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variation in the amount of heat radiating from the sun.

The premises advanced have not hitherto given rise to any other conclusion as to the cause of the Ice Age than that a solution of the problem, in its general nature, can be reached in this way.

With respect to the method of overcoming the difficulties of the new branch of investigation the brief memorandum which I issued, which was intended mainly for specialists, could only refer to a somewhat more comprehensive statement of mine, which also gave a short historical review from 1878. From this review it may be learned that after publishing in 1884 my first plan of obtaining a geochronology, but before trying earnestly to follow it out, I was so impressed with the supposed difficulties of the task that it was not until 1904, or twenty years later, that I took the matter up seriously. Thus I am indeed well aware that it is not enough to be cautious, one must also be audacious.

Having thus myself delayed for twenty years, it was just with a thought of the daring energy of my esteemed American friends that I gave myself the hope of trying by something like a spurt to regain some portion of the time which had been lost. As may be known by all who have followed this question, the investigations thus begun have been unexpectedly successful in results.

On the present occasion I have appealed to the kind collaboration of my American friends for organizing with their aid the application on their continent of a method of investigation which already has been tested in a region, the nature of which from several points of view has a striking similarity with that of the formerly glaciated regions of North America. Yet, the glaciation of this latter continent was much more extended than that of northern Europe. Certain parts of its highly interesting glacial geology, according to the admirable investigations of the

2 Gerard de Geer, "A geochronology of the last 12,000 years." Presidential address, Eleventh International Geological Congress, Stockholm, 1910Map and diagrams. Comptes Rendus, 1912.

American geologists, showing a very complicated late glacial evolution, it seems highly probable that the introduction and use of a real time scale here will be of special interest and that comparisons with the conditions in Sweden and other parts of northern Europe will doubtless be very instructive in many respects.

In the hope of a continued, fruitful collaboration I use this occasion to express my hearty thanks for the great hospitality and all the kind interest, which from so many sides, in the United States as well as in Canada, have been shown to the expedition, and especially so from the American Scandinavian Foundation, which never fails to support every initiative aiming at the evolution of our mutual relationships.




Ar the United States Fisheries Biological Station at Fairport, Iowa, the new laboratory building has been publicly dedicated in the presence of a large assemblage composed of representatives of various state universities, the pearl-button industry and the Bureau of Fisheries, together with the Assistant Secretary of Commerce and the member of congress from the Fairport district.

The new laboratory, which is constructed of concrete, stone and brick, replaces a frame building destroyed by fire in 1917. The building is about 100 by 50 feet, with three stories and half basement; and is superior to the old structure in respect of serviceability, convenience and capacity. The laboratory accommodations for 16 investigators may be increased as circumstances require. A welllighted library, a chemical laboratory, a photographic room, a museum, a mess hall and kitchen, and tank and aquarium rooms in addition to offices are among the useful features of the building.

The dedication exercises were as follows:

Remarks by the chairman, Hon. Albert F. Dawson, former member of Congress from the district; presentation of the building to the Department of Commerce, by Professor James M. White, architect; acceptance of the laboratory on behalf of the Department of Commerce and delivery to the Bureau of Fisheries, by Hon. Edwin F. Sweet, assistant secretary of commerce, with address on "Federal and State responsibility for maintaining resources of interstate waters"; response by Dr. Hugh M. Smith, Commissioner of Fisheries; address on "Significance of the station to industries," by Hon. Harry E. Hull, member of Congress; address on "Aquiculture and science," by Dr. Edward A. Birge, president of the University of Wisconsin; address on "The spirit of cooperation in the Bureau of Fisheries," by Professor Frank R. Lillie, University of Chicago; address on "The fisheries biological station in relation to the universities," by Professor George Lefevre, University of Missouri; and address on "The station as an aid to pure science," by Professor Charles C. Nutting, University of Iowa.

On the day following the dedicatory exercises there was held in the laboratory building a conference regarding the application of science to the utilization and preservation of the resources of interior waters. The chairIman of the conference was Professor S. A. Forbes, University of Illinois, and the principal address was by Professor James G. Needham, Cornell University, on "The biological resources of our inland waters."


THE history of science is to be a part of the field covered by the new Section L (Historical and Philological Sciences) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. A temporary committee to have charge of the organization of this aspect of Section L has been appointed by the President of the Association. The personnel of this committee is as follows: Dr. William A. Locy (chairman), Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.; Mr. Frederick E. Brasch (secretary),

The John Crerar Library, Chicago, Ill.; Dr. Florian Cajori, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.; Professor A. P. Carman, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.; Professor Henry G. Gale, University of Chicago, Ill.; Dr. Charles Judson Herrick, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.; Dr. Felix Neumann, War Department, Washington, D. C.; Dr. George Sarton, Harvard University, Cambridge Mass.; Dr. William H. Welch, The Johns Hopkins University, Chicago, Ill. A program on the History of Science is being planned for the approaching Chicago meeting. In accordance with a recent action of the executive committee of the council of the American Association, the president of the association has appointed a special committee to cooperate with the officers of the new Section H (Anthropology), to organize the section and prepare a program for the Chicago meeting. The vice-president of the new section is Dr. A. E. Jenks, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. The secretary is Dr. E. A. Hooton, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. The special committee just appointed has the following personnel: Dr. Clark Wissler (Chairman), American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y.; Dr. G. G. MacCurdy (Secretary), Yale University, New Haven Conn.; Dr. Roland B. Dixon, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.; Dr. Aleš Hrdlička, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C.; Dr. A. L. Kroeber, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.; Dr. F. G. Speck, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

One of the general-interest, evening sessions of the approaching Chicago meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science will be devoted to an illustrated lecture by Dr. R. F. Griggs, of Ohio State University, on his exporations and studies in the volcanic region of Katmai, Alaska. The date and place of this lecture will be announced in the general program, which will be available before the opening of the meeting on December 27.

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES MEeting at chICAGO THE following national scientific societies will meet at Chicago during convocation week in affiliation with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The name of the president is followed by the name of the secretary.

American Mathematical Society: Dr. F. N. Cole secretary.

Mathematical Association of America: Dr. David Eugene Smith, Dr. W. D. Cairns.

American Astronomical Society: Dr. Frank Schlesinger, Dr. Joel Stebbins.

American Physical Society: Professor J. S. Ames, Dr. Dayton C. Miller.

American Meteorological Society: Dr. Robert DeC. Ward, Dr. Chas. E, Brooks.

American Metric Association: Mr. Howard Richards, Jr., sec'y.

Optical Society of America: Dr. F. K. Richtmyer, Dr. P. D. Foote.

Geological Society of America: Dr. I. C. Morgan, Dr. E. O. Hovey.

Association of American Geographers: Dr. Herbert E. Gregory, Dr. Richard E. Dodge. National Council of Geography Teachers: Professor R. H. Whitbeck, Professor Geo. J. Miller. Paleontological Society of America: Dr. F. B. Loomis, Dr. R. S. Bassler.

American Society of Naturalists: Dr. Jacques Loeb, Dr. A. Franklin Shull.

American Society of Zoologists: Dr. Gilman A. Drew, Dr. W. C. Allee.

Entomological Society of America: Dr. J. M. Aldrich, Sec'y.

American Association of Economic Entomologists: Dr. Wilmon Newell, Mr. A. F. Burgess. American Microscopical Society: Professor T. W. Galloway, Dr. Paul S. Welch.

Wilson Ornithological Club: Dr. R. M. Strong, Mr. Albert F. Ganier.

Botanical Society of America: Dr. N. L. Britton, Professor J. R. Schramm.

American Phytopathological Society: Dr. W. A. Orton, Dr. G. R. Lyman,

Ecological Society of America: Dr. Barrington Moore, Professor A. O. Weese.

American Society for Horticulture Science: W. H. Alderman, Dr. C. P. Close.

Association of Official Seed Analysts: Edgar Brown, A. L. Stone.

American Nature Study Society: J. A. Drushel, Mrs. A. B. Comstock.

American Physiological Society: Professor W. P.
Lombard, Dr. C. W. Greene.

American Society of Biological Chemists: Dr.
Stanley R. Benedict, Professor Victor C. Myers.
American Society for Experimental Pathology: Dr.
William H. Park, Dr. H. T. Karsner.
American Society for Pharmacology and Experi-
mental Therapeutics: Dr. A. S. Loevenhart, Dr.
E. D. Brown.

American Society of Bacteriologists: Dr. Chas.
Krumwiede, Dr. A. Parker Hitchens.
American Anthropological Association: Dr. Clark
Wissler, Dr. Alfred M. Tozzer.

American Folk-Lore Society: Dr. Charles Peabody, Sec'y.

American Psychological Association: Dr. Shepherd I. Franz, Dr. E. G. Boring.

American Association of University Professors: Professor Edward Capps, Professor H. W. Tyler.

Society of Sigma Xi: Dr. C. E. McClung, Dr. H. B. Ward.

Gamma Alpha Graduate Fraternity: Dr. J. R. Musselman, Dr. A. H. Wright.

Gamma Sigma Delta: Dr. C. H. Eckles, Dr. L. H. Pammel.

Phi Kappa Phi Fraternity: Dr. J. S. Stevens, Dr. L. H. Pammel.


ON Saturday, November 6, the Medical College celebrated the centennial of its founding. One hundred years ago the Medical College of Ohio received its charter from the state with Dr. Daniel Drake, whose name is written deeply in the annals of American medical history, as its first president. The Medical College of the University was the first medical school established west of the Alleghenies and is the third oldest in the country, Harvard and Pennsylvania alone taking precedence.

The college, then called the Medical College of Ohio, had its beginning in a little room above a drug store on Main street. Dr. Daniel Drake, the father of the college, graduated the first class of twenty-four students from this little room in 1821.

In 1896 the Ohio College became the med

ical department of the University of Cincinnati, and in 1909 the Miami Medical College also become a part of the university.

The building of the present medical college and the city hospital was largely the achievement of Dr. Christian R. Holmes, through whose efforts the University of Cincinnati Medical College has taken front rank in medical education.

At the exercises on November 6, Dr. J. C. Oliver gave a historical sketch of the college and Dr. William T. Sedgwick, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, spoke on the relationship of medicine to public health. Dr. Joseph Ransohoff reviewed work of Drake and Holmes and other teachers in the college. Following the addresses, honorary degrees were conferred, and a portrait in oil of Dr. Christian R. Holmes was unveiled.

At the banquet in the evening the principal address was made by the British Ambassador, Sir Auckland Geddes, formerly professor of anatomy at McGill University. President Frederick C. Hicks was the toastmaster and other speakers were: Hon. John Galvin, Judge John Barton Payne, Dr. James R. Angell, Dr. Charles R. Stockard and Dr. Louis Schwab.

Honorary degrees conferred were as follows: Doctor of laws, James Rowland Angell, President of the Carnegie Foundation; Mrs. Mary Muhlenberg Emery; Sir Auckland Geddes; Ludwig Hektoen; professor of pathology, University of Chicago; Christian R. Holmes; Frederick S. Novy, professor of bacteriology, University of Michigan; Hon. John Barton Payne, secretary of the interior; Joseph Ransohoff, professor of surgery, London; William Thompson Sedgwick, professor of biology and public health, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Louis Schwab, physician. Doctor of science: Charles Cassidy Bass, professor of experimental medicine, Tulane University; Ross Granville Harrison, professor of comparative anatomy, Yale University; Dean DeWitt Lewis, professor of surgery, University of Chicago; Robert Williamson Lovett, professor of orthopaedic surgery, Harvard Medical School; Elmer Vernes McCollum, professor of chemical hygiene,

Johns Hopkins University; William Snow Miller, University of Wisconsin; Charles R. Stockard, professor of anatomy, Cornell Medical College; Henry B. Ward, professor of geology, University of Illinois; John C. Webster, professor of gynecology, University of Chicago; Edwin O. Jordan, professor of bacteriology, University of Chicago.


THE American Society of Mechanical Engineers, which will hold its annual meeting from December 7 to 10, in the Engineering Societies' Building, New York City, has arranged a memorial program in honor of Dr. John Alfred Brashear, scientific man and maker of astronomical instruments, who died last April in Pittsburgh at the age of eighty years. The principal eulogy of Dr. Brashear will be delivered by Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

DR. WILLIAM C. BRAISTED, surgeon-general, U. S. Navy, and president of the American Medical Association, has been awarded the Navy distinguished service medal for meritorious service during the war.

A PORTRAIT of Dr. William S. Miller, professor of anatomy in the University of Wisconsin Medical School, has been formally presented to the university at exercises held in Science Hall. The portrait was painted by Christian Abrahamson and is the gift of Dr. Miller's colleagues, friends in the medical profession, and former students.

DR. BERNARD L. WYATT, of the Rockefeller Institute, has been made a knight of the Legion of Honor of the French Republic in recognition of his services in organizing the French campaign against tuberculosis.

PROFESSOR T. W. EDGEWORTH DAVID, professor of geology in the University of Sydney, has been appointed a knight commander of the Order of the British Empire for services in connection with the war.

PROFESSOR F. O. BOWER has been elected president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh

and Professor D. Noël Paton, Professor A. Robinson, Sir A. Berry, Professor W. Peddie, Sir J. A. Ewing and Professor J. W. Gregory, have been elected vice-presidents.

AT the recent session of the board of trustees held in Chicago, Dr. Rudolph Matas, New Orleans, was elected vice-president of the American Medical Association, succeeding the late Dr. Isadore Dyer.

PROFESSOR C. B. RIDGAWAY, head of the department of mathematics, at the University of Wyoming, is retiring after twenty-four years of service.

DR. ALEXANDER L. MCKAY, Toronto, has accepted an appointment with the Rockefeller Foundation Medical Research Committee.

MR. A. V. BLEININGER, ceramic chemist and head of the ceramic division of the Bureau of Standards, has resigned to become research chemist for the Homer-Laughlin China Company, of East Liverpool, Ohio.

PROFESSOR CLARENCE E. MICKEL has resigned as extension entomologist, college of agriculture, University of Nebraska, to accept a position as research entomologist with the American Beet Sugar Company, Rocky Ford, Colorado.

H. S. MULLIKEN, of Lexington, Mass., has been appointed metallurgical engineer of the Bureau of Mines, and has been assigned by Dr. F. G. Cottrell, the director, as an assistant to him in special professional work connected with the bureau.

PROFESSOR VICTOR LENHER, of the department of chemistry of the University of Wisconsin, has recently been chosen a member of the advisory committee which has been established by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, to be concerned with the collection of chemical types. The collection was undertaken by the National Museum under the will of Morris Loeb, of New York, who left a fund to the American Chemical Society for chemical research work.

PROFESSOR EDWARD J. KUNZE, head of the department of industrial engineering at the Pennsylvania State College, was elected a di

rector and vice-president in charge of research, of the Society of Industrial Engineers at their recent convention in Pittsburgh on November 10.

MR. F. V. MORLEY, of the Johns Hopkins University, has been appointed a Rhodes scholar at Oxford University.

DR. SOLOMON LEFSCHETZ, professor of mathematics at the University of Kansas, is absent on leave during this academic year and is at present in Europe.

BARON GERARD DE GEER, professor at the University of Stockholm, delivered a lecture before the students and faculty of the Department of Geology at the University of Minnesota on November 5. The lecture was on his geochronological investigations in Sweden and their application to the Quaternary geology of America.

DR. HIDEYO NOGUCHI, of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, of New York, gave a lecture to the faculty and students of the Army Medical School on November 17, on "Recent studies of yellow fever," at the auditorium of the National Museum.

ON October 28, Professor Daniel Hull, assistant superintendent of the El Paso High School, gave under the auspices of the Southwestern Division, of the American Association, a lecture on "The glacial periods of North America and their relation to astronomy." Before the lecture the tentative program of the coming first annual meeting of the Southwestern Division was announced. The meeting will be held in El Paso on December 2, 3 and 4. Other lectures in El Paso are announced as follows: Mr. R. R. Coghlan, on "Chemistry and manufacture of cement; " November 9, Professor W. H. Seamon, on "Prehistoric mammals," illustrated with lantern slides, on November 16.

A COURSE of twelve free Swiney lectures on geology is being given by Dr. J. D. Falconer, of the Royal School of Mines, South Kensington, beginning on November 8. The subject is "The Modelling of the Earth's Crust."

THE Journal of the American Medical Association reports that a national committee

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