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concerning such as were in a great agony of mind. So likewise it is said of such as are in great grief, that they weep tears of blood : nor does St. Luke say that Christ did sweat drops of blood ; but that “ his sweat was as it were drops of blood ;" to signify, that it was not a slight sweat, and that our Lord's whole body was covered over with large and thick drops of sweat, issuing from it, and falling down to the ground. In this letter it is likewise, that he observes the omission of this paragraph of St. Luke's gospel in some copies, of which notice was taken by us y formerly.

9. In another epistle, considering Rom. ix. 3, “ For I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ,” he observes, the apostle does not say, “ I wish,” but, “ I could wish,” if it were possible :' and afterwards, · sa could wish, if it were fit, if it were lawful, and if my fall and misery might be beneficial to others. This I take to be right; and, so far as I can see, this explication removes all the difficulties of that text. .

10. There are many excellent counsels and observations to be found in Photius's epistles.

(1.) In the first epistle, which is addressed to Michael, king of Bulgaria : Itb is one of the commands of Christ, our common Lord, that we should bring forth fruits of righteousness, and not disgrace our faith by our works : so likewise directs Paul, the great master of the church; so Peter, the chief of the apostles, who was entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and so the whole choir of the apostles taught the world.

(2.) In the same epistle: Somec say, it is the main office of a prince to make a small city, or commonwealth, great : but he says, he should estcem it a greater thing to make it good.'

(3.) To the same prince: • If you receive a benefit, be sure to remember it; if you confer a benefit, you will do well soon to forget it. This is an indication of a great mind, and raiseth the value of the benefit conferred.'

(4.) I refer to two other places concerninge friendship and ingratitude. Spousou aluaroc, ELTWV, 8 Spouses idpwodi ane guato aiuaros, k. d. Eph. 138. p. 193.

y See vol. ii. ch. xxxvi. num, iii. 9. Ουδε γαρ ειπεν, Ευχομαι χορισθηναι, αλλ' ηυχoμην αν" τατ' εςιν ει δυνατον mu, k. X. Ep. 216. p. 319.

**Hvxouny av, El eve&EXETO, EL EVEXwpel, el tug nv amosaous owTnpuos, k. . Ib. p. 320. 5 Ep. i. p. 21. © Ep. i. p. 30.

a Ib. p. 34. e P. 27.

iP. 37.



1. CAVEa speaks of (Ecumenius as writing about the year 990, but without being certain of his time : and that he has not placed this author too soon, may be argued from Montfaucon's Bibliotbeca Coisliniana, who there informs us of a inanuscript chain or comment on St. Paul's epistles of the tenth century, in which the name of (Ecumenius is mentioned, among other writers out of whom that comment was collected : I therefore place him a little bigher, but still in the same century.

2. Montfaucon assures us, from a passage found in a manuscript of the tenth or eleventh century, that Ecumenius was bishop of Tricca in Thessaly; which was not known before.

3. Wed have Commentaries of this writer upon the Acts, St. Paul's fourteen epistles, and the seven catholic epistles. The Commentaries upon the epistles, if not also upon the Acts, are a chain, consisting of notes and observations of several, beside his own; as John Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory Nazianzen, Isidore of Pelusium, Theodoret, Photius, and others. At the end of the second volume of Ecumenius is placed the Commentary of Arethas upon the Revelation.

*4. In this work, in the edition at Paris, in 1631, which I make use of, the books of the New Testament are placed in the order now generally used; first the Acts of the Apostles, vext St. Paul's fourteen epistles, and then the catholic epistles : but there is prefixed to those Commentaries a short copy of verses, representing the contents of

• Ecumenius, scriptor admodum incertæ ætatis, de quo altum apud veteres silentium. Id modo constat, post annum 800 claruisse. Adeoque hoc loco ipsum reponimus ad annum 990, donec veram ejus ætatem expiscari liceat. H. L. T. ii. p. 112.

© Bib. Cois. p. 82. M. c Vid, Bib. Coisl, in Præf. et p. 277. .

d In Acta apostolorum catenæ vicem exhibit (Ecumenii, incertæ ætatis scriptoris, sed judicio ac perspicuitate commendabilis, Commentarius, qui cum ejusdem Commentariis similibus in epistolas septem catholicas, epistolas sancti Pauli apostoli, et cum Aretha in Apocalypsin, prodiit Græce Veronæ typis luculentis 1532. fol. Hæc editio mihi ad manus est. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 788. Vid. eund. T. xiii. p. 845.

the whole work, in this manner : “ The book of the Acts, written by Luke; the epistle of James, written to believing Hebrews; the first epistle of Peter, written to believers; the second epistle of Peter, also written to christians; three epistles of John, one of Jude, to all christians in general ; then St. Paul's fourteen epistles, all enumerated in our present order : lastly, John's mysterious Revelation.' This, I suppose, was the order of the books, particularly of the Acts and the epistles, in the manuscript; it is also the order observed in the first printed edition of these Commentaries, in Greek only, at Verona in 1532, described by * Fabricius, which I likewise bave. As for the Commentary upon thc Revelation by Arethas, in all probability it was added to make a full volume : moreover, Arethas might be reckoned to be very little distant in time from & Ecumenius,

-5. James Le Long says, that h Ecumenius wrote a Commentary also upon the four gospels; and that he himself says so; but I do not find it in the place to which Le Long refers.

6. Wbether Ecumenius received or wrote Commentaries upon the Revelation, will be considered by and by.

7. Upon St. Luke's introduction to the Acts, “ The former treatise have I made, O Theophilus," Ecumenius observes, • Hei calls it a treatise, and not a gospel, avoiding ostentation; as indeed do the rest likewise. Matthew says, “ The book of the generation of Jesus Christ;" Mark indeed says, “ The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ;" but be does not, by “ gospel," intend his own writing, but Christ's preaching. The faithful afterwards called them gospels, as truly containing the gospel, that is, the doctrine of Christ.'

8. Upon Acts xiii. 13, he says, " Thisk John, who is also called Mark, nephew to Barnabas, wrote the gospel entitled

€ Των Πραξεων η βιβλος, ας Λακας γραφει· ,
Πισοις 'Εβραιων εξ Ιακωβε λογοι.
Πισοις ο Πετρος πρωτα συνταττει ταδε.
Χρισωνυμοισι δευτεροι Πετρε λογοι.

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Ιωαννα μυησις ή κεκρυμμενη. * See before, note d.

See before, p. 103. h l . Annotationum Commentarii in quatuor Evangelia, ex dictis veterum patrum Græcorum ; quos commentarios in epistolam ad Hebræos, cap. 6. se scripsisse testatur. J. Le Long. B. T. ii. p. 883.

"Aoyov ElTTE PwTov, 8K evayyedcov, K. . In Act. Ap. T. i. p. 1, 2.'. * Ibid. p. 111. C.

according to him, and was also disciple of Peter, of whom he says, in his epistle, “ Mark, my son, saluteth you.”

9. Upon Acts xv. 13. ThisJames, appointed bishop of Jerusalem by the Lord, was son of Joseph the carpenter, and brother of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh.

10. I need not put down the prefaces to St. Paul's several epistles, in which are observed the places where they were written, sometimes right, sometimes wrong.

11. Upon those words of Col. iv. 16, “ the epistle from Laodicea,” is a note of Photius. Somem say, this was not an epistle of Paul to them, but from them to bim ; for he does not say, the epistle to the Laodiceans, but the epistle from Laodicea.'

12. In the argument or preface to the epistle of James, it is said to be written to those of the twelve tribes scattered abroad, who had believed in our Lord Jesus Christ.

13. The argument to the first epistle of Peter says, ' it iso written to the believing Jews scattered abroad in several places.'

14. Upon 2 Pet, ii, 1, he observes, as I understand bim, to this effect: • Hence we perceive that Peter wrote only two epistles.'

15. In a note upon the beginning of St. John's second epistle he says, “Some9 bad thought that this and the following epistle were not written by John the apostle, but by another of the same name, who calls himself Elder. Our author, however, receives both these, as well as the first.

16. Jude's' epistle is said to be written to believers.

17. In a note upon the first epistle to the Corinthians, the Revelation is quoted as written by John the evangelist.

18. As a farther proof, that Ecumenius received the book of the Revelation, I refer to an anecdote, published by Montfaucon, of which he speaks very magnificently in his preface to the Coislinian Jibrary; but when he sets about translating the passage, he says, it is written in so obscure a style as to be scarce intelligible. 1 P. 122. C.

.m T. . p. 146. B. " T. ii. p. 438.

• Ib. p. 479. P EK TBTWV uavdavojev, dvo tas radaç elval T8 IT&Tp8 emisolaç. p. 548. D.

'P. 619. A. s 'O evayyelisng Iwavvns Noiv {V TY A tokaubel. T. i. p. 578. C.

1 Vigesimum quartum ex eodem codice prodit, estque longe præstantius opusculum (Ecumenii, episcopi Triccæ in Thessaliâ. Notes velim, antehac, cujus civitatis episcopus esset Ecumenius, ignotum fuisse. Is auctoritate patrum, ineluctabilibusque argumentis, probat Apocalypsin esse veram et canonicam scripturam. Præf.

u Sequens autem opusculum stylo

9 P. 605.

It is said to be the Synopsis of the labours of the blessed Ecumenius, bishop of Iricca, upon the Revelation of John the divine;' and it begins in this manner : • That" this writing is the mystical instruction of the disciple who rested in the bosom of Jesus, and is divinely inspired, and useful, as has been indisputably proved ; and that it is not spurious, as some have profanely said, but a genuine writing of the son of thunder :' and the author then proceeds to argue this from the testimonies of Athanasius, Basil, Gregory, Methodius, Cyril of Alexandria, Hippolytus, and from other considerations."

19. I shall now make a few remarks. First, from the passage above cited from the Commentary upon the epistle to the Corinthians, it appears to be probable, that (Ecumenius received the book of the Revelation; and this passage may be allowed to afford some additional evidence. Nevertheless, secondly, this writer being unknown and anonymous, what he says cannot be admitted as full proof that Ecumenius ever wrote a Commentary upon the Revelation. Thirdly, the argument for the genuineness of the Revelation, here ascribed to Ecumenius, is much the same with what is to be found in the prefaces of* Andrew, and y Arethas, to their Commentaries upon that book.



1. THEOPHYLACT, archbishop of the chief city of Bulgaria, wrote Commentaries upon the four gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and St. Paul's fourteen epistles. He is spoken of by Cavea as flourishing about the year 1077, by

tam perplexo scriptum est, ut vix intelligi possit. Aliquot etiam in locis vitiatum videtur. Ipsum tamen pro facultate meå Latine interpretari studui. Bibl. Coisl. p. 277.

' Εκ των Οικομενω τη μακαριω επισκοπη Τρικκης θεσσαλιας θεοφιλως πεπονημενων εις την Αποκαλυψιν Ιωαννα το θεολογο, συνοψις σχολικη, κ. λ. Ib. p. 277. F.

* P. 277. F. et. 278. * See before in this work, vol. ü. p. 124, Andrew cited from Prolog. ad Apoc. p. 3. B. ad Calc. T. viii. Opp. S. Chrysostom. Ed. Morell.

y Vid. Areth. ap. Ecumen. T. ii. p. 640. * H. L. T. ii. p. 153.

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