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b Job 36. 7. Ps. 33. 18.
& 70. 3.
+ Heb. to the broken of heart.
Ps. 1. 4.
Hos. 13. 3.
The privileges of the righteous.
PSALMS. David prayeth for his own safety. 15 • The eyes of the Lord are 2 Take hold of shield and buckler, 1 Pet. 3. 12. upon the righteous, and his ears are and stand up for mine help. open unto their cry.
3 Draw out also the spear, and 16 The face of the Lord is against stop the way against them that persethem that do evil, to cut off the re- cute me: say unto my soul, I am thy membrance of them from the earth. salvation.
17 The righteous cry, and the 4 a Let them be confounded and a Ps. 40. 14. LORD heareth, and delivereth them put to shame that seek after my out of all their troubles.
soul: let them be turned back and 18 The Lord is nigh tunto them brought to confusion that devise my
that are of a broken heart; and saveth hurt. + Heb. + such as be of a contrite spirit.
5 Let them be as chaff before b Job 21. 18. spirit. 19 Many are the afflictions of the the wind: and let the angel of the Isai. 29. 5.
righteous : but the Lord delivereth Lord chase them.
6 Let their way be + dark and Heb. dark20 He keepeth all his bones: not slippery : and let the angel of the slipperiness. one of them is broken.
LORD persecute them.
out cause they have digged for my
hath hid catch himself: into that very not of. 1 David prayeth for his own safety, and his destruction let him fall.
enemies' confusion. 11 He complaineth of 9 And my soul shall be joyful in
10 All my bones shall say, Lord,
21. - shall be desolate.) This should be rendered with the like imprecations, which may seem strange and the Chaldee Paraphrase, “ shall be condemned to die.” severe, it must be considered, 1. That they did not proGreen, Rosenmüller.
ceed from any passionate or revengeful spirit in David This Psalm is among the noblest and most edifying : towards his enemies; from which how free he was, apDavid here teaches us, both by his instructions and ex- pears not only from his own words here, ver. 12-14, ample, that when God grants us any favour, we should but from the whole course of his life, and the frequent not only thank Him for it, but invite other men to praise instances mentioned in his history of his meek and merHim with us; that the Lord never fails to hear and ciful carriage to his enemies when they were in his deliver those who call upon him in their distress; that power. These imprecations, therefore, proceeded from His eyes are always over the righteous, whom, if ex- his zeal for God, and for piety and justice; to which posed to many misfortunes, He delivers at the last; they showed themselves to be constant and implacable whereas He sets His face against the wicked for their adversaries : and by the direction of the prophetical destruction. Ostervald.
Spirit of God, wherewith he was endued; which Spirit He who seeketh the Lord shall find Him; and he who did exactly know the condition of his enemies; and that hath found Him can want nothing. Faith, hope, charity, those, against whom they were levelled, were hardened temperance, purity, patience, and contentment, are the and incurable. 2. That they contain nothing but a true riches; and the lack of them the poverty most to prayer to God, that He would accomplish his own be dreaded. Moreover, God is never wanting to pro- threatenings, and execute His own law of retaliation, of vide for His servants, what He seeth needful and best eye for eye, and tooth for tooth;" and so bring upon in matters temporal. Bp. Horne.
them the evils which they designed against him. Which
also was of great and good use, both to glorify God's Psalm XXXV. This Psalm, from the contents of it, justice, and to warn and reform other sinners by the seems to have been composed by David when he was terrour of their example. 3. That they may be taken persecuted by Saul, and falsely accused by Doeg, and only for predictions. Poole. See the note on Psalm others of his enemies; from whom he begs of God for v. io. deliverance. Edwards. This Psalm, though in some 6. Let their way be dark &c.] So that none of them measure applicable to David, the author of it, is more may be able to escape on account of the darkness and strictly so to Jesus. See John xv. 25. Dimock. slipperiness of their way: but that all of them may be
Ver. 2.— shield and buckler,] The word, here rendered easily overthrown by the pursuing angel. Rosenmüller. “shield," seems to denote the lesser kind of shield; and 7. - in a pit,] See the note on Psalm vii. 15. that translated “ buckler," the great shield. Edwards. 10. All my bones shall say,] By this figure David
4. Let them be confounded &c.] Concerning this and means to declare, that he would praise God with all the
+ Heb. Witnesses of berong. + Heb. they asked me.
1 Heb. depriving.
+ Heb. talked. + Heb. ass friend, as a brother to me.
and his enemies' confusion.
PSALMS. "He moveth God to do him right.
they devise deceitful matters against
wide against me, and said, Aha, aha,
13 But as for me, when they were keep not silence: 0 LORD, be not
sick, my clothing was sackcloth: I far from me.
my prayer returned into mine own my judgment, even unto my cause,
my God and my LORD.
25 Let them not say in their
26 Let them be ashamed and I knew it not; they did tear me, and brought to confusion together that ceased not:
rejoice at mine hurt: let them be 16 With hypocritical mockers in clothed with shame and dishonour feasts, they gnashed upon me with that magnify themselves against me. their teeth.
27 Let them shout for joy, and be 17 Lord, how long wilt thou look glad, that favour + my righteous cause: + Hebmy on ? rescue my soul from their de- yea, let them say continually, Let structions, † my darling from the the Lord be magnified, which hath lions.
pleasure in the prosperity of his ser18 ° I will give thee thanks in the vant.
great congregation: I will praise thee 28 And my tongue shall speak of + Heb. strong. among + much people.
thy righteousness and of thy praise
enemies + wrongfully rejoice over
that hate me without a cause. 1 The grievous estate of the wicked. 5 The
+ Heb. kalling.
c Ps. 40.9, 10. & Ill. 1.
strength of his body, as well as power of his soul. Dr. ther be rendered, “They vilified me with profane scoffs Wells.
and taunts; and ceased not to gnash upon me with 11, 12. False witnesses-spoiling of my soul.] This was their teeth.” Edwards, Green. never more literally true of David, than it was of the 17. — my darling from the lions.] Deliver my dear holy Jesus, when, standing before Pontius Pilate, He and precious life from these cruel and brutish enemies. received no other return from the Jews for all the gra- Bp. Hall. cious words which He had spoken, and all the merciful 19. — that hate me without a cause.] This is applied to works He had done among them, than that of being Christ by Himself
, John xv. 25. Bp. Wilson. siandered and put to death. Bp. Horne.
21.- our eye hath seen it.] They openly avow that 12. – to the spoiling of my soul.] Attempting to rob they themselves have been eyewitnesses of my treasonme of my life. Ĝreen.
able practices. Dr. Wells. Or the meaning may be, 13.- my prayer returned &c.] The meaning seems to We have seen what we wished, we have had our will. be, My prayer returned with blessings on my own head. Green. Merrick. The sentence may perhaps be better explained 24. Judge me,] Vindicate me. Green. thus, “My prayer rested or settled in my bosom;" that What David in this Psalm says against his enemies, is
, I was never without a prayer for them in my breast. must not be misunderstood. Nor must we believe that Mudge, Dr. Kennicott. The Hebrews used various atti- we are allowed to wish evil to those who do evil to us, tudes in prayer; the one here alluded to was that used or to rejoice when that evil happens to them. We are to in great grief, at which time they prayed with the head consider, that the enemies of David were enemies to inclined on the bosom. Rosenmüller.
God Himself; and that David, being a Prophet, and 15. -- and I knew it not ;] This may mean, that the having an express promise of the Divine assistance, perfidy of his enemies was unknown to him; he sus- might denounce destruction to them: but, in his heart, pected no such thing from them. Rosenmüller. he did not wish it to befall them, and he was even afflicted
16. With hypocrilical mockers &c.] Together with at the evil which did befall them, as he himself testifies these were profane flatterers and buffoons;
and their rage in this Psalm. Ostervald. against me was as violent as if they could have devoured me. Bp. Patrick.. Or the passage should perhaps ra- Psalm XXXVI. There are three parts of this Psalm: Vol. II.
out at length.
The grievous estate of the wicked. PSALMS. David persuadeth to patience and
excellency of God's mercy. 10 David pray- / fied with the fatness of thy house;
and thou shalt make them drink of the
life: in thy light shall we see light.
10 O † continue thy lovingkind- + Heb, draw is no fear of God before his eyes.
ness unto them that know thee; and 2 For he flattereth himself in his thy righteousness to the upright in
heart. Meh. to find own eyes, tuntil his iniquity be his
11 Let not the foot of pride come hate.
found to be hateful.
the wicked remove me.
12 There are the workers of ini-
shall not be able to rise.
in God, by the different estate of the godly
and the wicked.
A Psalm of David.
IRET a not thyself because of a Prov. 23. est man and beast.
evildoers, neither be thou envi7 How t excellent is thy loving- ous against the workers of iniquity. kindness, O God ! therefore the chil- 2 For they shall soon be cut down dren of men put their trust under the like the grass, and wither as the shadow of thy wings.
8 They shall be fabundantly satis- 3 Trust in the Lord, and do good;
a Ps. 57. 10. & 108. 4.
+ Heb. the mountains of God.
17. & 24. 1.
+ Heb. precious.
+ Heb. watered.
the first, in which the author describes the treacherous 9. — in thy light shall we see light.] The images of and false contrivances of wicked men : the second is the light and darkness are commonly made use of in all address of the good man to God, in which he acknow- languages to imply or denote prosperity and adversity, ledges all those attributes, which are the support of agreeably to the common sense and perception which all righteous men, to be infinite and boundless; and from men have of the objects themselves. But the Hebrews thence his assurance of being supported: the last, as employ those figures more frequently, and with less the consequence of this, represents the downfall of the variation than other people. Bp. Lowth. wicked. Mudge.
10. - thy righteousness] Rather, Thy beneficence or Ver. 1. The transgression of the wicked &c.] The bounty. Street. transgressions of a bad man shew plainly, in the appre- 11.- remove me.] Or cause me to fall. Dr. Wells. hension of a good one, that the former is destitute of 12. There are the workers &c.] The expression used in the true fear of God. Abp. Secker. Or differently, thus; the original, represents strongly before the eyes the sud“ The wicked man, according to the wickedness of his den downfall of the wicked. Upon the very spot where heart, saith, There is no fear of God before mine eyes.” they practise their treachery, they receive their downfall. Bp. Lowth.
Mudge. Or this passage may be rendered, with some ancient We have here represented to us the behaviour of versions ; “The wicked man hath an oracle of rebellion wicked men, who fear not God, and sooth themselves in in his heart.” The wicked man hath no regard to the their instead of hating them; and the very different oracles of God; he hath one in his heart which dictates conduct of the righteous, who adore the justice of God, nothing but rebellion. Mudge, Green.
and are grateful for His favours. The use we should 2.- he flattereth himself &c.] He soothes himself in make of this Psalm is, to avoid the sentiments of the his own conceit, and cunningly imagines that he shall wicked, and to cleave to God by a sincere love and not be discovered: yet at length shall his iniquity come holy fear ; to the end that we may rejoice in Him with to light, and make him hateful to all men. Bp. Pa- the righteous, and say with David,“ O God, how exceltrick.
lent is Thy lovingkindness !” Ostervald. 5,6. Thy mercy, O Lord, &c.] This passage is truly sublime. Here the mind of the Psalmist seems to exert Psalm XXXVII. In this Psalm David seems to inits utmost faculties in vain to describe the attributes of tend to prevent the scandal or offence against religion, God, whose unparalleled magnitude mocks its feeble which might be taken from observing the wicked in endeavours; and to this end it employs the grandest prosperity, and the godly under affliction. Dr. Wells. imagery that universal nature can suggest : and yet this He may be supposed speaking to himself, or exhorting imagery, however great, proves totally inadequate to the others to trust in God from his own example. Dimock. purpose. Bp. Lowth.
Ver. 1. Fret not thyself &c.] In other words, Be not 8.- The fatness of thy house ;] By this expression is vexed at the prosperity of the wicked, neither be promeant all God's blessings, both temporal and spiritual. voked by it to accuse the providence of God, nor wish Bp. Hall,
thyself in their situation. Bp. Patrick.
+ Heb. in trath, or, stableness.
+ Heb. Roll the way upo#
1 Pet. 5. 7.
+ Heb. Be sikert to the
c Matt. 5. 5.
confidence in God, by the different PSALMS. estate of the godly and the wicked.
so shalt thou dwell in the land, and shall be broken : but the Lord up-
holdeth the righteous.
shall be for ever.
famine they shall be satisfied.
be as + the fat of lambs : they shall + Heb. the 7 + Rest in the Lord, and wait consume; into smoke shall they con- of lambs. LORD. patiently for him : fret not thyself | sume away.
because of him who prospereth in his 21 The wicked borroweth, and
sheweth mercy, and giveth.
be cursed of him shall be cut off.
lighteth in his way,
25 I have been young, and now
12 The wicked | plotteth against 26 He is fever merciful, and lend- ^ Heb. all the practiseth.
the just, and gnasheth upon him with eth; and his seed is blessed.
27 Depart from evil, and do good; d Ps 2. 4. 13 d The LORD shall laugh at and dwell for evermore.
him: for he seeth that his day is 28 For the Lord loveth judgment,
and forsaketh not his saints; they are
to cast down the poor and needy, and 29 The righteous shall inherit the sprigdal of
to slay + such as be of upright con- land, and dwell therein for ever.
30 The mouth of the righteous
31 The law of his God is in
32 The wicked watcheth the right17 For the arms of the wicked eous, and seeketh to slay him. 5. Commit thy way &c.] We are exhorted here to 18. The Lord knoweth &c.] The actions of good men commend our honest designs to God, and to leave the are seen, and will not fail of being rewarded by God; event to Him, in full confidence that He will direct it for not only with the comforts of this life continued to them the best. Travell, Bp. Patrick.
and their posterity, but with a never-failing possession 10. — thou shalt diligently consider &c.] When thou in heaven. Dr. Hammond. seckest for his place, there shall not be found any foot- 20. But the wicked shall perish, &c.]. They shall vasteps of his prosperity. Dr. Wells.
nish away into smoke ; as the fat of lambs, which is 12.- gnasheth upon him &c.] Could even tear him laid upon the altar in sacrifice, so shall they be suddenly with his teeth. Bp. Wilson.
consumed. Bp. Hall. 13. The Lord shall laugh &c.] The Lord, who takes 27.- dwell for evermore.] “Dwell in the land for notice of all his secret plots, shall laugh him to scorn ; ever.” That is, enjoy a long and prosperous life in the for, howsoever the foolish wicked man flatters himself land, with great tranquillity and peace. Bps. Hare and in the conceit of his safety, yet the all-wise God sees Patrick. Thou shalt never be exiled from the land which that his destruction is at hand. Bp. Hall,
God hath given thee. Rosenmüller.
+ Heb. the
The different end of good and bad men. PSALMS.
David moveth God
34 Wait on the Lord, and keep PSALM XXXVIII.
O LORD, rebuke me not in thy groweth in 36" Yet he passed away, and, lo,
wrath: neither chasten me in his own soil. he was not: yea, I sought him, but he thy hot displeasure. could not be found.
2 For thine arrows stick fast in 37 Mark the perfect man, and be me, and thy hand presseth me sore. hold the upright: for the end of that 3 There is no soundness in my man is peace.
flesh because of thine anger; neither
4 For mine iniquities are gone
40 And the LORD shall help them, rupt because of my foolishness.
33. The Lord will not leave &c.] God will find means riches, than their wise God has allotted for their share. to clear bis innocence, though he be pronounced guilty But they possess what they have with a meek and conby his enemies. Dr. Wells.
tented quietness; such a quietness as makes their very nor condemn him] Nor suffer him to be con- thoughts pleasing, both to God and themselves. Bp. demned. Edwards.
Horne. 35. - like a green bay tree.] This should rather be rendered, as in the margin, "like a flourishing tree in Psalm XXXVIII. This is another of those Psalms, its native soil.” Green.
which are called penitential, and therefore applicable to The original simply signifies, “ a native tree;" a tree Ash-Wednesday; it was composed by David under some growing in its native soil, not having suffered by trans- great affliction and anguish of mind. It is not certain plantation : such a tree spreads itself luxuriantly. Script. whether he here describes the state of his mind under vaillust. Expos. Ind.
rious images, chiefly borrowed from bodily diseases and 36. Yet he passed away, &c.) Yet, firm as he seemed pains ; or whether he was actually afflicted with sickto stand, he vanished on a sudden like a cloud: I looked ness : very probably he was suffering from both. His about for him, to see whether he might not, like a tree, complaints strongly express the anguish he felt from the be transplanted to some other spot; but there was no conviction of his sinfulness, the displeasure of God, the such man to be seen. Bp. Patrick.
coldness of his friends, and the insults of his enemies. 38. – the end of the wicked shall be cut off.] They and He humbly supplicates the pardon of God, confesses his their posterity shall be destroyed. Dr. Hammond. guilt, and, with patience and resignation, declares his
The design of this whole Psalm is, to convince men of hope and confidence to be only in the Divine favour. the justice of God's dealings with all His people ; to Travell. persuade them not hastily to conclude or judge of the to bring to remembrance.] That is, either that by ways of Providence, but to wait to see the end ; not to this humble and mournful prayer he might prevail with depend upon their own reason, but to apply to God for God to remember and pity hím; for now He seemed light and satisfaction; for human reason being too short quite to have forgotten him : or that, by reviewing this to pass judgment upon the ways of an infinitely wise Psalm afterwards, he might call to mind his former danand just God, would only lead men into doubts and fears, ger and misery, and God's wonderful mercy in deliverand rash censures of His providence. Bp. Wilson. ing him from them; which all are too apt to forget.
The “meek,” mentioned at ver. 11, are they, who And that others also might remember and consider what bear their own adversities, and the prosperity of their God had done for him ; first in chastening, and then in enemies, without envy, anger, or complaint. For these restoring him: and might make use of his example for there is a possession in the kingdom and city of the their benefit. Poole. Prince of “peace,” which “the Lord the righteous Judge Ver. 2. thine arrows &c.] The arrows, and the shall give them at that day.” “Blessed are the meek," hand of God, are His judgments on sin; those internal saith that Lord and Judge Himself, "for they shall in- pangs which pierce the soul, and those external afflictions herit the earth,” Matth. v. 5. In the mean time, they, which weigh down the spirits. Bp. Horne. and they only, possess the present earth, as they go to- 4. For mine iniquities are gone over mine head :] That wards the kingdom of heaven, by being humble, and is, my sins have brought so many evils upon me, that cheerful, and content with what their good God has they overwhelm me like a flood. Bp. Patrick. allotted them. They have no turbulent, repining, vexa- 5. — because of my foolishness.] Meaning, the afflictious thoughts that they deserve better; nor are vexed, tion had been justly brought upon him by his sin foolwhen they see others possessed of more honour, or more I ishly committed. Bp. Hall.