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can lecture at. But if lecturer, laboratory assistants, quiz aides combined and divided the entire group in any department, students would develop more power than under the present method. They might not come in contact with as many facts, but they would retain more of those they did become acquainted with, and their power of thought would be much greater. We have probably swung to an extreme anyway in paying large salaries to a few lecturing departmental heads; we should have a better faculty and consequently a more creative generation of scientists developing if we spread our resources more equably over the entire teaching force.

A few other objections to the method one always expects to encounter in any discussion of it: that students are purposeless and lazy; they must have their work planned for them and be held or driven to it. They are children. Yet an unspoiled child is purposeful. And even if a freshman is somewhat dulled by his previous training, that seems scarcely a good reason for going on with the dulling


One hears, too, that the years of preparation are so short and the facts of knowledge so many it is the business of the instructor to organize material into simple form, easy to memorize, and give it to the students in lectures or text-books. Of course if a university chooses to do this inferior sort of work, training accurate automata instead of turning out thinkers, that is, presumably, its privilege. One wishes, though, there were some place students who didn't choose to become automata could go. So little of life is lived at the conscious level, and it is primarily from that part of life that progress is obtained, it seems a pity to shorten a man's real living and limit his contribution by discouraging living at that higher level.

Another objection that is subconscious rather than expresed is that the method requires rather more self restraint and mental flexibility than most instructors feel equal to.

Whether or not it seems worth while to excavate beneath the crust of indifferenece

formd in self-defense during the preparatory years of prescribed work will depend on the value one places on creative thinking. Perhaps it does not seem to every one our greatest natural resource; but such an one is probably not himself very creative.

It is frequently contended that under such a method of teaching a student will lack system and an orderly grasp on the whole subject. The amount of systemization of knowledge will undoubtedly vary among free students; some orderly arrangement of material there must be. But the creative mind is less intent on classifying data than in gathering more, and in projecting new theories. It cares less to make of itself a card index of the literature on any subject than to "push forward the boundaries of knowledge."

The real rock on which the method is likely to founder, however, is the executive mania for definite classification of mentality. We must rule out variations from the medium. We must know in just what stage of development each student's mind is-or rather, at just what point in the assignment of the year's work he is. However could we give degrees? We can not be bothered with all this individualized education. We don't want thinkers anyway; we want followers.

None of these difficulties and hindrances greatly matter, once we are convinced of the need for developing creative thinkers in our scientific courses.

But it will require grace to step down from the lime light of the lecture platform, to cure ourselves of this contagion of text-book writing. We elders are so sure that out of our greater experience we can save our students effort and time. It is a clogging efficiency we seek. The greatest contribution we can make to a developing mind is to "stand out of its sunlight." And in the long run, that is the most efficient method; for individual initiative produces most in the least time, and produces it with a minimum of effort and friction. The problem we ourselves find is a fascination; the problem some one else sets us is a task. And our memory in the latter case is treacherously unreliable, while the knowledge

we worry out for ourselves is seldom forgotten. C. G. MACARTHUR



THE present and, we are told, very likely the permanent-shortage of crystallized sugar is stimulating very markedly the interest in other sugars. The consumption of glucose or corn sirup is increasing steadily; the making of sorghum sirup bids fair to return to the prominent place it once held; our friends the bees are being exploited more and more; and a great many breweries, instead of retiring as requested, are now malting grain as usual, but instead of fermenting it are converting it into maltose sirup. Of the above four sugar products, sorghum and honey are the only ones which compete with cane sugar in sweetness; maltose is much less sweet, and glucose is very much less sweet, than sucrose. Now, it is sweetness that we demand; we do not eat sugars and sirups primarily for their calories, but because they sweeten other, less palatable, and cheaper, food products. Therefore, glucose and maltose have very natural limitations on their extensive utilization, if sweeter materials can be found. Of the two sweeter products, honey will probably of necessity always remain a luxury; and sorghum sirup has a flavor that precludes its unlimited use for all purposes, although it should be said that this flavor can be almost entirely removed, with practically only the sweetness remaining, and that there is a possibility of an enormously increased utilization of sorghum in this way. Is there not, however, a sugar which is sweeter than any of the above, which is not now of commercial importance, but which possibly could be obtained in large enough quantities and at a low enough cost to become important?

Levulose, fructose, or fruit sugar, is the sweetest known sugar. Exact data as to the relative sweetness of the various sugars are not available, but it is often stated that levulose is 30 to 50 per cent. sweeter than sucrose. A levulose sirup, then, would be a distinct

asset in the present commerce in sweet products. Levulose occurs in practically all fruits, is abundant in honey, and is found in appreciable amounts in sorghum sirup. Its most conspicuous occurrence in plants, however, is in the form of inulin in the tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke and in the bulbs of the dahlia. Inulin is a polysaccharide somewhat resembling starch, but whereas starch yields glucose on hydrolysis with acid, as in the manufacture of corn sirup, inulin yields levulose.

The inulin is present to the extent of 12 to 14 per cent. of the fresh tuber. As is well known, the artichoke gives very large yields, from 700 to 1,000 bushels per acre being normal. If one assume 40,000 pounds per acre, and a 10 per cent. recovery of inulin from the tubers, there would thus be 4,000 pounds of sugar per acre. A 50-bushel crop of corn yields about 2,000 pounds of starch; an acre of good sorghum yields about 1,600 pounds of sugar; an acre of sugar beets, 3,000 pounds; an acre of sugar cane 3,000 to 4,500 pounds.

Thus it is seen that the possible yield of sugar from artichokes compares very favorably with that of our other sugar crops; and the writer believes, on the basis of the above facts, that levulose sirup from artichoke tubers is one of the most promising sugar possibilities that we have. The levulose would probably have to be in sirup form, since it crystallizes with difficulty. The above figures are estimates based on known yields and analyses of artichokes. The unknown factor in the proposition at present is the technology of manufacture. Practically nothing is known about the isolation of the inulin and its hydrolysis to levulose on a commercial scale. But what is known concerning the chemistry of these substances gives us every reason to believe that the problem connected with the manufacture of levulose sirup could be solved, as were those in the manufacture of the other sugar products. Likewise the question of the cost of production is unknown. Since, however, the resultant product would be so much sweeter than any of the present sugars, it would be worth considerably more, and a greater cost of manufacture, if such should

be the case, would not necessarily be a handiсар.

The usefulness of a levulose sirup is apparent. It would probably not be used alone as a sirup, but would be used for blending with other sirups to enhance their sweetness. Glucose and maltose sirups would be greatly improved if their sweetness were increased. And in the manufacture of soft drinks and confections levulose could very largely replace sucrose, and thus increase the amount of the latter that would be available as dry sugar. In view of the above considerations, therefore, it is to be hoped that some institution, federal, state, or industrial, will see fit to inaugurate investigations on the production of levulose sirup from the Jerusalem artichoke, in order to augment our present sources of sweetness.






1. Geological Maps

In the interest of science be it

Resolved, That the following maps of the Pacific region on the international scale of 1:1,000,000 be prepared as expeditiously as possible:

(a) A base map showing by contours or hachures as many topographic features as practicable.

(b) A map showing geological formations or groups of geological formations.

(c) A map showing mineral resources.

2. Geological Surveys of Critical Insular Areas in the Pacific Ocean

(a) Geological Survey of Easter Island Since a knowledge of the geology of Easter Island might throw light on the question of whether there was in past geological time a westward extension of the land area of South American continent, be it

Resolved, That it is desirable to have a careful study of Easter Island to determine the

character and geologic age of the rocks composing that island.

(b) Geological Survey of the Hawaiian Islands

Since the results of a detailed geological survey of the Hawaiian Islands would aid in the solution of many problems of the Pacific region, be it

Resolved, That this conference strongly recommends that a geological survey of the Hawaiian Islands be made and that appropriate geological maps and descriptive texts be published.

(c) Geological Survey of the Several Small Islands in Eastern Fiji

Since raised coral atolls with exposed basements of bedded limestone or of volcanic material are found in eastern Fiji, and since a geological survey of these islands supplemented by reconnaissance work in the neighborhood of Suva would be invaluable in the study of the origin of coral reefs, and in elucidation of the geology of the southwest Pacific, be it

Resolved, That a topographic and geological survey of the several small islands, such as Mango, Thithia, Lakemba, Vanua Mbalavu and Tuvutha be made at the earliest opportunity, and the results published.

3. Form of Ocean Bottom

Because of their importance as supplements to geological work on land in determining the structural framework of the Pacific region and in interpreting the geological history of the region, be it

Resolved (a), That the configuration of the bottom of the Pacific ocean be determined with adequate accuracy.

(b) That charts of the littoral and sub-littoral zones be made in all practicable detail, for example, wherever possible these charts should be on scales ranging between 1: 10,000 and 1: 40,000.

4. Post-Cretaceous Correlation Since such knowledge is essential to the establishment of an adequate basis for the stratigraphic correlation of the post-Cretaceous formations of the Pacific region, be it

Resolved (a), That in addition to the study of the post-Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleontology of the Pacific islands and of the land areas on the margins of the Pacific Ocean, that such work also be expedited in the Caribbean region, and in the region from Burma through the Himalayas to the Mediterranean Sea.

(b) That inventories of the living fauna and flora of the Pacific region be prepared at the earliest practicable date.

5. Studies of Subaerial and Submarine Erosion

Since it is coming to be recognized generally that a knowledge of subaerial and submarine erosion is indispensable to a correct interpretation of the history of the continents, the continental margins, and the oceanic islands during post-Cretaceous time, be it

Resolved (a) That geologists, geographers, seismologists, biologists and others who are interested in the facts of form within the Pacific Ocean and along its margins devote attention to the study of physiographic processes and the forms resultant from such processes.

(b) That geologists and physiographers make special study of the physical, chemical and other properties of igneous and sedimentary rocks so as to ascertain the difference in their resistance to erosive agents.

(c) That efforts be made to obtain assistance in furthering the study of such important agents as wave and current erosion, factors limiting wave base, the action of weathering and corrosive agents at the headwaters of streams, the forms of stream channels, the form of sea cliffs at different stages of development, the action of plants in retarding land erosion, and the sequential stages of erosion of fault scarps.

6. Studies of Sedimentary Processes and Sedimentary Rocks

Since it is generally recognized that the interpretation of a large part of the geological record demands a knowledge of the processes and the results of these processes in the formation of deposits of past geological time; therefore be it

Resolved (a) That geologists, oceanograph

ers, geographers, biologists and others who may be interested devote as much attention as possible to the study of modern sediments and the processes by which they are formed.

(b) That geologists make special studies of the physical, chemical and other properties of sedimentary rocks to ascertain the conditions under which the deposits were formed and the changes that may have taken place in such sedimentary rocks after deposition.

(c) That all existing agencies be urged to study the phenomena referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) above, and that efforts be made to increase the number of agencies for the prosecution of such investigations.

6. Geological Cooperation

Since it is desirable that the projects undertaken by the different workers in the Pacific region be so selected and so designed that each may be supplementary to the rest and so contribute to the uniform accumulation of geological information concerning the Pacific region, be it

Resolved, That steps be taken to advise in the planning of research to correlate the efforts of the different workers, and to promote in such ways as may be proper a uniform mode of publication of results.

VI. SEISMOLOGY AND VOLCANOLOGY The dominant motive which has appeared in the convention of seismologists and volcanologists of the Pacific here gathered together for the first time, has been to promote more localized and more continuous observation of regional phenomena than has hitherto been accomplished in most seismic and volcanic districts. On the other hand, there is agreement that precise teleseismic triangulation is not a field for amateurs or for stations equipped with a multiplicity of inferior and diverse instruments.

There is a crying need for mutual information, regularly supplied by each observer to his distant colleagues, concerning yolcanic and seismic happenings in each land. The employment of mariners and scientific expeditions to

collect specimens and notes for the volcanologists in remote places may be organized.

Education of the people in matters of earthquake-proof construction and safeguards against disaster has been proved to be a practicable and effective method of meeting volcanic and seismic crises.

Interest has recently developed in the earth tide, changes of level about volcanoes and measurable horizontal and vertical displacements directly related to earthquakes. These are matters for the national geodetic surveys and for geophysical investigation of high mathematical precision.

The three groups of motives above enumerated, respectively, localized work, publication and education, and precise geophysics are the fundamenta on which the following seismologic and volcanologic resolutions of the conference are built.

1. Establishment of Volcano Observatories Useful volcano experiment stations have already been established in some lands, and more volcanologic experience is needed for protection against disaster of the increasing populations of Pacific countries and for the advance of science; therefore this conference

Recommends the continuance of the present volcano observatories and the establishment of new permanent volcano observatories in lands about the Pacific; and recommends that such a station for maintenance and publication of continuous observations should be placed on one of the more active volcanoes in each important volcanic district.

2. Promotion of Localized Seismometry In addition to the work of existing establishments, the intensive study of both large and small earthquakes in seismic provinces by all appropriate physical, geological and other scientific methods may lead to important and rapid advancement in geophysical knowledge. This knowledge is of importance for economic and humanitarian as well as scientific ends. This conference therefore

Commends the existing institutions, recommends their continuance and expansion, and

urges early establishment of further specific programs of investigation and continuous observation in regional seismology, in special seismic districts about the Pacific. Timely publication of results is recommended. More

over this conference recommends to the National Research Council of the United States the establishment of a program of research in regional seismology in the southwestern part of the United States.

3. Publication of Volcano and Earthquake Information

The workers in regional seismology and volcanology need accurate information about geophysical events in other localities than their own; therefore this conference

Recommends that prompt and authoritative publication of current facts and measurements concerning volcanoes, earthquakes, submarine eruptions and tidal waves be an essential part of the routine of all Pacific observatories.

4. Precise Leveling and Triangulation in Relation to Volcanology and Seismology Great earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are often preceded and followed by elevations, depressions and horizontal displacements in the regions concerned; therefore this confer


Recommends that precise leveling and triangulation be carried on at definite time intervals, in selected seismic and volcanic districts, in order to ascertain precursory and other changes in underground stress accompanying great seismic and volcanic disturb


5. Collection and Publication of Statistics of Earthquakes and Eruptions

There is needed for certain Pacific countries more complete statistics concerning earthquakes and eruptions; and a complete list for the world should be eventually maintained; therefore this conference

Recommends that each Pacific country publish statistical lists of local eruptions, earthquakes, tidal waves and other related phenom

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