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conducting those public disputations and comparative trials, which for ages prevailed in Europe, and in which the discovery of truth was no part of the ambition of the comb.tants." (Lect. 11.)
The three last lectures of this course are occupied with an analysis of the various branches of human knowledge, considered according to the arrangement of Lord Bacon, as they are addressed to the memory, the understanding, and the imagination. We do not fee the peculiar propriety of annexing such a disquisition to a course of logic; nor the benefit to be derived from such a rapid review of all the science* and arts to which human ingenuity has as yet given birth. Under some of the heads of arrangement, topics are discussed which would have found a more appropriate situation in some preceding parts of the course. Thus, under the head of history, we find a variety of remarks upon the nature of annals, memoirs, and biography; and even a specification of some of the most eminent authors in these departments, subjects which would have been introduced with much more propriety into sotr ■ ot the lectures on Rhetoric.
Upon the whole, although these lectures might have been sufficiently useful, as addressed to an auditory of youthful itucients, we do not think there was any occasion for bringing them before the bar of the public. They do not enlarge our views of the subjects of which they treat; their author is, in general, satisfied with following the beaten track, and employing the arrangements, arguments, and even illustrations of his predecessors; and in some instances, particularly in the lectures upon logic, he has not profited nearly so much as he ought to have done by the disquisitions of those who have gone heture him.
Mr. Barron's style is animated, and in general perspicuous, but it is not always correct; and on some occasions it is affected, and makes a near approach to the bombast. He too frequently omits the relative pronouns which or that, and on the following occasion improperly omits that when used conjunctively. "11 is sentiments were refined, his language is formal, his wit is learned; in a word, he seems afraid that some circumstances Ihould discover Mr. Pope was not a great man." Idiom requires that to be inserted before the words " Mr. Pope was not a great man." In the following sentence we have the same improper omission of the conjunction that, combined with a very inelegant repetition of the words it is. "The formality and parade with which this contrivance of Simonides is represented, is apt
to mislead, and to make us imagine it is of more importance than it is."
In the following expression, the qualifying word only is misplaced. "For the seasons of despondency are attended only with silence." The author's meaning required him to have written," for the seasons'of desponding only are attended with silence}" on another occasion, he writei, "classical authority is none other than the example of such speakers and writers." Instead of Hone other, he ought to have said nothing else; as the first; phrase is appropriated to persons, the second to things.
In some instances we have to accuse Mr. Barron of affectation, as in the repeated use of the term novel instead of new. The following sentence is greatly too pompous for the occasion on which it is delivered. "I have now finished every preliminary disquisition which appeared requisite to elucidate the approach to our subject, and to qualify us to proceed with pleasure and emolument." It is a direst Scotticism to employ the word throng in the sense of busy, as is done in the following sentence. "In throng seasons, he has not leisure to inform himself fully of facts, the most important ingredients in a speech of business."
These inaccuracies of style icquire greater animadversion in a work upon Rhetoric than in any other composition; but it is no more than justice to ascribe many of them to the circumstance of the work not having received the correcting hand of the author, before it issued from the press.
Art. VI. A Voyage to Coch'mchbut, in the Years 1792 and 1793: containing a general View of the valuable Productions and the political Importance of this flourishing Kingdom; and also of such European Settlements as were visited on the Voyage: with Sketches of the Manners, Character, and Condition of their jeveral Inhabitants. To which is annexed, an Account of a Journey, made in the Years I SO 1 and 1802, to the Residence of the Chief of the Booshuana Nation, being the remote/I Point in the Interior of Southern Africa to which Europeans have hitherto penetrated. The Fasts and Defcriftitms taken from a Manuscript Journal. With a Chart '/
tie the Route. By John Barrow, Esq. F.R.S. Author of "Travels in Southern Africa," and" Travels in China." 4lo. 467 pp. Price al. Us. Gd. Cadell andDavies. 180G.
A/fR- Barrow's preceding publications of this kind have -*•-*■ deservedly received an important share of public attention and esteem. They are, indeed, considered as standard books; and no collection, whosoobject is geographical or statistical knowledge, can be considered as complete without them. Of this present volume, however, there are only two portions whichexcite and satisfy particular curiosity; namely, the account oi Cochinchina, comprised in about one hundred and twenty pages; and the account of the expedition to the residence of the chief of the Boolhuana nation, which forms a kind of appendix. These parts of the work are, beyond all doubt, exceedingly interesting and instructive. Of Cochinchina very little has been hither to known, and the best informed, as well as the latest writers on the subject of geography, frankly acknowledge that from deficiency of materials they were unable to communicate any authentic or satisfactory information. The part of Southern Africa also, which is here described, is the remotest point in the interior of that region to which Europeans have hitherto penetrated. It is by no means our intention to depreciate the other portions of this publication, but all the places touched at, in this and other voyages to China, are so well known, and have been so often and so well described, that although the detail and narrative of Mr. Barrow are remarkably well given, we (hall only direct the attention of the reader to what has, with us at least, the more forcible recommendation of novelty.
Cochinchina is one of four kingdoms divided from the Birman empire on the west, by a tongue ot land of no less than thirteen degrees in extent, which begins where the vast empire of China terminates, in the twenty-second degree of latitude. Of these kingdoms, Tungquin, usually written Tonquin, is the only one known by a similar name to the natives; the other three marked in our charts as Cochinchina, Tsiompa, and Cambodia, are collectively called An-NAN. These are distinguished by three grand divisions. In the division called Hue, the principal bay is known by the namo of Turon, properly Han-san, and hither the expedition directed its course from Pulo Condore.
Mr. Barrow places before his readers a succinct but neat account of modern Cochinchina, by which it appears to
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have been greatly distracted by internal divisions, but at this time, viz. about 1800, there is reason to believe that the lawful sovereign, Caung-shung, had re-conquered the whole of the country ; and the character of this personage is so remarkable, that there seems sufficient inducement to give it at length.
"Camtg-Jbimg a represented to be, in the strictest sense of the word, a complete soldier. He is said to hold the name of General far more dear and estimable than that of Sovereign. He is described as being brave without rashness; and fertile in expedients, when difficulties are to be surmounted. His conceptions are generally just; his conduct firm; he his neither discouraged by difficulties, nor turned aside by obstacles. Cautious in deciding, when once resolved, he is prompt and vigorous to execute. In battle he is always eminently distinguishable. At the head of his army he is cheerful and good humoured; polite and attentive to all the officers under his command, he studiously avoids to mark out any individual as-a favourite beyond the rest. His memory is so correct, that he is said to know by name the greater part of his army. He takes uncommon pleasure in conversing with his soldiers, and in talking over their adventures and exploits; he makes particular enquiries after their wives and children; if the latter go regularly to school; how they mean to dispose of them when grown up j and, in short, enters with a degree of interest into a minute detail of their domestic con. cerns.
"His conduct to foreigners is affable and condescending. To the French officers in his service he pays the most marked atten. tion, and treats them with the greatest politeness, familiarity, and good humour. On all his hunting excursions, and other parties of pleasure, one of these officers is always invited to attend. He openly declares his great veneration for the doctrines of Christianity, and tolerates this religion and indeed all others in his dominions. He observes a most scrupulous regard to the maxims of filial piety, as laid down in the works of Confucius, and humbles himself in the presence of his mother (who is still living) as a child before its master. With the works of the most eminent Chinese authors he is well acquainted; and, through the translations into the Chinese character of the £*(>chftdu by the Bishop Ad ran, he has acquired no inconsiderable knowledge of European arts and sciences, among which he is most attached to such as relate to navigation and ship-buildingIt is stated, on what appears to be good authority, that, in order to obtain a thorough knowledge of the practice as well ss theory of European naval architecture, he purchased a Portuguese vessel, for the sole purpose of taking in pieces, plank by plank, with his own hands, fitting in a new piece of similar shape and dimensions as the old one he removed, till every beam, tim
ber, knee and plank had been replaced by new ones of his own Construction, and the (hip thus completely renovated.
"The energy of his mind is not less vigorous than the activity of his corporeal faculties. He is represented, in fact, as the main spring of every movement that takes place in his extensive and flourishing kingdom. Intendant of the ports and arsenals, master shipwright of the dock-yard, and chief engineer of all the works, nothing is attempted to be undertaken without his advice and instructions. In the former, not a nail is driven without first consulting him; nor a gun mounted on the latter but by his orders. He not only enters into the most minute detail in drawing up instructions, but actually fees them executed himself.
"To enable him the better to attend to the concerns of his government, his mode of life is regulated by a fixed plan. At fix in the morning he rises from his couch,- and goes into the cold bath. At seven he has his levee of Mandarins: all the letters arc read which have been received in the course of the preceding day, on which his orders are minuted by the respective secretaries* He* then proceeds to the naval arsenal, examines the works that have been performed in his absence, rows in his barge round the harbour, inspecting his ships of war. He pays particular attention to the ordnance department; and in the foundery, which is erected within the arsenal, cannon are cast of all dimensions. ;.
"About twelve or one he takes his breakfast in the dockyard, which consists of a little boiled rice and dried fish. At two he retires to his apartment and sleeps till five, when he again rises; gives audience to the naval and military officers, the heads of tribunals or public departments, and approves, rejects, or amends whatever they may have to propose. These affairs of state generally employ his attention till midnight, after which he retires to his private apartments, to make such notes arid memorandums as the occurrences of the day may have suggested. He then takes a light supper, passes an hour with his family, and between two and three in the morning retires to his bed; taking, in this manner, at two intervals, about fix hours of rest in the four-and-twenty;
"He neither makes use of Chinese wine, nor any kind of spirituous liquors, and contents himself with a very small portion of animal food. A little fish, rice, vegetables and fruit, with tea and light pastry, constitute the chief articles of his diet. Like a true Chinese, descended, as he boasts to be, from the imperial family of Ming, he always eats alone, not permitting either his wife or any part of his family to sit down to the fame table with him. On the fame principle of pride, he would not allow some English gentlemen to pay their respects to him at his palace, in the year 1799, betansc, as he observed, the unsettled state of the country did not permit him to make such preparations as were
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