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ceive what is not taught by the law or the prophets, the evangelists or apostles ??

9. He says, · Wel ought not, in the least, to dissent from the evangelical and apostolica) doctrine; vor to understand the divine scriptures otherwise than the blessed apostles and our fathers have learned and taught.'

Which is somewhat ambiguous : If by our fathers’ are intended men different from the apostles and evangelists, and they are placed in equal authority with the apostles, I humbly conceive, this is not sound doctrine, or agreeable either to scripture, or the sentiments of christians in the most early times; but I do not think it needful so to understand him: it cannot be reasonable to think, that he equalled any men, after the apostles, or their writings, to the divine scriptures, orm the divine oracles.

10. He charges" the Manichees with rejecting the law and the prophets; and with taking some things from, and adding others to, the gospels and the apostles; and calls them adversaries of truth.

11. He likewise charges the Priscillianists with using apocryphal scriptures, written in the names of apostles; and orders them to be burned.

12. Let me now add a few things of a different kind.

13. Leo supposeth, tbat P St. Peter, after having taught the Jews of Judea, founded the church at Antioch; and, afterwards, instructed the people of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia : he says, that? Peter was at Rome in the reign of the emperor Claudius; and that he prædicavit, quod apostolica doctrina non tradidit ? Ep. 15. sal. 93.) cap. 12.

Et cum ab evangelicâ, apostolicaque doctrinâ ne uno quidem verbo liceat dissidere, aut aliter de scripturis divinis sapere, quam beati apostoli et patres nostri didicerunt atque docuerunt. Ep. 62. [al. 42.] cap. 1.

m Cum semper nos, dilectissimi, gaudere in Domino omnia divina eloquia exhortentur, &c. Serm. 27. cap. 1.

" Isti, de quibus loquimur, adversarii yeritatis, legem per Mosem datam, et inspirata divinitus prophetarum oracula respuerunt, ipsasque evangelicas et apostolicas paginas, quædam auferendo, et quædam inserendo violaverunt. Serm. 33. cap. iv. Vid. et S. 8. c. iv.

• Apocryphæ autem scripturæ, quæ sub nominibus apostolorum multarun habent seminarium falsitatum, non solum interdicendæ, sed etiam penitus auferendæ sunt, atque ignibus concremandæ. Ep. 15. [al. 93.) cap. 15.

P Jam populos, qui ex circumcisione crediderant, erudieras : jam Antiochenam ecclesiam, ubi primum christiani nominis dignitas est orta, fundaveras : jam Pontum, Galatiam, Cappadociam, Asiam, atque Bithyniam, legibus evangelicæ prædicationis impleveras. Serm. 79. cap. 5.

9 Nec mundi dominam times Romam, qui in Caiaphæ domo expaveras sacerdotis ancillam, Numquid aut judicio Pilati, aut sævitia Judæorum, minor erat vel in Claudio potestas, vel in Neronc crudelitas? Ib. c. 4.

' Ad quam beatus coapostolus tuus, vas electionis, et specialis magister Gentium, Paulus occur

had the honour of martyrdom, together with Paul, at Rome, in the time of Nero, whose persecution was general, and the first heathen persecution which the christians suffered.

14. This bishop of Rome does, in an extravagant manner, vaunts the supremacy of his see, and the pre-eminence of Peter above the other apostles; and he improves the words of 1 Pet. ii. 9, to subserve his purpose of exalting the see of Rome.

CHAP. CALI.

· SALVIAN.

I. His time, and works, and character. II. His testimony

to the scriptures. 111. Select passages.

I. SALVIAN, presbyter of Marseilles, of whom some notice was taken by usa formerly, is placed, by b Cave, as flourishing about the year 440, and afterwards. He is spoken of as flourishing about 440, because in that year, he finished his treatise of Providence, one of his principal works; he is in Gennadius, a part of whose chapter 1 transcribed below : he mentions some works of Salvian beside

rens, eodem tibi consociatus est tempore, quo omnis pudor, omnisque libertas, sub Neronis laborabat imperio. Cujus furor per omnium vitiorum inflammatus excessum, in hunc eum usque torrentem suæ præcipitavit insaniæ, ut primus nomini christiano atrocitatem generalis persecutionis inferret. Ib. cap. v.

Sed hujus muneris sacramentum ita Dominus ad omnium apostolorum officium pertinere voluit, ut in beatissimo Petro apostolorum omnium summo principaliter collocârit; et ab ipso, quasi quodam capite, dona sua velit in corpus omne manere. Ep. 10. [al. 89.] cap. 1. Et tamen de toto mundo unus Petrus eligitur, qui et universarum gentium vocationi, et omnibus apostolis, cunctisque ecclesiæ partibus, præponatur ; ut, quamvis in populo Dei multi sacerdotes sint, omnes tamen proprie regat Petrus, quos principaliter et regit Christus. Serm. 3. cap. 2. vid. et cap. 3, et 4.

Isti sunt [Petrus et Paulus] qui te ad hanc gloriam provexerunt, ut 'gens sancta, populus electus, civitas sacerdotalis et regia,' per sacram beati Petri sedem caput orbis effecta, latius præsideres, religione, quam dominatione terrenâ, &c. Serm. 80. cap. 1. See Vol. ii. ch. xxix..

c H. L. T. i. p. 433. c Vid. Pagi Ann. 440. n. 6. et Ann. 490. n. 25.

d Salvianus, Massiliensis ecclesiæ presbyter, humanâ et divinâ literaturà instructus, et, ut absque invidiâ loquar, episcoporum magister, scripsit scholastico et aperto sermone multa. Ex quibus legi--Adversus Avaritiam libros quatuor.--Et in morem Græcorum, de principio Genesis usque ad conditionem

those now extant; which are, the forementioned treatise, Of Providence, or the Divine Government, in eight books ; Against Covetousness, in four books; Epistles, nine in number. Gennadius says, he might, without offence, call Salvian a master of bishops; and, among bis works, reckons many homilies, wbich were preached by bishops, not so well qualified to compose for themselves. Salvian is a very agreeable writer: he was living when Gennadius wrote his book of Illustrious Men, that is, in 485, as Tillemonte computes. Other learned men are for a later date of that work of Gennadius ; thinking it not written' till 494, or thereabout.

II. Salvian seems to have received all the books of the New Testainent which we do.

1. The book of the Acts is often and largely quoted by bim : bel quotes the epistle to the Hebrews, as the apostle Paul's; he also quotes the epistle of St. James, thek second epistle of St. Peter, and the book of the Revelation.

2. His general divisions of the sacred scriptures are such as these : First,m the law; then, the prophets; thirdly, the gospel; fourthly, the apostles. Again : the" Old and New Testament; the law, the prophets, the apostles, the gospels;

hominis, compositum versu exaëmeron librum unum, Homilias episcopis [vel ad episcopos] factas multas. Vivit usque hodie senectute bona. "Genn. de V. I. cap. 67.

e Mem. Ec. T. xvi. sur Salvien, note 4. 1 Vid. Basnag. Ann. 494. 6. Pagi Ann. 490. n. 20.

8 Et ideo in apostolorum Actibus beatissimus Paulus, In ipso,' inquit, et vivimus, et movemur, et sumus. De Gubern. Dei, 1. 2. p. 34. Vid. et 1. 8. p. 191. Adv. Avarit. 1. iii. p. 276, 277. et alibi. Edit. S. Baluz. Paris. 1669.

h Si enim inquit apostolus, omnis inobedientia justam accipit mercedis retributionem, quomodo nos effugiemus, si tantam neglexerimus salutem ? [Hebr. ii. 3.) Adv. Avar. l. 4. p. 229. Vid. ib. p. 310.

· De Gubernat. Dei, 1. 3. p. 60. I. 4. p. 65. Adv. Avar. I. 1. p. 228.

* Quod quidem etiam beatus apostolus Petrus evidenter exposuit, dicens de vitiosis ac tepidis, id est, male viventibus christianis : • Melius erat illis non • cognoscere veritatem,' &c. (2 Pet. ii. 21. 22.) De Gubern. Dei, l. 4. p. 95. Vid. ib. I. 1. p. 19, 20.

Unde etiam Salvator in Apocalypsi ad tepidum christianum ait: • Utinam aut callidus esses, aut frigidus. Nunc • autem quia tepidus es, incipiam te evomere ex ore meo.' Apoc. iii. 15, 16.] De Gub. Dei, l. 4. p. 95. Vid. et Adv. Avar. 1. 4. sub. fin. p. 310.

m Quæritur forsitan, quæ sint bona, quæ Deus christianis hominibus adsignet ? Quæ, nisi omnia, per quæ christiani sumus ? Primum scilicet legem, deinde prophetas, tertio evangelium, quarto apostolicas lectiones. De Gubern. Dei, 1. 3. p. 45.

"Et quidem non quæro, ut cuncta faciat, quæ Testamenta duorum temporum jubent. Remitto censuram legis antiquæ. Remitto omnes prophetarum minas. Remitto etiam quæ remitti omnino non possunt, vel apostolorum librorum severissimam institutionem, vel evangelicorum voluminum plenam omni perfectionis genere doctrinam. Ibid.

VOL. V.

prophets, apostles, and gospels; gospels P and apostles, and the like.

3. For which he expresseth the greatest regard : for he considers the scriptures as? dictated by the Spirit of God, as' containing the revelation of the mind of God to us; from whence, as well as by reason, be proves the doctrine of a Providence, which he is treating of.

III. I shall now obscrve a few select passages.

1. Het supposeth the number of “ five thousand," mentioned, Acts iv. 4, to be additional to the “ three thousand," in ch. ii. 41, making in all eight thousand. Nevertheless, I do not tbink that to be the true sense ; nor yet, that the number was now “ five thousand,” including the “ three thousand” converted by Peter's first sermon : for many of them had come from divers and remote parts to Jerusalem, to be present at the feast of Pentecost; and probably, soon after the feast was over, returned to their several countries and dwellings : nor does St. Luke say, that now five thousand were • added' to the apostles, or to the church; but be says, that at this season, “ many of them which heard the word believed,” or were converted; “ and tbe number of the men was” • made,' eyevnon, “ five thousand ;" with the addition of converts now made, the whole number of believers at Jerusalem amounted to five thousand. Many of the first three thousand were dead or removed ; but from time to time new converts had been made, and at this season“ many believed ;' whereby the number of believers at Jerusalem • became five thousand.'

• Talis profecto secta est, quales sectatores sunt. Hoc sunt absque dubio quod docentur. Apparet itaque, et prophetas quos habent impuritatem docere, et apostolos quos legunt nefaria sanxisse, et evangelia, quibus inbuuntur, hæc, quæ ipsi faciunt, prædicare. De Gubern. I. 4. p. 92.

p Evangelia legunt, et impudici sunt. Apostolos audiunt, et inebriantur. Ib. p. 91.

9 Loquens in voluminibus suis sermo divinus sic ait. De Gub. I. ii. p. 31. Quod ut plenius capias, audi quid in alio scrip turarum loco idem testatur Spiritus Sanctus. Ibid. Sicut etiam per divinas literas sacer sermo testatus est. L. iv. in.

* Sed tamen cum per scripturas sacras scire nos quasi de arcano animi ac mentis suæ quædam voluerit Deus noster, quia ipsum quodammodo scriptura sacræ oraculum Dei mens est, quidquid vel agnosci per suos, vel prædicari Deus voluit, non tacebo. De Gub. I. ii. p. 43.

Ecce evidentur dicit volumen sacrum, cuncta quotidie nutu divinitatis regi, et incessabiliter a Deo omnia gubernari. De Gub. I. ii. p. 33.- Superest, ut quia testimoniis sacris et respici ac regi a Deo omnia jam probavimus, &c. Ib. p. 35.

' Quæ fuerit quippe tunc multitudo ecclesiæ principalis, ex hoc solo cognosci potest, quod in principiis statim ipsis octo hominum millia biduo ecclesiæ accessisse referuntur. Adv. Avar. 1. ill. p. 277.

2. Heu calls Timothy apostle, meaning, undoubtedly, apostle in a lower sense only, as equivalent to apostolical, or a companion and disciple of apostles.

3. Her celebrates the fortitude and patience of the priinitive christians.

4. Hew insists very much upon the general corruption of manners among christians in his time; and largely shows, that * it is unbecoming the christian profession, and y dishonourable to Christ bimself. :: 5. Salvian assures us, that they who were called heretics received the same scriptures that other christians did ; the same prophets, the same apostles, and evangelists.

6. He says, moreover, thata heretics err innocently, at least sincerely : they believe what they profess to be true ; and they think themselves to be orthodox. As they are heretics in our esteem, so are we in theirs : and how they will be treated in the day of judgment upon account of this their erroneous opinion, the Judge alone knows.

u Legimus Timotheum apostolum carne infirmissimum fuisse. De Gub. I. i. c. 10.

Omittamus ergo illa, quæ beatissimus Paulus pertulit, immo quæ in libris postea de religione conscriptis omnes admodum christianos legimus pertulisse; qui ad cælestis regiæ januam gradibus pænarum suarum adscendentes, scalas sibi quodammodo de eculcis catastisque fecerunt. De Gub. I. iii. p. 50.

* Quotusquisque est, qui non se luto fornicationis involvat ? Et quid plura ? Grave et luctuosum est quod dicturus sum. Ipsa ecclesia, quæ in omnibus esse debet placatrix Dei, quid est aliud, quam exacerbatrix Dei ? Aut præter paucissimos quosdam, qui mala fugiunt, quid est aliud pene omnis cælus christianorum, quam sentina vitiorum ? De Gub. I. iii. p. 57.-In hanc enim morum probrositatem prope omnis ecclesiastica plebs redacta est, ut in cuncto populo christiano genus quoddam sanctitatis sit, minus esse vitiosum. Ib. p. 58.

* Quo fit, ut etiam nos, qui christiani esse dicimur, perdamus vim tanti nominis, vitio pravitatis. Nihil enim prodest nomen habere sanctum sine moribus ; quia vita a professione discordans abrogat illustris tituli honorem. Ib. p. 62.

y De nobis enim dicitur illud, quod supra diximus : Ecce quales sunt, qui Christum colunt. Si enim bona discerent, boni essent. Postremo sancta a christianis fierent, si Christus sancta docuisset. Æstimari itaque de cultoribus suis potest ille qui colitur. Quomodo enim bonus magister est, cujus tam malos videmus esse discipulos ? Vide christiani quid agant, et evidenter potest de ipso Christo sciri, quid doceat. De Gub. I. iv. p. 91, 92.

? Eadem enim etiam illos legere quæ nos legimus, eosdem apud illos prophetas Dei, eosdem apostolos, eosdem evangelistas esse, L. v. p. 99.

a Hæretici ergo sunt, sed non scientes. Denique apud nos sumt hæretici, apud se non sunt. Nam in tantun se catholicos esse judicant, ut nos ipsos titulo hæreticæ appellationis infament. Quod ergo illi nobis sunt, hoc nos illis. Nos eos injuriam divinæ generationi facere, certi sumus, quod minorem patre filium dicant. llli nos injuriosos Patri existimant, quia æquales esse credimus. Veritas apud nos est. Sed illi apud se esse præsumunt-Errant ergo; sed bono animo errant, non odio, sed affectu Dei, honorare se dominum atque amare credentes. Qualiter pro hoc ipso falsæ opinionis errore in die judicii puniendi sint, nullus potest scire, nisi judex. Ib. p. 100.

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