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10. What I have said here is agreeable to the sentiments and observations of James Basnage upon the same point: and it may not be amiss for an attentive reader, to compare Gregory's quotations of the apocryphal books of the Old Testament with those of Ambrose, bishop of Milan, formerlyt taken notice of; who shows more regard to these apocryphal books, than this bishop of Rome.

11. In a word, Gregory's canon of the Old Testament appears to be the same with that of the Jews; and, perhaps, this may be confirmed by the general divisions of the books of scripture to be observed hereafter.

III.'I proceed to Gregory's testimony to the New Testament:

1. In the first place it is to be observed, that u be received four gospels, and asserts their complete harmony; where he calls the gospels of the several evangelists their books.

2. He says, that' our Lord, after he had died, and was risen again, and ascended to heaven, wrote the New Testament by the apostles.

3. According to Gregory, as well as many others, the four living creatures in Ezek. i. 5–10. represent the four evangelists, and * their complete harmony. Matthew, y he supposes to be represented by the face of a man; Mark, by that of a lion ; Luke, by that of a calf; and John, by that of an eagle.

4. It is needless to refer to quotations of the Acts of the Apostles, or St. Paul's epistles, which are innumerable: I


. Hist. de l'Eglise, 1. 8. ch. 10, n. 4. p. 445. " See vol. iv. ch. cvi. num. ii.

• Petra autem erat Christus. [2 Cor. x. 4.] De hac petrâ olei rivus exiit, liber Matthæi, liber Marci, liber Lucæ, et liber Johannis. In Job. I. 19. c. 14. p. 616. D.

Et quia ipse Dominus postquam pro nobis mortuus est, et resurrexit, et ascendit in cælum, tunc Testamentum Novum per apostolos scripsit. Ibid. I. 22. c. 18. p. 720. A.

" Quid enim per quatuor animalia, quam quatuor evangelistæ signantur ? In Ezech. I. i. Hom. 2. n. 18. p. 1190.

* Quatuor ergo facies uni sunt; quia, si requiras, quid Matthæus de incarnatione Domini sentiat, hoc nimirum sentit quod Marcus, Lucas, et Johannes. Si quæras, quid Johannes, hoc proculdubio quod Lucas, Marcus, et Matthæus. Si quæras, quid Marcus, hoc quod Matthæus, Johannes, et Lucas. Si quæras, quid Lucas, hoc quod Johannes, Matthæus, et Marcus, sentit. In Ezech. 1. i. Hom. 3. sub. in.

y Quod enim quatuor hæc pennat animalia quatuor evangelistas designent, ipsa uniuscujusque libri evangelici exordia testantur. Nam quia ab humana generatione cæpit, jure per hominem Matthæus ; quia per clamorem in deserto, recte designatur per leonem Marcus; quia a sacrificio exorsus est, bene per vitulum Lucas; quia vero a divinitate verbi cæpit, digne per aquilam significatur Johannes, &c. In Ezech. 1. i. Hom. iv. init.

only just observe, that theż epistle to the Hebrews is frequently quoted as the apostle Paul's, without hesitation.

5. And with regard to the catholic epistles, I observe, that the epistle of James is often, and expressly, quoted by Gregory. . 6. He often quotes b the first and the second epistles of Peter : I put in the margin several of his quotations, that: the reader may see the manner of them, and how Gregory calls Peter the pastor of the church, and first pastor of the churcb, as well as apostle.

7. And it may be here observed, that he also speaks honourably of Paul, calling himd an excellent preacher or instructor.

8. I shall add a passage or two relating to St. Peter's epistles, the second especially : •thee same Peter, the first of the apostles, writing to his lisciples, [in his second epistle,] and knowing that there were some who detracted from the merit of Paul's writings, says: “ Even as our beloved brother Paul also, according to the wisdom given unto him, has written unto you; as also in all his epistles speaking of these things.” [Pet. iii. 15, 16.] Behold, Paul in his

* Quod Paulus quoque apostolus ait : ' Omnia enim nuda, et aperta sunt oculis ejus.' (Heb. iv, 13.] In Job. I. 17. c. 23. p. 546. E. et passim.

a Jacobus corripit, dicens. In Job. I. vii. c. 30. p. 233. E.

• Hujus iniqui molas ipse summus pastor ecclesiæ prædicando conterebat, cum diceret : * Sobrii estote,' &c. (2 Pet. v. 8.] In Job. I. 19. c. 16. p. 629. B. Primus pastor ecclesiæ. Ib. I. 21. c. 15. p. 690. C. Petrus namque, auctore Deo, ecclesiæ principatum tenens. Ib. 1. 26. c. 20. p. 833. D.

© Lucernæ enim nomine lumen signatur scripturæ, de quâ ipse ecclesiæ pastor dicit: • Habemus firmiorem propheti. cum sermonem,' &c. (2 Pet. i. 19.] In Job. I. 19. c. ll. p. 612. B.--Hinc Petrus apostolus dicit : Adveniet dies Domini, ut fur.' [2 Pet. iii. 10.) In Ezech. I. i. Hom. 2. n. 17. p. 1189. D. Hinc Petrus, gregis dominici pastor, dicit. Ib. I. i. Hom. 9. p. 1258. E.

d Unde recte egregius prædicator ait. Exp. in Job. I. 13. c. 8. p. 421. A. Quia et prædicator egregius dicit. Ib. I. 22. c. 1. in. Vid. et I. 22. c. 16. [al. 17.] p. 716. in.

Idem vero apostolorum primus, cum multa discipulos admoneret, atque a quibusdam detrahi de Pauli scriptis agnosceret, dicit : Sicut carissimus frater * noster Paulus secundum datam sibi sapientiam scripsit vobis.' Ecce Paulus in epistolis suis scripsit Petrum reprehensibilem, et ecce Petrus in epistolis suis asserit Paulum in his quæ scripserat esse admirandum. Certe enim ni legisset Petrus Pauli epistolas, non laudàsset. Si autem legit, quia illic ipse reprehensibilis diceretur, invenit. Amicus ergo veritatis laudavit etiam, quod reprehensus est, atque ei et hoc ipsum placuit. Seque etiam minori fratri ad consensum dedit, atque in eâdem re factus est sectator minoris sui, ut etiam in hoc præiret : quatenus qui primus erat in apostolatûs culmine, esset primus et in humilitate. Pensate ergo, fratres carissimi, in quo mentis vertice stetit, qui illas epistolas laudavit, in quibus scriptum se vituperabilem invenit. In Ezech L 2. Hom. 6. n. 9. p. 1367, 1368.

VOL. v.

epistles had written, that “ Peter was to be blamed,” (Gal. ji. 11,] but Peter, in his epistles, says, that Paul was to be admired for what he had written : certainly, if Peter had not read Paul's epistles he could not have commended them; but if he read them, he found it there written, that “ he was to be blamed.”! Upon which Gregory enlarges, showing Peter's humility, and love of truth or sincerity.

9. That argument depended upon the supposition, that the writer of that epistle was the same wbo had been reproved by Paul ; but some said, that the person reproved by Paul was not the apostle Peter, but another of the like name, called Cephas : Gregory therefore shows, from Gal. ii. 7, 8, 10, that it was be, and could be no other.

10. Some too there were in his time, who said, thats the second epistle, in which Paul's epistles were commended, was not Peter's : but Gregory says, they would be of another mind, if they carefully considered those words of the epistle itself, where the writer speaks of his having been with Cbrist in the mount; “ when there also came to him such a voice from the excellent glory, saying ; Thou art my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased,”; 2 Pet. i. 17, 18.

11. Gregory bas these expressions : " Ash the apostle Peter says to all the faithful: “ Ye are a cbosen generation, a royal priesthood," 1 Pet. ji. 9. I cannot tell, whether it may not be bence concluded, that Gregory supposed St. Peter's epistles to have been addressed to christians in general, both Jews and Gentiles, in the countries whither his epistles were sent. : 12. It is needless to take any of the numerous quotations

Sunt vero nonnulli, qui non Petrum apostolorum principem, sed quemdam alium eo nomine, qui a Paulo sit reprehensus, accipiunt. Qui si Pauli studio. sius verba legissent, ista non dicerent. Dicturus enim Paulus : Cum venisset Petrus Antiochiam, ei in faciem restiti :' ut de quo Petro loqueretur, ostenderet, in ipso suæ narrationis initio præmişit, dicens: Creditum est mihi evangelium præputii, sicut Petro circumcisionis. Qui enim operatus in Petro ad apostolatum circumcisionis, operatus est et mihi inter gentes. Patet ergo de quo Petro Paulus loquitur, quem et apostolum nominat, et præfuisse evangelio circumcisionis narrat. Ib. n. 10.

& Et fuerunt quidam, qui secundam Petri epistolam, in quâ epistolæ Pauli laudatæ sunt, ejus dicerent non fuisse. Sed si ejusdem epistolæ verba pensare voluissent, longe aliter sentire potuerant. In eâ quippe scripta est : « Voce delapsâ ad eum hujuscemodi a magnificâ gloriâ.' Atque subjungitur: Et hanc vocem nos audivimus, cum essemus cum ipso in monte sancto. Legant itaque evangelium, ct protinus agnoscent, quia cum vox ista de colo venit, Petrus apostolus in monte cum Domino stetit. Ipse ergo hanc epistolam scripsit, qui hanc vocem de Domino audivit. Ib. n. 11. p. 1368, 1369. . -- sicut cunctis fidelibus Petrus apostolus dicit: Vos autem genus electum, regale sacerdotium.' In Job. I. 25. c. 7.

of the first epistle of John. Gregory has quotedi St. John's third epistle; and undoubtedly received the second likewise,

13. Gregory has quoted" the epistle of Jude.

14. The Revelation is often quoted by him, and as writ. ten by the apostle John,

15. Gregory, therefore, received all the same books of the New Testament, as of authority, which we do, and no other.

IV. I shall now put in the margin some passages, where the several general parts of the sacred scriptures are mentioned : Old and New Testament, consisting of the law and prophets, the gospels, and acts and words of the apostles; the law and the prophets, the gospel and apostles.

1. Gregory bestows bigh commendations on the scriptures.

2. He has strong expressions concerning the inspiration of the books of scripture : · Whoever was the writer, the Holy Spirit was the author.'

3. • Theo doctrine of the scripture surpassetb, beyond comparison, all other learning and instruction whatever.'

Hunc pedem Johannes Caio formidabat, qui cum multa Diotrephis mala præmisisset, adjunxit: • Carissime, noli imitare malum, sed quod bonum est.' 12 Joh. 11.] In Job. 1. 31. c. 11. p. 1003. D.

* - Judas minime dixisset : Secundo eos, qui non crediderunt, perdidit.' {ver. 5.) In Job. I. 9. c. 45. p. 319. C. Conf. ib. I. 18. c. 22. p. 512. A.

Et sicut Johannes apostolus dicit: • Fecisti nos regnum et sacerdotes.' [Apoc. i. 6.] In Job. 1. 25. c. 7. p. 794. C.

m Quia scriptura sacra per utraque Testamenta in quatuor partibus est distincta. Vetus etenim Testamentum in lege et prophetis. Novum vero in evangeliis atque apostolorum actibus et dictis. In Ezech. 1. i. Hum. 6. n. 12. p. 1217. D. Una similitudo ipsarum est quatuor, quia quod prædicat lex, hoc etiam prophetæ : quod denuntiant prophetæ, hoc exhibet evangelium, quod exhibuit evangelium, hoc prædicaverunt apostoli per mundum. Ib. n. 14. p. 1218. C. Sed per quatuor partes euntes ibant, quia scriptura sacra per legem ad corda hominum vadit, signando mysterium. Per prophetas vadit paulo apertius, prophetando Dominum. Per evangelium vadit exhibendo quem prophetavit. Per apostolos vadit prædicando eum, quem Pater pro nostra redemptione exhibuit. Ib. n. 16. p. 1219. D. " Inter multos sæpe quæritur, qui libri beati Job scriptor habeatur. Et alii quidem Möysem, alii unum quemlibet ex prophetis scriptorem hujus operis fuisse suspicantur ; cum tamen auctor libri Spiritus Sanctus fideliter dicatur. Ipse igitur seripsit, qui scribenda dictavit. Ipse scripsit, qui et in illius opere inspirator exstitit, et per scribentis vocem imitanda ad nos ejus facta transmisit. Cum ergo rem cognoscimus, ejusque rei Spiritum Sanctum auctorem tenemus, quia scriptorem quærimus, quid aliud agimus, nisi legentes literas de calamo percontemur ? Præf. in libr. Job. c. 1. n. 1, 2. p. 7. vid. et n. 3. in.

• Quamvis omnem scientiam atque doctrinam scriptura sacra sine aliquâ comparatione transcendat, ut taceam quod vera prædicat, quod ad cælestem

4. Thep divine oracles have in them a wonderful depth.'

5. Among many things in praise of the holy scriptures, he says; • There' are obscure and difficult parts to exercise more knowing, plain things to nourish weak minds.'

6. Thes scriptures, he says, are our meat and drink : het largely shows the benefit of reading the scriptures, and · he earnestly exhorts his bearers to meditate upon the words of God, and not to despise the letter of our Redeemer, which he has sent unto us. He assures them, that' the more the scriptures are read and meditated upon, the more easy, pleasant, and delightful they will be.

7. James Basnage w has referred to divers other proofs of Gregory's respect for the scriptures, which are not alleged by me.

V. I might conclude this chapter here : nevertheless, I shall add a few other observations, and select passages, for the sake of those to whom they may be acceptable.

1. Gregory* follows the Latin translation of the Old

patriam vocat, quod a terrenis desideriis ad suprema amplectenda cor legentis immutat, quod dictis obscurioribus exercet fortes, et parvulis humili sermone blanditur ; quod nec sic clausa est, ut pavesci debeat : nec sic patet, ut vilescat; quod usu fastidium tollat, et tanto amplius diligitur, quanto amplius meditatur. In Job. 1. 20. c. 1. p. 635. A.

P O quain mira profunditas eloquiorum Dei! In Ezech. 1. i. Hom. 5. in. p. 1205. D.

Vid in Ezech. 1. i. Hom. 9. p. 1260-1264. Quia in sacro eloquio et dictis occultioribus atque sublimioribus satiantur fortes, et præceptis apertioribus nos parvuli nutrimur. Ib. Hom. 9. n. 31. p. 1261. A."

* Scriptura sacra cibus noster et potus est. Ib. Hom. 10. n. 3. p. 1263. E.

" Ib. Hom. 10. n. 12. p. 1267. B. C. Studete, quæso, fratres carissimi, Dei verba meditari. Nolite despicere scripta nostri Redemptoris, quæ ad nos missa sunt, &c. In Exech. 1. 2. Hom. 3. n. 18. p. 1337. C.

Vid. supra, not. o. * Hist. de l'Eglise, I. 9. ch. 3. n. 10. p. 465.

* Novam vero translationem dissero. Sed cum probationis causa exigit, nunc novam, nunc vcterem, per testimonia assumo. Ut, quia scdes apostolica, cui Deo auctore præsideo, utrâque utitur, mei quoque labor studii ex utraque fulciatur. Gregor. Ep. de Moral. seu Exp. in Job. T. i. p. 6. E.— Tigris periit, eo quod non haberet prædam.' [Job. iv. 11.] Translatione autem Septuaginta Interpretum nequaquam tigris dicitur, sed myrmicoleon periit. Ib. 1. 5. c, 20. p. 156. D. Longe ab hac sententiâ vetus translatio dissonat. Sed tamen quia hæc nova translatio ex Hebræo nobis Arabicoque eloquio cunota verius transfudisse perhibetur, credendum est quidquid in eâ dicitur ; et oportet, ut verba illius nostra expositio subtiliter rimetur. Ib. 1. 20. c. 32. p. 665. D. Conf. 1. 4. c. 9. p. 110. C.-— Militia est vita hominis super terram.' [Job. vii. 1.] Hoc in loco translatione vetere nequaquam militia vita homiais, sed tentatio vocatur. Ib. I. 8. c. 6. p. 244. A. : Et alterum similiter velabatur.' (Ezech. i. 23.] Translationem autem Septuaginta Interpretum, Aquilæ, Theodotionis, et Symmachi, solicite perscrutantes, nihil ex his invenimus. Sed beati Hieronymi scripta relegentes agnovimus, quia hanc sententiam in Hebræà veritate ita positam, non quidem juxta verbum, sed juxta sensum, invenerit. In Ezech. 1. j. Hom. 7. n. 23. p. 1233. E.

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