ancestors. markable, that “his sons should be stirred up, and “ But she shall be given up;" for Laodice, not content assemble a multitude of great forces;" but then the with poisoning her husband, caused also Berenice to be number is changed, and only one should certainly murdered. "And they that brought her:" for her come, and overflow, and pass through.” Accordingly Egyptian women, in endeavouring to defend her, were Antiochus came with a great army, retook Seleucia, many of them slain with her. “And he that begat her,” and recovered Syria. Then after a truce, wherein both or rather, as it is in the margin, “ he whom she had sides treated of peace, but prepared for war, Antiobrought forth;” for the son was murdered as well chus“ returned," and overcame in battle Nicolaus the

CHRIST

Before CHRIST about 534.

children of robbers.

Leagues and conflicts between

CHAP. XI. the kings of the south and north. Before then shall he return, and be stirred years with a great army and with about 334. up, even to his fortress.

much riches. 11 And the king of the south shall 14 And in those times there shall be moved with choler, and shall come many stand up against the king of the forth and fight with him, even with south : also † the robbers of thy peo- + Heb. the the king of the north : and he shall ple shall exalt themselves to establish set forth a great multitude; but the the vision; but they shall fall. multitude shall be given into his 15 So the king of the north shall hand.

come, and cast up a mount, and take
12 And when he hath taken away + the most fenced cities: and the + Heb. the
the multitude, his heart shall be lifted arms of the south shall not withstand, munitions.
up; and he shall cast down many neither + his chosen people, neither + Heb. the
ten thousands : but he shall not be shall there be any strength to with emotices of his
strengthened by it.

stand.
13 For the king of the north shall 16 But he that cometh against him

return, and shall set forth a multi- shall do according to his own will, ! Or, goodly + Heb. at the tude greater than the former, and and none shall stand before him: and † Hleb, the onged times shall certainly come + after certain he shall stand in the 11+ glorious womendororna

Egyptian general, and had thoughts of invading Egypt interpretation. No king could be "strengthened” by itself. Bp. Newton.

the loss of such a number of useful subjects. The loss then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to of so many Jews, and the rebellion of the Egyptians, his fortress.] Or," he shall again be stirred up,” &c. added to the mal-administration of the state, must cerAt the spring of the next year he shall take the field tainly very much weaken, and almost totally ruin, the again, and encamp at Raphia, a frontier town upon the kingdom.” Bp. Newton. borders of Egypt. W. Lowth.

13. For the king of the north shall return, &c.] After 11. And the king of the south shall le moved with a peace of about fourteen years, in the course of which choler, &c.] Ptolemy Philopator, the king of Egypt, Ptolemy Philopator had died of intemperance, and was though a luxurious prince, was at length roused by the succeeded by his son Ptolemy Epiphanes, a child of near approach of danger. And he “came forth :” he four or five years old, Antiochus, having acquired marched out of Egypt with a numerous army to oppose “great riches,” and collected many forces in an eastern the enemy, and encamped not far from Raphia, which expedition, which enabled him to set forth a greater is the nearest town to Egypt after Rhinocorura. And multitude than the former, returned :" not doubting to there he “ fought with him, even with the king of the have an easy victory over an infant king. Bp. Newton. north;" for thither likewise came Antiochus with his 14. And in those times there shall

many
stand

up &c.] army, and a memorable battle ensued. “And he,” the Not only Antiochus rose up against young Ptolemy, but king of the north,“ set forth a great multitude,” others also confederated against him. The provinces, amounting to 62,000 foot, 6000 horse, and 102 elephants. which were before subject to Egypt, rebelled ; and But yet "the multitude was given into his hand,” that Egypt itself was disturbed by seditions. Philip too, the is, into the hand of the king of the south: for Ptolemy king of Macedon, entered into a league with Antiochus, obtained a complete victory; and Antiochus, having to divide Ptolemy's dominions between them. “ Also lost about 10,000 foot, 300 horse, and 4000 prisoners, the robbers of thy people :” it is literally " the sons of was obliged to solicit a peace. Bp. Newton.

the breakers,” the sons of the revolters, the factious and 12. And when he hath taken away the multitude, &c.] refractory ones, “ of thy people,” the Jews, who were at Ptolemy knew not how to make a proper advantage of that time much broken into factions. These were to his victory, but his heart was lifted up” by success. “exalt themselves to establish the vision :” accordingly Being delivered from his fears, he now more freely in- they revolted from Ptolemy, and thereby contributed dulged his lusts ; so that, instead of being “strength- greatly, without knowing it, to the accomplishment of this ened” by his victory, he provoked even his own subjects prophecy concerning the calamities, which should be to rebel against him. But the Prophet in this passage brought upon the Jewish nation by the succeeding kings more particularly foretold the case of his own country; of Syria. “But they shall fall :” for Scopas came with men. After the retreat of Antiochus, Ptolemy visited a powerful army from Ptolemy, and, in the absence of the cities of Cæle-Syria and Palestine, which had sub- Antiochus, soon reduced the cities of Cæle-Syria and mitted to him; and among others in his progress he Palestine to their former obedience. Bp. Newton. came to Jerusalem. He there offered sacrifices, and 15, 16. So the king of the north shall come, &c.] was desirous of entering into the Holy of Holies, con- Antiochus, wishing to recover the cities and countries, trary to the custom and religion of the place, being, as which Scopas had taken, came again into those parts ; the writer of Maccabees says, greatly lifted up by pride and having defeated Scopas, pursued him to Sidon, and confidence. His curiosity was restrained with which he closely besieged, and at length compelled to great difficulty, and he departed with heavy displeasure surrender. This event probably was principally intended against the whole nation of the Jews. At his return by his “casting up a mount, and taking the city of therefore to Alexandria, he began a cruel persecution munitions," as in the margin ; for Sidon was an exupon the Jewish inhabitants of that city, who had re- ceeding strong city both in situation and fortifications : sided there from the time of Alexander, and enjoyed the besides which, he took other "the most fenced cities," privileges of the most favoured citizens. “And he cast as in the text, as recited by the Greek and Roman hisdown many ten thousands;" for it appears from Eusebius, torians. “The arms of the south could not withstand that about this time forty thousand Jews were slain, or him, neither his chosen people ;” neither Scopas, nor sixty thousand, as they are reckoned in St Jerome's Latin the other great generals, nor the choicest troops that

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

+ Heb. his

Leagues and conflicts between

DANIEL.

the kings of the south and north. land, which by his hand shall be con- | cause + the reproach offered by him about 534. sumed.

to cease; without his own reproach about 534. 17 He shall also set his face to he shall cause it to turn upon him. enter with the strength of his whole 19 Then he shall turn his face to- reproach.

kingdom, and || upright ones with ward the fort of his own land: but he or, equal him; thus shall he do: and he shall shall stumble and fall, and not be

give him the daughter of women, found.
+ corrupting her : but she shall not 20 Then shall stand up in his es-
stand on his side, neither be for him. tate † a raiser of taxes in the glory of 1 Heb.one

18 After this shall he turn his face the kingdom: but within few days
unto the isles, and shall take many: he shall be destroyed, neither in to pass over.
but a prince + for his own behalf shall +anger, nor in battle.

lll Or, much uprightness :

conditions.

+ Heb.
to corrupt.

that causeth an cractor

+ Heb. for him.

+ Heh. angers.

were sent against him : but he did according to his own honour, “caused it to turn upon him.” Bp. Newown will, and none” was able to “ stand before him ;" ton. for he soon rendered himself master of all Cæle-Syria 19. Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his and Palestine. Among others the Jews also readily own land :] After the battle, that decided his fortunes, submitted to him : and thus he “stood in the glorious Antiochus fled away to Sardes, and thence into Syria, land,” and his power was established in Judea, “which to Antioch,“the fort of his own land." Then marching by his hand was consumed,” the Jews suffering many into the Eastern provinces, to collect there the arrears things, and their country being wasted, during these of tribute, and amass what treasure he could, in an hostilities. Bp. Newton.

attempt to plunder the rich temple of Jupiter Belus in 17. He shall also set his face to enter with the strength Elymais, he was assaulted by the inhabitants of the of his whole kingdom,). Antiochus, not contented with country, and himself and all his attendants slain. Thus having rent the principal provinces from Egypt, was by an inglorious death he “ stumbled and fell, and was forming schemes to invade the country itself with all his no more found.” Bp. Newton. forces : " and upright ones with him," that is, the Jews, It is observable, that during the reign of Antiochus who marched under his ban and are so called to the Great, the Romans began to extend their conquests distinguish them from the idolatrous soldiers. And so in the East

, and they are by his means imperceptibly, as Antiochus would have seized upon Egypt by force ; it were, introduced into the narration, of which they but, as he was meditating a war with the Romans, he make so considerable a part in the sequel. This prince judged it better to proceed by stratagem, and to carry in many instances favoured the Jews, yet during the on his designs by treaty, rather than by arms. For this whole of his wars was generally the occasion of great purpose" he shall give him the daughter of women,” | distresses amongst them; and hence we have so long his daughter so called, as being one of the most emi- an account of him, from the tenth verse to the ninenent and beautiful of women : accordingly Antiochus teenth. Wintle. married his daughter Cleopatra to Ptolemy, and gave in 20. Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes dowry with her the provinces of Cæle-Syria and Pales- in the glory of the kingdom :] Or rather, as in the martine, upon condition of the revenues being equally di- gin,“ one that causeth an exacter to pass over the glory vided between the two kings. All this he transacted of the kingdom.” Seleucus Philopator succeeded his with a fraudulent intention to “corrupt her," and in- father Antiochus the Great in the throne of Syria; but duce her to betray her husband's interests to her father. he performed nothing worthy of the empire of Syria, But his design did not take effect; “she shall not and of his father. The tribute of a thousand talents, stand on his side, neither be for him.” Ptolemy and which he was obliged to pay annually to the Romans, his generals were aware of his artifices, and therefore was indeed a grievous burden to him and his kingdom;

their guard : and Cleopatra herself affected and he was little more than “a raiser of taxes” all his more the cause of her husband than of her father ; in- days. He was tempted even to commit sacrilege; for, somuch that she joined with her husband in an embassy to being informed of the money that was deposited in the the Romans to congratulate them upon their victories temple of Jerusalem, he sent his treasurer Heliodorus over her father, and to exhort them, after they had ex- to seize it. This was literally " causing an exacter to pelled him out of Greece, to prosecute the war in Asia, pass over the glory of the kingdom,” when he sent his assuring them at the same time, that the king and treasurer to plunder that temple, which even kings did queen of Egypt would readily obey the commands of honour and magnify with their best gifts," and where the senate. Bp. Newton.

Seleucus himself, of his own revenues, bore all the 18. After this shall he turn his face unto the isles,] costs belonging to the service of the sacrifices. " But Antiochus, having fitted out a formidable fleet, “ turned within few days,” or rather years, according to the prohis face unto the isles” of the Mediterranean, subdued phetick style, he was destroyed; and his reign was of most of the maritime places on the coasts of Asia, short duration in comparison with his father's; for he Thrace, and Greece, and “took” Samos, Eubæa, and reigned only twelve years, and his father thirty-seven. "many” other islands. This was a great indignity and Or perhaps the passage may be better expounded thus; "reproach offered” to the Romans, when their confede- that“ within few days,” or years," after his attemptrates were thus oppressed, and the cities, which they ing to plunder the temple of Jerusalem, he should be had lately restored to liberty, were enslaved. “But a destroyed :” and not long after that he was “ destroyed, prince,” or rather “a leader, a general,” meaning the neither in anger, nor in battle," as all chronologers Roman generals, repelled the injury, and caused his agree; neither in rebellion at home, nor war abroad; “ reproach to cease.' After various defeats, Antiochus but by the treachery of his own treasurer Heliodorus. and his successors became tributary to the Romans; The same wicked hand that was the instrument of his so truly and effectually did they not only “cause the sacrilege, was also the instrument of his death. Bp. reproach offered by him to cease,” but, greatly to their | Newton.

stood upon

Before CHRIST about 534.

Before CHRIST about 534.

a vile

+ Heb, think

Fulfilled about 170.

Leagues and conflicts between

CHAP. XI.

the kings of the south and north. 21 And in his estate shall stand up thers; he shall scatter among them

person, to whom they shall not the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea,
give the honour of the kingdom : but and he shall + forecast his devices
he shall come in peaceably, and obtain against the strong holds, even for a his thoughts.
the kingdom by flatteries.

time.
22 And with the arms of a flood 25 And he shall stir

up
his

power
shall they be overflown from before and his courage against the king of
him, and shall be broken; yea, also the south with a great army; and the
the prince of the covenant.

king of the south shall be stirred up 23 And after the league made with to battle with a very great and mighty him he shall work deceitfully: for he army; but he shall not stand: for they shall come up, and shall become strong shall forecast devices against him. with a small people.

26 Yea, they that feed of the por24 He shall enter || peaceably even tion of his meat shall destroy him, and fui, &c. upon the fattest places of the province; and his army shall overflow: and

and he shall do that which his fathers many shall fall down slain.
have not done, nor his fathers' fa- 27 And both these kings' + hearts heated. their

Fulfilled about 171.

Or, into the peaceable

21. And in his estate shall stand up a vile person,] An- at Rome; and coming from thence with only a few tiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded to the kingdom, was attendants, he appeared in Syria little at first, but soon at Athens, when his brother Seleucus died by the trea- received a great increase, “and became strong with a chery of Heliodorus : and “the honour of the kingdom small people.” By the friendship of Eumenes and was not given to him,” for Heliodorus attempted to get Attalus he“ entered peaceably,” ver. 24, upon the

upper possession of it himself ; another party declared in provinces : as likewise upon the provinces of Cæle-Syria favour of Ptolemy Philometor, king of Egypt, whose and Palestine. And wherever he came, he outdid his mother Cleopatra was the daughter of Antiochus the “ fathers and his fathers' fathers” in liberality and proGreat, and sister of the late king Seleucus : and neither fusion. He “scattered among them the prey, and was Antiochus Epiphanes the right heir to the crown, spoil, and riches.” The “prey” of his enemies, the but his nephew Demetrius, the son of Seleucus, then an spoil” of temples, and the “riches” of his friends, as hostage at Rome. However he “obtained the kingdom well as his own revenues, were expended in publick by flatteries.” He flattered Eumenes king of Pergamus, shows, and bestowed in largesses among the people. and Attalus his brother, and by fair promises engaged The writer of the first book of Maccabees affirms, that, their assistance. He flattered the Syrians, and with in the liberal giving of gifts, “ he abounded above the great show of clemency obtained their concurrence. He kings that were before him," 1 Mac. iii. 30. After some tlattered the Romans also, and sent ambassadors to time, apprehensive of a war with Egypt, he went into court their favour by presents and promises of fidelity. Phenicia, to fortify his own strong holds,” and to Thus he came in peaceably:" and as he flattered the “ forecast his devices against” those of the enemy: thus Syrians, the Syrians flattered him again, and bestowed he did “even for a time,” and employed sone years in on him the title of Epiphanes, or the illustrious : but the his hostile preparations. Bp. Newton. epithet of “vile,” or rather“ despicable,” given him by 25, 26. And he shall stir up his power &c.] The transthe Prophet, agrees better with his true character. For actions, here foretold, are thus related by the writer of he disgraced himself by such profligate, low, ridiculous, the first book of Maccabees : “ Now when the kingdom and indecent conduct, as induced Polybius, who was a was established" &c. see chap. i. ver. 16-19. “He shall contemporary writer, and others after him, instead of stir up his power against the king of the south with a Epiphanes, or the illustrious, more rightly to call him great army,” says the Prophet : “ he entered into Epimanes, or the madman. Bp. Newton.

Egypt with a great multitude," says the historian. “The He is called here“ a vile person,” not for any want king of the south shall not stand,” says the Prophet ; of wit or parts, but for the extravagance of his life and Ptolemy was afraid and fled,” says_the historian. actions. W. Lowth.

Many shall fall down slain,” says the Prophet ; " and 22. And with the arms of a flood shall they be over- many were wounded to death,” says the historian. The flown from before him,] Heliodorus, the murderer of misfortunes of Ptolemy Philometor are by the Prophet Seleucus, and his partizans, as well as those of the king ascribed principally to the treachery and baseness of his of Egypt, who had formed designs upon Syria, were own ministers and subjects : " for they shall forecast vanquished by the forces of Eumenes and Attalus, and devices against him; yea, they that feed of the portion dissipated by the arrival of Antiochus, whose presence of his meat shall destroy him.” And it is certain, that disconcerted all their measures. “ The prince also of Eulæus was a very wicked minister, and bred up the the covenant was broken :" that is, the high priest of the young king in luxury and effeminacy contrary to his Jews. As soon as Antiochus was seated on the throne, natural inclination. Ptolemy Macron too, who was he removed Onias from the high priesthood, and pre- governour of Cyprus, revolted from him, and delivered ferred Jason, the brother of Onias, to that dignity : hut up that important island to Antiochus ; and for the though he had “ made a league” with Jason, the new reward of his treason was admitted into the number of high priest, he did not adhere to it faithfully, but acted the king's principal friends, and was made governour “ deceitfully;” and having deposed Jason, substituted of Cæle-Syria and Palestine. Nay even the Alex, Jason's younger brother, Menelaus, in his room. Bp. andrians, seeing the distress of Philometor, renounced Newton.

their allegiance; and taking his younger brother Euer23, 24.- for he shall come up,] Rather," and he shall getes or Physcon, proclaimed him king instead of the come up, and shall become strong with a small people.” elder brother. Bp. Newton. Antiochus Epiphanes had been many years an hostage 27. And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, Vol. II.

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