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ceptible and resistant phases, which fact constitutes additional evidence that a very intimate relation exists between the general physiological condition of the egg, and the physical state of its plasma-membrane. During the first ten to fifteen minutes after fertilization the eggs are more susceptible to all substances tried than at any other time until the period just preceding and during the division process. A period of marked increased susceptibility occurs during the division process which outlasts the furrow formation in most cases about ten to fifteen minutes, and during this interval, marked cytological effects in the eggs are noted. The best records were obtained using i-amyl and capryl alcohols, possibly indicating a higher specific toxicity of these men when compared to the others.

Notes on the branches of the aorta (Arcus aortœ) and the subclavian artery of the rabbit: FRANCIS MARSH BALDWIN.

Although the usual number of blood vessels arising from the arch of the aorta in the rabbit is two -a so-called innominate or brachio-cephalic artery and a left subclavian artery-the variations from this condition indicate the possibility of a considerable departure. In a number of cases, three vessels have their origin on the arch and in these the order is the brachio-cephalic, the left common carotid and the left subclavian arteries. Conspicuous differences in the order and sequence of the vessels from the subclavian arteries of the two sides are noted. On the left side the vessels in a number of cases show a tendency to group themselves either proximally or distally in the form of a sort of


A study of the phylogeny of certain hymenopterous parasites of leafhoppers: F. A. FENTION. This paper deals with the Anteonina (Dryinidæ), a small parasitic group now classed with the Bethylidæ under the Proctotrupoidea. We are now able to trace the evolution of the peculiarly specialized species from the more simple and generalized types. So far as our present knowledge is concerned these insects are parasitic on the leafand tree-hoppers and there is an interesting relationship in the evolution of these parasites with their homopterous hosts. The larvæ are mostly externally attached to the host and are incased and protected in the larval exuvia which form a protective sac. The fore tarsi of the adult parasites in a great many cases are modified into perfect chelæ or clasping organs, a fact not found in any other insect group.

The relative position of the maxima contractions of the Amphibian muscle when subjected to various ranges in temperature: RALPH L. PARKER. The results of a series of twenty experiments upon the gastrocnemius muscles of frogs showed three apparent maxima contractions within the range of plus ten degrees Centigrade through zero degrees to rigor caloris. These varied to some extent as to what degree the maxima fell, depending upon the individual. Rigor caloris of the muscles generally proximated that of the greatest maxima, while that when all were combined and averaged was less than the greatest maxima. Selecting those which recorded in all ranges of temperature and averaging them (seven) the results were nearly parallel to the average of all the muscles and only two maxima contractions appeared. Rigor caloris was greater than the maximum contraction.

A revision of the Cercopida of North America north of Mexico: E. D. BALL.

The family Cercopidae is the smallest and best known of all the groups of the Homoptera. The writer's key to the genera and species of the family published over twenty years ago is now out of date. A number of changes in synonymy and distribution have been made and several species and varieties added and the whole information brought up to date.

A review of the desert leafhoppers of the Orgerini (Rhynchota fulgorida): E. D. BALL AND ALBERT HARTZELL.

These desert leafhoppers are a group of round, fat, short-winged insects with very peculiar structural modifications probably developed to adapt them to the extremely hot conditions of the deserts. These modifications consist in an elongation of the rostrum or beak and a lengthening of the legs so that the insect walks upright and its body is thus removed from close contact with the hot sands.

These insects are all inhabitants of the arid regions west of the Rockies and are little known. A number of new genera and species are proposed, together with the classification and life histories of the group.

Notes on some dipterous parasites of leafhoppers: I. L. RESSLER.

Two new species of Pipunculidæ, of the genus Pipunculus, reared from the nymph of the leafhopper Deltocephalus sayi Fitch are described and discussed in this paper. The Pipunculidæ are small flies about one eighth of an inch long, the head being larger than the thorax, and consisting chiefly of the large, closely approximated eyes.

While it is known that the larvae of these flies are parasitic in their habits, very little is known of their host relations.

An intensive ornithological survey of a typical square mile of cultivated prairie: ARTHUR R. ABEL.

Bird records of the past two winters, 1918–1920, in the upper Missouri valley: T. C. STEPHENS. A study of sociality in the phylum Coelenterata: H. J. WEHMAN AND GERTRUDE VAN WAGENEN. On the parasites of the unios of the Lake Okoboji region: HARRY M. KELLY.

The 1919 outbreak of armyworms and variegated cutworms in Iowa: H. E. JAQUES.

The pathology of lethargic encephalitis: HENRIETTA CALHOUN.

Descriptive notes concerning the American bald eagle: BEN HUR WILSON.

Bome impressions obtained from a review of Professor Nutting's narrative of the BarbadosAntigua expedition: A. C. TROWBRIDGE.


The material for a study of Iowa archeology: CHARLES REUBEN KEYES.

The Keokuk type of stone ax: CHARLES REUBEN KEYES.


The comparative stability of colors in wallpaper: J. M. LINDLY.

Iowa Section Mathematical Association of America Note on a generalization of a theorem of Baire: E. W. CHITTENDEN.

A celebrated theorem of Baire states that the necessary and sufficient condition that a function F(x) defined on a closed set P in space of n-dimensions be the limit of a sequence of continuous functions defined on P is that if Q be a perfect subset of P, then F(x) has a point of continuity in every portion, however small, of the set Q. Professor Chittenden calls attention to the fact that a proof of this theorem given by Vallée-Poussin can be extended without difficulty to the case of a set P in an abstract space of a type studied by Fréchet. As a special instance, P may be a perfect set in a compact space of infinitely many dimensions. Notes on the history of indeterminate equations: R. B. MCCLENON.

Professor McClenon traces the history of some indeterminate equations found in the writings of Leonardo of Pisa, showing the contributions that

had been made to their solution by the Hindus and Arabs, as well as their further development by later writers, down to modern times.

A pseudo velocity-resistance graph for low angle firing: M. E. GRABER.

Mayevski's law for air resistance is unsatisfactory because the discontinuities introduced render numerical integration difficult. Professor Graber presents a smooth curve law for the velocity-resistance relation between the velocities of 750 ft./sec. and 1700 ft./sec. and compares it with a pseudo velocity-resistance standardization curve.

What is number? C. W. WESTER.

An attempt to state in a simple way some of the outstanding differences between current definitions of number, especially between what may be called the mathematical and the metaphysical definitions; and to suggest the lines along which a working agreement may be reached as to what shall be thought of as number in elementary mathematics. The teaching of limits in the high school: J. V. MCKELVEY.

In this paper Professor McKelvey discusses certain popular misconceptions in regard to limits and outlines a point of view from which a rigorous and usable understanding of this seemingly bewildering subject may be obtained. No plea is made either for or against the teaching of limits in preparatory schools.

The taxonomy of algebraic surfaces: R. P. BAKER. The integration of the indefinite integral in the first course: W. H. WILSON.

A problem in summation of series: JOHN F. REILLY.
A geometric construction for the regular 17-gon:

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FRIDAY, JULY 30, 1920

E COPIES, 15 Crs.

VOL. LII, No. 1335

Pearl's The Nation's Food


General Library


Ann Arbor Mich

of Michigan



ondary make



Dr. Pearl's book constitutes a definite piece of statistical research relating to of the United States. It gives a critical survey of the production of the primar food materials separately, then combines the two and puts the material in such f possible certain general conclusions regarding the total production of human food i Then is considered the proportionate contribution as primary and secondary foo nutritional production; the relation of production to population; the relative nutrital importance of the production of different commodity groups, and single commodities-a consideration of the relative nutritional importance of the production of individual commodities used as human food; the human food materials which come into this country in the way of imports; relative proportion of the total nutritional intake furnished by the several commodity classes. By RAYMOND PEARL, PH.D., SC.D., LL.D., Professor of Biochemistry and Vital Statistics, Johns Hopkins University. Octavo of 274 pages, with charts. Cloth, $3.50 net.

Lusk's Science of Nutrition


Professor Lusk points out why certain diseases are due to metabolic derangements. He teaches you how to correct these derangements. He gives you the very foundation of dietetics- the fundamentals upon which a scientific and beneficial dietary regimen may be built. Important chapters are those on food economics, food requirements for various occupations.

Octavo of 640 pages. By GRAHAM LUSK, PH.D., Professor of Physiology, Cornell Medical School. Cloth, $6.00 net.

McFarland's Biology


This work takes up Living Substance generally. There are chapters on the cell, reproduction, ontogenesis, conformity to type, divergence, structural and blood relationship, parasitism, mutilation and regeneration, grafting, senescence, etc.

12 mo. of 457 pages, illustrated. By JOSEPH MCFARLAND, M.D., Professor o Pathology and Bacteriology, University of Pennsylvania. Cloth, $2.50 net.

Barton's Teaching the Sick


Dr. Barton's book is based on personal experience. In it he tells you not only what to teach the sick, but how to teach them-how to lead the patient from the most simple exercise to the planning and construction of buildings in the open.

BY GEORGE EDWARD BARTON, A.I.A., Consolation House, New York. 12mo of 163 pages, illustrated.

Cloth, $1.50 net.


W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY, West Washington Sq., Phila.

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M.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.P.

Jodrell Professor of Physiology in University
College, London, England

Octavo, 1315 pages, with 579 Illustrations, 10 in colors. Cloth, $7.50, net

HE BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL says: "In the third edition the student and medical practitioner will find a full and up-to-date account of the whole subject, clearly written, excellently illustrated and summarized by a practical physiologist of great knowledge and well-known originality.

The first part of the volume deals with general physiology, or the structural, material and energetic bases of the body. In the second part the mechanisms of movement and sensation are described; a new feature in this edition is the introduction of chapters on vision by Dr. Hartridge, extending to over a hundred pages, in which the whole subject is very lucidly put before the reader. The third part describes the mechanisms of

nutrition, including metabolism and the
physiology of digestion, the part played by
the circulating blood and lymph, respiration,
renal excretion and other such subjects.
(Publisher's Note.-Much new material has
been inserted in the sections dealing with
the internal secretions and ductless glands,
the sense organs and the foregoing sub-
jects.) The last part of the book is devoted
to the subject of reproduction.

Everywhere Professor Starling writes as a man of science interested primarily in the mechanics and chemistry of physiology, the concrete rather than the abstract, the practical reactions of the living body rather than the metaphysical conceptions or interpretations to which they may give rise."


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WE have been free from the turmoil of actual warfare for something over a year and it is high time we turn our faces with resolute courage toward the coming years with the determination that the world shall be a happier, saner, and safer one for humanity. The results of victory have probably not been all that we expected and certainly not all that many of us desired while in many respects the results have been entirely unforeseen. To scientists, I imagine, one of the most surprising outcomes of the war has been the sudden and I believe permanent enthronement of science in the activities of humanity. In the carrying on and the winning of the war, men of science played an unexpectedly important and indispensable part. The roll of honor among the sciences is large and includes certainly all of them represented here to-night. The men in these sciences were called from every quarter of the nation; and the promptness with which they answered the calls and the effectiveness with which they met the demands made upon them should be a source of pride and profound satisfaction to every one of us.

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As a result of their work the value of research and investigation to the welfare of the nation, whether in peace or in war, has taken hold on the minds of the people as never before; and the worth and usefulness of the scientist to humanity have received general recognition from the public to an extent long justified but hardly expected in our day and

1 An address delivered at the installation of the new members of the Alpha Chapter of Sigma Xi at Cornell University, May 18, 1920.

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