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Before CHRIST about 594.

+ Heb. ироп

1 Or, Is there any thing lighter than to commit?


& 7, 4.

Rev. 7. 3.

Isai, 1. 15.
Jer. 11. 11.
Mic. 3. 4.

The preservation of some,

CHAP. VIII, IX. and the destruction of the rest. 17 | Then he said unto me, Hast + by his side : and they went in, and thou seen this, O son of man? || Is stood beside the brasen altar. it a light thing to the house of Judah 3 And the glory of the God of that they commit the abominations Israel was gone up from the cherub, his loins. which they commit here? for they whereupon he was, to the threshold have filled the land with violence, and of the house. And he called to the have returned to provoke me to anger: man clothed with linen, which had and, lo, they put the branch to their the writer's inkhorn by his side;

4 And the LORD said unto him, 18 Therefore will I also deal in Go through the midst of the city, a Chap. 5. 11. fury: mine deye shall not spare, through the midst of Jerusalem, and

neither will I have pity: and though + set a a mark upon the foreheads of : Hebi mark e Prov. 1:28. they e cry in mine ears with a loud the men that sigh and that cry for all a Exod. 12. 7. voice, yet will I not hear them. the abominations that be done in the

midst thereof. CHAP. IX.

5 And to the others he said in

+ mine hearing, Go ye after him + Heb. mine 1 A vision, whereby is shewed the preservation through the city, and smite: let not of some, 5 and the destruction of the rest. 8 God cannot be entreated for them.

your eye spare, neither have ye pity:

6 Slay + utterly old and young, Heb. 1! H

E cried also in mine ears with a both maids, and little children, and

loud voice, saying, Cause them women : but come not near any man that have charge over the city to upon whom is the mark; and begin draw near, even every man with his at my sanctuary. Then they began destroying weapon in his hand. at the ancient men which were before

2 And, behold, six men came from the house. 1 Heb. which the way of the higher gate, + which 7 And he said unto them, Defile

lieth toward the north, and every man the house, and fill the courts with the + Heb. a † a slaughter weapon in his hand; slain: go ye forth. And they went his breaking and one man among them was clothed forth, and slew in the city. in pieces.

with linen, with a writer's inkhorn 8 | And it came to pass, while



about 594.

is turned.

weapon of

17. - the branch to their nose.] The text seems destruction. W. Lowth. In modern times, among the plainly to allude to the Magian fire-worshippers, who, Turks and Arabs, the Hojias (that is, the writers and as Strabo tells us, when they were praying before the secretaries) are distinguished by having an “ inkhorn,” sacred fire, held a little bunch of twigs in their hand. the badge of their office, suspended in their girdles. Dr. Hyde, in his History of the Religion of the ancient Dr. Shaw. Persians, gives a more particular account of this Magian 3. — from the cherub,] The word “cherub” stands rite ; and presents us with a print of a Mage, or priest, for cherubim, as chap. x. 2. W. Lowth, Abp. Newcome. standing before the fire altar, and holding the twigs in We are to distinguish this appearance of the Divine his left hand. The idolaters mentioned by Ezekiel had glory, which had its constant residence in the temple, their backs turned toward the temple of Jehovah, and from that which was shewed particularly to Ezekiel, “worshipped the sun toward the east, and lo!" while chap. i. 26 ; iii. 23; x. 1. W. Lowth. thus worshipping, “ they put the branch (or twig) to - And he called] He who sat on the throne, (chap. their nose.” Parkhurst.

i. 26,) gave His command to the angel clothed with

linen. Abp. Newcome. The Logos, or second Person Chap. IX. ver. 1. them that have charge over the of the Blessed Trinity, gave His commands, &c. W. city] 'l'he angels who had the charge of executing God's Lowth. judgments upon the city, 2 Kings x. 24. W. Lowth. 4. — set a mark upon the foreheads] Compare Rev. This is prophetical of the slaughter the Babylonians vii. 3. The expression alludes to the custom of the were to make. Abp. Newcome.

Eastern nations, of marking their servants in the fore2. — six men came from the way of the higher gate, head. Grotius. &c.] See chap. viii. 14. And behold there appeared The Easterns used ink in sealing ; whence the use of six men according to the number of the principal gates the inkhorn : see ver. 3. Harmer. They make the imof Jerusalem, in representation of so many destroying pression of their name with their seal, generally of corangels, which came from the way of the north, which nelian, which they wear with their finger, and which is lieth towards Chaldea. Bp. Hall.

blackened, when they have occasion to seal with it. Bp. the higher gate which lieth toward the north,] Pococke. This was the north gate of the temple; and it is called 6. - old and young,] This denunciation was executed “ the higher gate,” because it was higher in situation, by the Chaldeans, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 17. W. Lowth. than the north gate of the court of the people; the at the ancient menThe five and twenty who temple being placed on a platform higher than that were worshipping the sun in the sanctuary, between the court. Calmet.

porch and the altar, chap. viii. 16. with a writer's inkhorn by his side :) To set a 7. - Defile the house,] Pollute it with the blood of mark on those who were to be saved from the common 'the slain. 'W. Lowth, Abp. Newcome.




c Chap. 3. U. & 7.4. & 8.18.

The vision of the coals of fire,


to be scattered over the city. they were slaying them, and I was 3 Now the cherubims stood on the about 594. left, that I fell upon my face, and right side of the house, when the

cried, and said, Ah Lord God! man went in; and the cloud filled
wilt thou destroy all the residue of the inner court.
Israel in thy pouring out of thy fury 4 Then the glory of the Lord
upon Jerusalem ?

up from the cherub, and stood 1 Heb. was

lifted up.
9 Then said he unto me, The ini-over the threshold of the house; and
quity of the house of Israel and Judah the house was filled with the cloud,

is exceeding great, and the land is and the court was full of the bright+ Heb. filled + full of blood, and the city full of ness of the Lord's glory. | Or, wresting Il perverseness: for they say, The 5 And the sound of the cheru- b Chap. 1. 24. b Cnap. 8. 12. Lord hath forsaken the earth, and bims' wings was heard even to the the Lord seeth not.

outer court, as the voice of the Al-
10 And as for me also, mine eye mighty God when he speaketh.
shall not spare, neither will I have 6 And it came to pass, that when
pity, but I will recompense their way he had commanded the man clothed
upon their head.

with linen, saying, Take fire from
1) And, behold, the man clothed between the wheels, from between
with linen, which had the inkhorn by the cherubims; then he went in, and
his side, † reported the matter, say- stood beside the wheels.
ing, I have done as thou hast com- 7 And one cherub stretched forth | Heb. sent
manded me.

his hand from between the cherubims

unto the fire that was between the CHAP. X.

cherubims, and took thereof, and put 1 The vision of the coals of fire, to be scat- it into the hands of him that was tered over the city. 8 The vision of the clothed with linen: who took it, and cherubims.

went out.
THEN I looked, and, behold, in 8 9 And there appeared in the
a Chap. 1. 22. the a firmament that was above cherubims the form of a man's hand

the head of the cherubims there ap- under their wings.
peared over them as it were a sapphire 9 And when I looked, behold the
stone, as the appearance of the like-four wheels by the cherubims, one
ness of a throne.

wheel by one cherub, and another
2 And he spake unto the man wheel by another cherub: and the
clothed with linen, and said, Go in appearance of the wheels was as the
between the wheels, even under the colour of a beryl stone.

c Chap, 1, 16. cherub, and fill + thine hand with 10 And as for their appearances, coals of fire from between the cheru- they four had one likeness, as if a bims, and scatter them over the city. wheel had been in the midst of a And he went in in my sight.


+ Heb. returned the word.


+ Heb. the hollow of thine hand.

9. full of blood,] Blood is sometimes taken in the among the wheels and the cherubim. See chap. i. 13. Scriptures in a comprehensive sense, as including all Abp. Newcome, W. Lowth. heinous sins. Dr. E. Pocock. But see the note on over the city.] A beautiful prophecy that Jeruchap. xxiv. 6.

salem should be burnt by the Babylonians. Coals of 10. mine eye shall not spare, neither will I have pity,] fire frequently

denote the Divine vengeance. Abp. NewIt is well to be observed, that when Ezekiel inquired of come, Dr. E. Pocock. God, whether He would destroy His people, God an- 3. Now the cherubims stood] The cherubim which swered, that the sins of the Jews were too great not to were part of the vision shewed to Ezekiel. be avenged; that they had carried their impiety so far and the cloud filled the inner court.] This bright as to say,

“ The Lord hath forsaken the land, the Lord cloud seems to be an attendant upon that glory, which seeth not;" and therefore that He would no longer was represented in this vision to Ezekiel, chap. viii. 4; have any pity on them. When men have arrived at a x. 1. W. Lowth. certain degree of wickedness; when they have lost all 4.— the glory of the Lord went up from the cherub, 1 fear of God, and every thing is in the utmost disorder ; See chap. ix. 3. To shew them that He meant to reGod is, as it were, obliged to execute justice, and His move away from Israel ; and yet not all at once, but by mercy gives way to His vengeance. Ostervald. degrees, and therefore He removed first only to the

threshold of the temple. Bp. Hall. Chap. X. ver. 1. — in the firmament] See the note on 5. - the outer court,] The noise was heard in the chap. i. 26.

court of the people : for all this passed in the sanctuary. 2.- even under the cherub,] The wheels were below Calmet. See the plan of the temple. or beside the cherubim, and the firmament was above 9-12.] See chap. i. 16—18. them; and the fire here mentioned ran up and down 10. had one likeness,] The works of God, however




1 Or, they were called in my hearing, tcheel, or, gaigal.

The vision

of the cherubims. 11 When they went they went |

19 And the cherubims lifted up cHRIST upon their four sides; they turned their wings, and mounted up from not as they went, but to the place the earth in my sight: when they whither the head looked they follow- went out, the wheels also were beside

ed it; they turned not as they went. them, and every one stood at the door + Heb. flesh. 12 And their whole + body, and of the east gate of the Lord's house;

their backs, and their hands, and their and the glory of the God of Israel
wings, and the wheels, were full of was over them above.
eyes round about, even the wheels 20 This is the living creature that
that they four had.

I saw under the God of Israel by the
13 As for the wheels, Is it was cried river of Chebar; and I knew that
unto them in my hearing, O wheel. they were the cherubims.

14 And every one had four faces: 21 Every one had four faces apiece,
the first face was the face of a cherub, and every one four wings; and the
and the second face was the face of a likeness of the hands of a man was
man, and the third the face of a lion, under their wings.
and the fourth the face of an eagle. 22 And the likeness of their faces

15 And the cherubims were lifted was the same faces which I saw by
up. This is the living creature that the river of Chebar, their appearances
I saw by the river of Chebar. and themselves: they went every one

16 And when the cherubims went, straight forward.
the wheels went by them: and when
the cherubims lifted up their wings

to mount up from the earth, the same 1 The presumption of the princes. 4 Their
wheels also turned not from beside

sin and judgment. 13 Ezekiel complain-

ing, God sheweth him his purpose in saving 17 When they stood, these stood; a remnant, 21 and punishing the wicked. and when they were lifted up, these

22 The glory of God leaveth the city. 24

Ezekiel is returned to the captivity. themselves also: for the 1 06, of life. spirit ||0f the living creature was in M me up, and brought me unto


18 Then the glory of the Lord the east gate of the Lord's house, departed from off the threshold of which looketh eastward : and behold the house, and stood over the cheru- at the door of the gate five and twenty bims.

men; among whom I saw Jaazaniah

they may sometimes appear diversified to the weak sight on his left; and the eagle was toward the north. Here of mortals, are always equally and uniformly directed the Prophet is supposed to stand by the porch of the by a consistent wisdom, and always effectual to their temple, (chap. viii. 16), westward of the Shechinah, as proper ends. Bp. Hall.

that was moving out of the inner court eastward : see 13.-0 wheel.] The wheels were animated with the ver. 18, 19. So the ox was first in his view, as being same principle of understanding and motion, as the nearest him. W. Lowth, Dr. Spencer. living creatures, chap. i. 6–10. W. Lowth. And there- The prevailing animal characteristick of the living fore addressed, because capable of obeying the Great creatures was that of the ox, of which they had not Director. Milton describes them,

only the head but the feet. Calmet.

18. departed from off the threshold] Then the Lord Wheel within wheel undrawn, Itself instinct with spirit.

removed the testimony of His presence from the temple,

and forsook even the very threshold thereof, and stood Michaelis observes, that the original word signifies a on high over the cherubim, as signifying that, for the storm, or a whirlwind. Abp. Newcome. We learn from great abominations of Israel, He had withdrawn Him. this passage, that God takes perfect notice of the events self from them. Bp. Hall. of things, and both gives and judges their motion. Bp. 19. the wheels also were beside them,] See chap. i. Hall.

19-26. 14. — the first face was the face of a cherub,] That is, at the east gate] The cherubim stopped, and of an ox, as appears by comparing this verse with chap. the glory of the Lord rested over the great eastern gate i. 10. The word “cherub” does originally signify an of the temple, which was the entrance from the city to ox. The several faces are here represented in a different the court of the people. This was a farther removal. order from the description given of them, chap. i. 10; Calmet, W. Lowth. of which difference this reason may be assigned. In the first chapter, the Prophet saw his vision coming out of Chap. XI. ver. 1. the east gate] The Divine glory the north, and advancing southward, ver. 4, where the had placed itself there before. See chap. x. 19. face of a man being placed on the south side was first in - princes of the people.] Probably members of view. The lion, being in the east part, was toward his the great Sanhedrim. Compare chap. viii. 11. W. right hand; the ox, being placed toward the west, was | Lowth.





for us to build houses near.

The presumption of the princes.

EZEKIEL God sheweth Ezekiel his purpose
the son of Azur, and Pelatiah the son 11 This city shall not be your cal-
of Benaiah, princes of the people. dron, neither shall ye be the flesh in

2 Then said he unto me, Son of the midst thereof; but I will judge
man, these are the men that devise you in the border of Israel:
mischief, and give wicked counsel in 12 And ye shall know that I am
this city :

the LORD: || for ye have not walked ! OT || Or, It is not 3 Which say, || It is not a near; let in my statutes, neither executed my not walked.

us build houses : this city is the cal- judgments, but have done after the a 2 Pet. 3. 4. dron, and we be the flesh.

manners of the heathen that are round
4. q Therefore prophesy against about you.
them, prophesy, 0 son of man. 13 9 And it came to pass, when I

5 And the Spirit of the Lord fell prophesied, that Pelatiah the son of
upon me, and said unto me, Speak; Benaiah died. Then fell I down
Thus saith the LORD; Thus have ye upon my face, and cried with a loud
said, O house of Israel: for I know voice, and said, Ah Lord God! wilt
the things that come into your mind, thou make a full end of the remnant
every one of them.

of Israel?
6 Ye have multiplied your slain in 14 Again the word of the LORD
this city, and ye have filled the streets came unto me, saying,
thereof with the slain.

15 Son of man, thy brethren, even
7 Therefore thus saith the Lord thy brethren, the men of thy kindred,
God; Your slain whom ye have laid and all the house of Israel wholly,
in the midst of it, they are the flesh, are they unto whom the inhabitants
and this city is the caldron: but I of Jerusalem have said, Get you

will bring you forth out of the midst from the LORD: unto us is this land
of it.

given in possession.
8 Ye have feared the sword; and 16 Therefore say, Thus saith the
I will bring a sword upon you, saith Lord God; Although I have cast
the Lord God.

them far off among the heathen, and
9 And I will bring you out of the although I have scattered them among
midst thereof, and deliver you into the countries, yet will I be to them
the hands of strangers, and will exe- as a little sanctuary in the countries
cute judgments among you.

where they shall come.
10 Ye shall fall by the sword; I 17 Therefore say, Thus saith the
will judge you in the border of Israel; Lord God; I will even gather you
and ye shall know that I am the from the people, and assemble you

out of the countries where have



3. Which say, It is not near ; let us build houses : &c.] You shall not die there, but I will reserve you for further This image seems first to have been suggested by Jere- punishment. W. Lowth. miah, chap. i. 13. Jerusalem is there represented as a 9, 10.-- I will bring you out of the midst thereof, &c.] seething pot, and the fire that should consume its con- See Jer. xxxix. 5; 2 Kings xxv. 19-21. tents was threatened from the north. The fulfilment of the border of Israel ;] Called “the entering in this prophecy was then imminent, but the Jews seem to of Hamath,” i Kings viii

. 65; 2 Kings xiv. 25, because have disregarded it. The twenty-five are represented it was just upon the borders of Judea. W. Lowth. as teaching the people a false security; as instructing 13. — then fell I down upon my face, &c.] The Prothem to build houses in perfect confidence that their phet thought this an earnest of the common destruction generation would at least be safe; that Jerusalem was which was coming upon the inhabitants of the city, and indeed the caldron, and they the flesh : but that the fire thereupon he earnestly deprecated so severe a judgment. would not consume them, who were only to be pre- W. Lowth, Bp. Hall. pared and perfected by the process, and would remain 15. thy brethren,] Thy fellow captives. St. Jerome in safety to a mature old age. W. Lowth, Abp. New- remarks upon

passage, that we should never insult

those whom God appears to have abandoned ; and who 5. — Thus have ye said, &c.] Ye have advanced the suffer under His afflicting hand. The sorrowful and assertion maintained ver. 3. You have rightly said what humbled sinner is often more acceptable in the sight of you say: “ The city is the caldron, and we are the God, than those who live in apparent prosperity, and flesh," "shall be fulfilled, but not as you understand it; feel no repentance. Calmet. many


of you

will perish in the city. For those it will 16.- a little sanctuary] They could no longer worbe the caldron, and they will be the flesh boiled in it. ship God in the holy temple of Jerusalem : but God But yourselves shall not be the flesh in the caldron; here promises to serve them as a temple in their exile ; but you shall be taken out, and elsewhere cut in pieces. to be their refuge and protection; and to give them Michaelis, Bp. Hall.

gracious testimonies of His presence with them. Calmet, 6. Ye have multiplied your slain] See chap. xxii. 3, 4. Bp. Hall. 7. but I will bring you forth out of the midst of it.] 17.- I will even gather you from the people,] This






b Jer. 32. 39. ch. 36. 26.

in saving a remnant.

CHAP. XI, XII. The type of Ezekiel's removing. been scattered, and I will give you 24 q Afterwards the spirit took me the land of Israel.

up, and brought me in a vision by the 18 And they shall come thither, Spirit of God into Chaldea, to them and they shall take away all the de- of the captivity. So the vision that I testable things thereof and all the had seen went up,

from me.
abominations thereof from thence. 25 Then I spake unto them of the

19 And I will give them one heart, captivity all the things that the LORD
and I will put a new spirit within had shewed me.
you; and I will take the stony heart

out of their flesh, and will give them
an heart of flesh :

i The type of Ezekiel's removing. 8 It shewed

the captivity of Zedekiah. 17 Ezekiel's 20 That they may walk in my trembling sheweth the Jews' desolation. 21 statutes, and keep mine ordinances, The Jews' presumptuous proverb is reproved. and do them: and they shall be my

26 The speediness of the vision. people, and I will be their God.

НЕ of the Lord also
21 But as for them whose heart

walketh after the heart of their detest- 2 Son of man, thou dwellest in the
able things and their abominations, I midst of a rebellious house, which
will recompense

way upon
their have



and see not; they
own heads, saith the Lord God. have ears to hear, and hear not: for

22 | Then did the cherubims lift they are a rebellious house. up their wings, and the wheels beside 3 Therefore, thou son of man, prethem; and the glory of the God of pare thee || stuff for removing, and ! Or, Israel was over them above.

remove by day in their sight; and 23 And the glory of the Lord thou shalt remove from thy place to went up from the midst of the city, another place in their sight: it may and stood upon the mountain which be they will consider, though they be is on the east side of the city. a rebellious house.


may be in some degree fulfilled in those that returned power of a Divine ecstasy, and the immediate influence from the captivity; but the utmost completion of this of God's Spirit. W. Lowth. and the following verses may probably be expected at the general restoration of the Jewish nation. Compare Chap. XII. ver. 2. thou dwellest in the midst of a rechap. xx. 4 ; xxviii. 25. W. Lowth.

bellious house,] He was among them of the captivity 18. detestable things] The idols, which had been in Chaldea, ver. 10 ; chap. xi. 24 ; xiv. 22; and these the cause of God's anger. The Jews who returned from seem to have disbelieved the prophecies that Jerusalem the captivity did not relapse into idolatry. Calmet. should be smitten and burnt, and its inhabitants scat

19. And I will give them one heart, &c.] And I will tered abroad, chap. iv. 2 ; ix. 5; X. 2 ; xi. 9. Abp. give them a holy and happy accordance in My truth; Newcome. and will renew a right spirit in them; and will take St. Jerome remarks upon this place, that the words away that perverse and obstinate indisposition which is of this chapter were addressed to the Jews of the capnaturally in them to that which is good; and will give tivity, who were then regretting that they had listened them a tenderness of heart, such as may make them to the prophecies of Jeremiah, since Jerusalem was still capable of the impressions of My Spirit. Bp. Hall. standing, of which he had predicted the fall; and the

We read throughout the Prophets, that the time of object of it seems to have been to shew that they, who the Messiah is all along represented as a time of univer- were left behind to endure the miseries of a siege, and sal love, and peace, and godliness ; wherein as the the insults of a conqueror, would be in a worse connatures of people shall be changed, and all malice and dition than those who were already captives. Calmet. ill nature rooted out, (Isai. xi,) so God would give 3. prepare thee stuff for removing,] Instruments, them a heart to do His will, and “He would be their furniture, goods, whatever is fitting for a long journey. God, and they should be His people,” ver. 20. Dr. T. Abp. Newcome. Burnett.

by day] Do this openly, and at noonday, that 23. — went up from the midst of the city,] This was they may all see and take notice of it. W. Lowth. See emblematical that God would desert Jerusalem, as well the note on chap. iv. 1. There appears no reason for as the temple. Abp. Newcome.

thinking that the Prophet might not really perform all and stood upon the mountain which is on the east that is mentioned in this chapter, without forfeiting side] The mount of Olives. W. Lowth. This was the either his discretion or gravity. The manner and cirlast spot upon which the glory of the Lord rested, be- cumstances of the whole narrative plead strongly for the fore He quitted the devoted city; and it is remarkable, strict and literal interpretation. It is no less than seven that it was the spot from which the Saviour of the world times repeated, that the Prophet was to do, or did, thus afterwards ascended up to heaven in the sight of His and thus, “ in the sight” of the people : and he did it disciples. Calmet.

in the “ evening,” in the “twilight,” ver. 7: and “ in 24. - in a vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldea,] the morning” after, ver. 8, 9, God came to ask him Returned me back into Chaldea in the same manner as whether the house of Israel had taken notice of such his it carried me away from thence, being still under the ! uncommon behaviour, and had enquired what it meant. Vol. II.

2 1

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