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Jer. 52. 13.

Jerusalem's sin


shall not go unpunished, 41 And they shall a burn thine younger sister, that dwelleth at thy

houses with fire, and execute judg- right hand, is Sodom and her daughters. a 2 Kings 25. ments upon thee in the sight of many 47 Yet hast thou not walked after

women: and I will cause thee to their ways, nor done after their abo-
cease from playing the harlot, and minations : but, || as if that were a 10r, that tas
thou also shalt give no hire any more. very little thing, thou wast corrupted imall thing.

42 So will I make my fury toward more than they in all thy ways.
thee to rest, and my jealousy shall 48 As I live, saith the Lord God,
depart from thee, and I will be quiet, Sodom thy sister hath not done, she
and will be no more angry.

nor her daughters, as thou hast done,
43 Because thou hast not remem- thou and thy daughters.
bered the days of thy youth, but hast 49 Behold, this was the iniquity of
fretted me in all these things; behold, thy sister Sodom, pride, fulness of
therefore I also will recompense thy bread, and abundance of idleness was
way upon thine head, saith the Lord in her and in her daughters, neither
God: and thou shalt not commit this did she strengthen the hand of the
lewdness above all thine abominations. poor and needy.

44 | Behold, every one that useth 50 And they were haughty, and
proverbs shall use this proverb against committed abomination before me:
thee, saying, As is the mother, so is therefore bI took them away as I b Gen. 19.24.
her daughter.

saw good.
45 Thou art thy mother's daughter, 51 Neither hath Samaria com-
that lotheth her husband and her chil- mitted half of thy sins; but thou hast
dren; and thou art the sister of thy multiplied thine abominations more
sisters, which lothed their husbands than they, and hast justified thy sis-
and their children: your mother was ters in all thine abominations which
an Hittite, and your father an Amorite. thou hast done.

46 And thine elder sister is Sa- 52 Thou also, which hast judged

maria, she and her daughters that thy sisters, bear thine own shame for there hoteller dwell at thy left hand: and † thy thy sins that thou hast committed with stones, Aung out of battering engines. See Jer. Calmet. Sodom was on the right, and Samaria was on xxxiii. 4. Calmet, W. Lowth.

the left : that is, the first was to the south, the second 41. - many women :] Many nations. The Syrians, to the north. The Jews speak of the situation of Philistines, and other nations. W. Lowth.

places, upon the supposition that they stand with their - thou also shalt give no hire any more.] Thou shalt faces to the east, and their backs to the west ; the right not be able any more to give the hire of fornication to hand will then be to the south, and the left to the north. thy mercenary lovers. Bp. Hall.

The same way of speaking is still used in the ancient to rest,] I will reject you, and will think no British, or Welsh language. Abp. Usher. more of you. Calmet.

47. Yet hast thou not walked after their ways, &c.] 43.

the days of thy youth,] The favours I conferred Thou hast not contented thyself to do after their examupon thee, and the covenants I made with thee in thy ple; but, &c. Bp. Hall. youth. Bp. Hall. See ver. 22.

49. - this was the iniquity of Sodom, &c.] We may 44. Behold, every one that useth proverbs &c.] Thy learn from this passage of the Prophet, how odious in notorious sin shall be the ordinary by-word of the world, the sight of God are intemperance, vanity, and want of who shall say, As is the mother Canaan, so is the mercy to the poor. These reproaches may regard the daughter Judah. Bp. Hall.

ancient Sodomites less perhaps than the Moabites and 45. Thou art thy mother's daughter, &c.] Like her the Ammonites of that day, who were extremely wicked in wickedness and sin: as she, so thou hast cast and corrupted, as appears from Isai. xvi. 6; Jer. xlviii. off thy God, and all that appertain unto Him. Bp. 29, 30; and xlix. 4. Calmet. Hall.

abundance of idleness] In places, where there is which lothed] In imitation of which unnatural least work, the worst sins do most prevail: and idlepractice, thou hatest Me thy husband, and offerest thy ness therefore is by the Prophet reckoned one of the children to idols. Abp. Newcome.

three great sins of Sodom, parents of the rest. It sel46. And thine elder sister is Samaria, &c.] Or the dom happens in any way of life, that a sluggard and a ten tribes of Israel. She, and those her daughter cities, profligate do not go together, or that he, who is idle, is that lie to the north ; and thy younger sister that not also dissolute. Dr. Isaac Barrow. dwelleth to the south, is Sodom, and the cities apper


and hast justified thy sisters in all &c.] Thou taining unto her. Bp. Hall.

hast made thy sister's wickedness to appear small in By Sodom, the Ammonites and Moabites seem here comparison of thine. Bp. Hall. The ingratitude of Jeto be meant. These people, whose father Lot went out rusalem was greater than that of Samaria. God had of Sodom, and whose country bordered upon the Dead placed His name in Jerusalem, and they forsook His sea, or the lake of Sodom, are called the younger sister worship, and profaned His temple, by placing idols in of Jerusalem; partly because they were less in number it; a degree of idolatry beyond any thing the ten tribes than the Samaritans, and partly because they were had been guilty of. W. Lowth. more distant from Jerusalem than Samaria. Grotius, 52. bear thine own shame] Expect to undergo the






| Or, spoil.


Mercy is promised

her in the end.
more abominable than they: they are that are round about her, the daugh-
more righteous than thou: yea, be ters of the Philistines, which || des-
thou confounded also, and bear thy pise thee round about.
shame, in that thou hast justified thy 58 Thou hast + borne thy lewdness Heb. Corne

and thine abominations, saith the
53 When I shall bring again their Lord.
captivity, the captivity of Sodom and 59 For thus saith the Lord God;
her daughters, and the captivity of I will even deal with thee as thou
Samaria and her daughters, then will hast done, which hast despised the
I bring again the captivity of thy oath in breaking the covenant.
captives in the midst of them:

60 | Nevertheless I will remem-
54 That thou mayest bear thine ber my covenant with thee in the
own shame, and mayest be confound- days of thy youth, and I will esta-
ed in all that thou hast done, in that blish unto thee an everlasting cove-
thou art a comfort unto them.

55 When thy sisters, Sodom and 61 Then thou shalt remember thy her daughters, shall return to their ways, and be ashamed, when thou former estate, and Samaria and her shalt receive thy sisters, thine elder daughters shall return to their former and thy younger : and I will give estate, then thou and thy daughters them unto thee for daughters, but e Gal. 4. 26. shall return to your former estate. not by thy covenant.

56 For thy sister Sodom was not 62 And I will establish my cove+ Heb. fora † mentioned by thy mouth in the day nant with thee; and thou shalt know of thy + pride,

that I am the LORD:
57 Before thy wickedness was dis- 63 That thou mayest remember,

covered, as at the time of thy reproach and be confounded, and never open + Heb. Aram. of the daughters of + Syria, and all thy mouth any more because of thy


report, or,
+ Heb. prides,
or, excellen-

shame and judgment, which thy own greater and more Lord, having denounced a perpetual punishment upon abominable sins have deserved. Bp. Hall.

the stubborn impenitent body of the Jewish nation, 53. When I shall bring again their captivity, &c.] The here promises to the remnant, that they should be meaning is, When the fulness of the Gentiles shall come remembered and obtain mercy by that covenant, which into the Church, (some of whom may be compared to is announced in the concluding part of the chapter. Sodom for wickedness,) then will I also remember you Poole. who are my ancient people. The conversion of the an everlasting covenant.] That of the Gospel. Gentiles is expressed in Jeremiah by the returning of See Jer. xxxii. 40. W. Lowth. the captivity of Moab, Ammon, and Elam, chap. xlviii. 61. — when thou shalt receive thy sisters,] See ver. 53, 47; xlix. 6, 39; and by the Egyptians, Ethiopians, and | 55. Converted with thee to Christianity. Abp. NewSyrians, acknowledging themselves His servants in the come. Thou, who didst not blush, whilst thou wast prophecy of Isaiah, chap. xix. 24, 25; xxiii. 18. And false to thine husband, shalt now with a deep shame by the same analogy we are to understand the return- remember and detest thy lewdness, when thou shalt ing of “the captivity of Sodom,” here, of the Gentiles admit thy sisters into communion with thee, or own coming into the Church. W. Lowth, Abp. Newcome. them as members of the Church of Christ. Poole. See below, verses 60–63, which seem to explain the I will give them unto thee for daughters,] Jerusasense of this passage.

lem thus restored shall be a type of that heavenly 54. That thou mayest bear thine own shame, &c.] In Jerusalem, which is “the mother of us all,” Gal. iv. 26. the mean time thou shalt bear the shame and punish- And even in the times of the Apostles there was a parment due to thy sins, and shalt be some sort of comfort ticular deference paid to the church of Jerusalem, as to thy neighbours, in being a companion with them in the mother Church of the Christian world. See Rom. punishment, as thou hast been in wickedness. W. xv. 26, 27. Accordingly she is styled “the mother of Lowth.

all Churches,” by the second general council, in their 56, 57. For thy sister Sodom &c.— Before thy wicked- synodical Epistle : a title, which the Church of Rome ness was discovered,] These words should be joined to- now assumes, without any pretence from Scripture or gether in the same verse or sentence. W. Lowth. “Thou antiquity. W. Lowth. never thoughtest of the judgment which I brought upon not by thy covenant.] But by the covenant thy sister Sodom, while thou wert transported with thy under the Gospel. Bp. Hall, Abp. Newcome. security and pride ; before that God, by His inflicted The Gentile nations, represented in this very rer parkjudgments, brought forth thy wickedness to the notice able prophecy by Sodom and Samaria, are become the of the world; and before He made thee a reproach to daughters of Jerusalem by that new alliance, in which the Syrians, and to the Philistines, and to the people Jesus Christ has been graciously pleased to compre hend adjoining ; all which have despitefully insulted upon strangers together with His children, the Gentiles togethee.” Bp. Hall.

ther with the Jews. Calmet. 59. — in breaking the covenant.] The solemn oath 62. And I will establish my covenant with thee ;] With you entered into to be My people, and to serve no other thee, O Israel, first; and then with the Gentiles, as thy God besides, Deut. xxix. 12–14. W. Lowth.

children; with all the genuine children of Abraham, 60. Nevertheless I will remember my covenant &c.] The father of the faithful. Poole.



Before CHRIST about 594.

about 594.

A mothe word of the Lord came fendere and behold

, Libis vinge sted

The parable of


two eagles and a vine. shame, when I am pacified toward field; he placed it by great waters, thee for all that thou hast done, saith and set it as a willow tree. the Lord God.

6 And it grew, and became a

spreading vine of low stature, whose CHAP. XVII.

branches turned toward him, and the

roots thereof were under him: so it
1 Under the parable of two eagles and a vine,

11 is shewed God's judgment upon Jeru- became a vine, and brought forth
salem for revolting from Babylon to Egypt. branches, and shot forth sprigs.
22 God promiseth to plant the cedar of the 7 There was also another great

eagle with great wings and many
unto me, saying,

bend her roots toward him, and shot 2 Son of man, put forth a riddle, forth her branches toward him, that and speak a parable unto the house he might water it by the furrows of of Israel;

her plantation. 3 And say, Thus saith the Lord 8 It was planted in a good † soil + Heb. field. GOD; A great eagle with great by great waters, that it might bring wings, longwinged, full of feathers, forth branches, and that it might bear

which had † divers colours, came unto fruit, that it might be a goodly vine. embroidering.

Lebanon, and took the highest branch 9 Say thou, Thus saith the Lord
of the cedar:

God; Shall it prosper? shall he not
4 He cropped off the top of his pull up the roots thereof, and cut off
young twigs, and carried it into a the fruit thereof, that it wither? it
land of traffick; he set it in a city of shall wither in all the leaves of her

spring, even without great power or 5 He took also of the seed of the many people to pluck it up by the de a field of land, and t planted it in a fruitful roots thereof.

+ Heb.

+ Heb. put it

Chap. XVII. ver. 2. - a riddle,] Meaning, a con- dise; finally, the affluence of the people, and the riches tinued allegory, or figurative speech. W. Lowth. of Babylon, attracted thither from all parts of the world

3.- A great eagle with great wings,] This means a multitude of traders. Calmet. Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, according to the 12th Strabo takes notice, that the merchants who travelled and following verses. In more than one place, con- by land to Babylon, went through the country of the querors are represented under the figure of eagles, Arabians, called Scenitæ : and vessels of great burden which are birds of prey, remarkable for their swiftness, came up to the walls of it from the Persian gulph, by Deut. xxviii. 49; Jer. iv. 13. W. Lowth. See the note the Euphrates, as appears from Pliny: W. Lowth. on Jer. xlviii, 40.

5. of the seed of the land,] Of the king's seed, as -, feathers, which had divers colours,] An allusion it is explained ver. 13, that is, Zedekiah. W. Lowth, to the various nations which composed the Babylonian Bp. Hall. empire. Michaelis. Or to the rites and various forms of in a fruitful field ;] The land of Judea. Aop. government in those nations. Bp. Hall.

Newcome. - cume unto Lebanon, and took the highest branch 6. — of low stature, whose branches turned toward of the cedar:] Came to Judea, where Lebanon is con- him, &c.] Alluding to the tributary state of Zedekiah, spicuous and renowned, and took Jehoiachin captive, and to his subjection to the king of Babylon. Abp. ver. 1:2, and 2 Kings xxiv. 12. Bp. Hall.

Newcome. Respecting the “cedar," see note at 1 Kings v. 6. 7. — another great eagle] Pharaoh king of Egypt.

It seems there is a foundation in nature for joining This prince was also great and powerful, but less so the eagle and the cedars together. “We employed the than the king of Babylon. Calmet. rest of the day,” says La Roque, (speaking of the spot this vine did bend her roots toward him,] Zedekiah, wher, the cedars of Lebanon grew,) in attentively weary of the yoke of Babylon, requested succour from the surveying the beauties of this place, in measuring some king of Egypt, thinking, under the protection of Egypt, of the cedars, and in cutting off many of their branches to cast off the Babylonish yoke, and to set himself at with their cones ; which we sent away with a number liberty. For the event, see Jer. xxxvii. 4—7. Calmet. of lar:ge eagle's feathers, which were found in the same that he might water it] That the king of Egypt place." Harmer.

might protect Zedekiah. Abp. Newcome. 4. the top of his young twigs,] All their prime 8. It was planted in a good soil] The words are to nobility and able soldiery. Bp. Hall.

the same purpose as ver. 5, to shew that Zedekiah's -- a land of traffick ;] Babylon is called a land of condition was so good under the king of Babylon, that trafi ick, because in fact it was at that time the most he needed not to have broken his oath, out of a desire cele brated place of all the East for commerce. Its to better it; whereby he involved himself and his counsitu ation possessed infinite advantages in this respect : try in ruin, 2 Kings xxiv. 20. W. Lowth. the two rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, and the Persian 9. - even without great power] It is an effect which gulph, opened it a way into the richest and most distant may be produced with ease, God being on the side of cou ntries. The vast extent of the dominions of Ne- the Chaldeans. Abp. Newcome. In fact, the conquest buchadnezzar afforded the greatest facilities to the jour- of Jerusalem cost' but little to the king of Babylon. neys of the merchant, and to the transport of merchan- | Zedekiah made but a slight resistance; he fled during


Before CHRIST about 594.

him to an oath.

God's judgment upon Jerusalem CH AP. XVII.

for revolting from Babylon. 10 Yea, behold, being planted, shall mounts, and building forts, to cut off about 594. it prosper? shall it not utterly wither, many persons:

when the east wind toucheth it? it 18 Seeing he despised the oath by
shall wither in the furrows where it breaking the covenant, when, lo, he

had given his hand, and hath doneall
11 1 Moreover the word of the these things, he shall not escape.
Lord came unto me, saying,

19 Therefore thus saith the Lord 12 Say now to the rebellious house, God; As I live, surely mine oath Know ye not what these things mean? that he hath despised, and my covetell them, Behold, the king of Baby- nant that he hath broken, even it will lon is come to Jerusalem, and hath I recompense upon his own head. taken the king thereof, and the princes 20 And I will a spread my net upon a Chap. 12. thereof, and led them with him to him, and he shall be taken in

my Babylon;

snare, and I will bring him to Baby13 And hath taken of the king's lon, and will plead with him there for

seed, and made a covenant with him, his trespass that he hath trespassed * Heb. brought and hath † taken an oath of him : he against me.

hath also taken the mighty of the 21 And all his fugitives with all

his bands shall fall by the sword,
14 That the kingdom might be and they that remain shall be scatter-

base, that it might not lift itself up, ed toward all winds: and ye shall Ai Heber to keep it but that by keeping of his covenant know that I the Lord have spoken it. to stand to it. it might stand.

22 | Thus saith the Lord God; I
15 But he rebelled against him in will also take of the highest branch
sending his ambassadors into Egypt, of the high cedar, and will set it;
that they might give him horses and I will crop off from the top of his
much people. Shall he prosper? shall young twigs a tender one, and will
he escape that doeth such things ? or plant it upon an high mountain and
shall he break the covenant, and be eminent :

23 In the mountain of the height
16 As I live, saith the Lord God, of Israel will I plant it: and it shall
surely in the place where the king bring forth boughs, and bear fruit,
dwelleth that made him king, whose and be a goodly cedar: and under it
oath he despised, and whose covenant shall dwell all fowl of every wing; in
he brake, even with him in the midst the shadow of the branches thereof
of Babylon he shall die.

shall they dwell.
17 Neither shall Pharaoh with his 24 And all the trees of the field
mighty army and great company make shall know that I the Lord have

for him in the war, by casting up brought down the high tree, have the night with a few of his people, and was taken in the 20. spread my net] See chap. xii. 13. desert of Jericho. Calmet.

21. — scattered] Some in Egypt, some in Chaldea, 10. — when the east wind toucheth it?] The Prophet and others in different countries where chance, or compares the army of Nebuchadnezzar to a parching rather the avenging hand of God, conducted them. Calwind that blasts the fruits of the earth, withers the met. leaves of the trees, and makes every thing look naked 22.- I will also take of the highest branch of the high and bare. See chap. xix. 12; Isai. xxvii

. 8. W. Lowth. cedar, &c.] I will at the last work out the delivery and 13. And hath taken of the king's seed, &c.] Hath made redemption of My people; out of the seed of David, Zedekiah swear an oath of fealty to him, 2 Chron. xxxvi. will I raise up the Messiah, and set him on high in My 13. W. Lowth.

holy Church. Bp. Hall. the mighty of the land :] As hostages, for per- 23. In the mountain of the height of Israel will I plant formance of the covenant between him and Zedekiah. it :} Even in My glorious evangelical Church will I W. Lowth.

exalt His power; and He shall spread My Gospel, and 15. that they might give him horses &c.] Cavalry enlarge His spiritual dominions all the world over ; and for war.

Egypt was a country which abounded in all His elect shall shroud themselves under His grace horses, of which there was a great scarcity in Judea. and protection. Bp. Hall. W. Lowth. See notes at Deut. xvii. 16.

The holy mountain

is often used by the Prophets to 16. — in the midst of Babylon he shall die.] See chap. denote the Christian Church. W. Lowth. xii. 13.

24. And all the trees of the field shall know &c.] And 17. by casting up mounts,] See Jer. xxxii. 24. It all the people of the earth shall know, that I have brought appears from Ezekiel, chap. xxx. 21, that there was a down the proud and mighty tyrants of the world ; and battle in which Pharaoh was beaten. Calmet.

have exalted this meek and despised Saviour of man18. — when, lo, he hath given his hand,] See the notes kind, above every name that is named in heaven and on 2 Kings x. 15; 1 Chron. xxix, 24.

earth. Bp. Hall.




d Exod. 22.

Exod. 22. 26.
f Deut. 15. 7.

Lev. 25. 36,

Deut. 23. 19.
Ps. 15. 5.


Every man shall

stand or fall Before exalted the low tree, have dried up bour's wife, neither hath come near about 594, the green tree, and have made the to a menstruous woman,

dry tree to flourish: I the LORD have 7 And hath not d oppressed any, c Lev. 18. 19. spoken and have done it.

but hath restored to the debtor his & 20. 18.

e pledge, hath spoiled none by vio- 21. CHAP. XVIII.

lence, hath 'given his bread to the Lev. 19. 15.

hungry, and hath covered the naked e Deut. 24. i God reproveth the unjust parable of sour with a garment; grapes. 5 He sheweth how he dealeth with

8 He that hath not given forth Isai. 58. 7. a just father : 10 with a wicked son of a just father : 14 with a just son of a wicked upon 8 usury, neither hath taken any Matt. 25, 35. father : 19 with a wicked man repenting : increase, that hath withdrawn his hand 25. 24 with a just man revolting, 25 He de- from iniquity, hath executed: true 31. fendeth his justice, 31 and exhorteth to judgment between man and man, repentance.

9 Hath walked in my statutes, and

HE word of the LORD came unto hath kept my judgments, to deal
me again, saying,

truly; he is just, he shall surely live,
2 What mean ye, that ye use saith the Lord God.

this proverb concerning the land of 10 ( If he beget a son that is a a Jer. 31. 29. Israel, saying, The a fathers have || robber, a shedder of blood, and Or, breaker

eaten sour grapes, and the children's || that doeth the like to any one of house. teeth are set on edge ?

these things, 3 As I live, saith the Lord God, 11 And that doeth not any of those brother be

ye shall not have occasion any more duties, but even hath eaten upon the these.
to use this proverb in Israel. mountains, and defiled his neighbour's

4 Behold, all souls are mine; as wife,
the soul of the father, so also the soul 12 Hath oppressed the poor and
of the son is mine: the soul that sin- needy, hath spoiled by violence, hath
neth, it shall die.

not restored the pledge, and hath lifted
5 9 But if a man be just, and do up his eyes to the idols, hath com-
that which is + lawful and right,

mitted abomination, 6 And hath not eaten upon the

13 Hath given forth upon usury, mountains, neither hath lifted up his and hath taken increase: shall he

eyes to the idols of the house of Is- then live ? he shall not live: he hath b Lev. 18. 20. rael, neither hath • defiled his neigh- done all these abominations; he shall

. Or, that dveth to his

+ Heb. judgment and justice.

These circumstances, mentioned in ver. 22—24, can sacrifices there offered to false gods, chap. vi. 2, 13. properly refer to no other than our Saviour Christ; Abp. Newcome. Eating part of the sacrifice was prowho has collected in His Church, and under His em- perly maintaining communion with the idol to whom it pire, all the birds of heaven; that is, all those who have was offered. W. Lowth. been able to elevate themselves above earthly things, neither hath lifted up his eyes] In prayer and by attaching themselves only to God through the pro- adoration. Abp. Newcome. fession and the practice of Christianity. W. Lowth, Bp. 7.- hath restored to the debtor his pledge,] God comHall, Calmet. Whereas the judgments threatened in manded the Jews not to detain any pledge they took this chapter might seem to indicate the utter extirpation from a poor man all night; which was in effect to enof the seed of David, the Lord is here pleased to assure join them to lend to the poor without either pawn or its continuance, and the raising of the Messiah from usury. See Exod. xxii. 25, 26; Deut. xxiv. 12, 13. that house according to promise. Poole. And thus W. Lowth. this prophecy, as well as that contained in the last 8. upon usury,] See Deut. xxiii. 19, 20, in which chapter, closes its denunciation of woes with a striking it appears, that usury was permitted towards strangers. passage relating to the kingdom of Christ.

We may therefore conclude, that taking increase or

interest may be agreeable to justice, if duly circumChap. XVIII. ver. 2.- concerning the land of Israel,] stanced. Every kind and degree of usury was forbidWith respect to the desolations made in it by the sword, den to the Israelites amongst each other, to promote a famine, and pestilence: chap. vi. 2, 3; and vii. 2. W. spirit of mutual kindness : but this law was peculiar to Lowth.

them. Abp. Newcome. Oppressive usury to the poor The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the chil- may be here meant, because it is joined with violence dren's teeth are set on edge?] The Chaldee paraphrase and want of charity. W. Lowth. explains the proverb rightly : “The fathers have sinned, 9. he shall surely live,] By life is meant, in the and the sons are smitten :" see the notes on Exod. xx. Old Testament, all that happiness which is contained in 5; Deut. v. 9: also on Jer. xxxi. 29, 30.

the literal sense of the promises belonging to that coveall souls are mine;] All persons and their lives. nant; and under these were comprehended the proI will deal with them without prejudice or partiality. mises of a better life, wherein God will bestow upon Abp. Newcome, W. Lowth.

His servants the peeuliar marks of His favour. W. 6. — eaten upon the mountains &c.] Feasted on the | Lowth.


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